2009年12月28日 星期一

王鎮華

王鎮華-, 建築. 重要記事, 1976 《從傳統教學思想論教學空間:整體建築觀點下,建築內化的一實例》,成功大學建築研究所
1984 《中國建築備忘錄》,時報文化 ...

生活裡的智慧

生活裡的智慧

王鎮華/著 ,五觀藝術,出版日期:2005/07/25





講古論道 王鎮華找到生命之美
89年04月19日 中時晚報                   【記者:吳慧芬/台北報導】

圖片:王鎮華找到生命之美  十年前王鎮華辭去了大學副教授的教職,自辦「德簡書院」,以傳統書塾授課方式,講易經、談論語、道人性。他把發揚中華文化視為使命,即使生活平淡、清苦,也不改其聞道、授課的喜悅。辭去大學教職創辦私塾
  五十四歲的王鎮華在成功大學建築系研究所畢業後,就投入了在大專院校教書的生涯,十三年的教書生涯中,他看到台灣學生在西式教育下,已逐漸失去對中國 傳統文化省思的能力,因此,在七十九年時,他毅然辭去中原大學副教授一職,創辦私塾─德簡書院,在台北都市叢林中,講古書、論生命,過著安貧樂道的生活。
  一個接受完整現代教育的人,為何對中國古詩書畫有這麼濃厚的興趣?這要從王鎮華接觸蔣青融老師說起,當時王鎮華只是個初一的學生,接觸中國國畫後,他 開始領悟了傳統文化之美,就讀大學時,學校教育是建築,他卻與同好自組讀書會,從論語、老子、易經、史記等古書一部部地讀下去。
  王鎮華表示,現代的教育,讓學生讀論語等古書,多是為了應付考試、斤斤計較分數的多寡,缺乏了自我省思的能力,他認為讀書不應有旁人的註解,應發自內 心品味古人的經典,好像孔子等先聖就站在面前與我們對話般,讀古書才能有領會與感動。
  讀古書對王鎮華而言,不是為了附庸風雅,他認為讀古書就是在談人世間的所有問題,愈讀好書愈能釐清自己的本性、智慧,外界紛擾世界,根本無法擾亂本性,具有沈澱人心、安定社會的功效。
  基於發揚中華文化的使命感,十年前王鎮華 離開了中原大學的教職工作,當時的中原大學理工學院院長曾兩度慰留他,並告知他即將升任系主任的訊息,但王鎮華不為所動,因為他認為學校的環境並不能讓他 發揮理想,也體認到中華文化的傳承,必須藉由民間教育來著手。體會古人意境追尋本性
  離開學校後,在學生林義弘無償提供屋舍情況下,王鎮華在台北市合江街上開辦了「德簡書院」,開始他講古書、論生命的私塾課程,他陪著學生一起領悟生 命、體會古人說書、做學問的意境,最重要的是他幫助學生,去追尋心中的自我、本性。
  私塾中的學生,遍佈各個階層,有家庭主婦、中學生、醫師、哲學博士等,他們跟隨著王鎮華讀古書,沈浸在中華文化優美的文學境界內。
  離開建築系,不代表王鎮華不喜愛建築,只是他認為接受西方教育洗禮的台灣學生,即使蓋了中國式建築,看起來也多生硬、不自然,缺乏了那股古意盎然的 美,他認為建築系中,單單幾個中國建築學分,不能讓學生有真正的體會,因此,他在私塾中,也開設建築學課程,教導學生從中華文化的角度,來看建築、蓋房 屋。
  帶領學生讀古書、話建築,王鎮華也傳授一系列的生命課程,他的方法是先教導學生,找到自己的主和體,再去因應外界的事物,如上班族的苦悶、中年事業危機、怎樣面對生命的流逝等,他認為只要找到自我,問題都可迎刃而解。
  王鎮華的妻子林怡玎,是他的大學同學,由於王鎮華堅持發揚中華文化,讓王家始終不富裕,尤其十年前,王鎮華毅然捨去大學教職工作,家境就變得更清苦了。安貧樂道悠遊古書天地
  德簡書院每堂約有三十多名學生來聽課、解惑,王鎮華只象徵性地收取些微的費用,做為補貼書院水電費的開銷,王家生活一直是清苦的,何況他們還育有一對 千金,可是在太太無怨無悔地配合下,一家人倒也在安貧中、尋找快樂,王鎮華也才能優游於古書的天地,寫作、畫畫、談古論今。
  八十四年時,王鎮華發現自己有糖尿病,必須施打胰島素來調節,為了養病,在合江路上的德簡書院,不得不暫時停課,那段時間王鎮華遷居北縣淡水鎮養身, 但依然未忘情於中華文化之美,他繼續讀書、研究、寫書,也受邀至學校、民間社團演講,繼續以推展中華文化為己志。
  養病一年多,王鎮華在大安森林公園旁,租了一間公家宿舍,又開始「德簡書院」的授課生涯,重新開課的訊息,讓睽違已久的學生振奮不已,王鎮華與學生一起讀古書、思考,並用心領悟與實踐。
  這十年來,已有七個民間社團及人士,向王鎮華提出無償提供土地,開設德簡書院分院的請求,在身體狀況的考量下,王鎮華並沒有允諾,不少偏愛古書的同好們,只好以錄音的方式,在家品味王鎮華分析古書的優美。
  德簡書院內只有書架、上萬冊的古書,和簡簡單單的必要物品,為探索中華文化、追尋古人研究境界,王鎮華捨棄世間繁華名利,樸實的他,總是一襲唐衫、一 雙舊鞋,他把「生活」視為最好的「老師」,隨著年齡閱歷的增加,而得以沈穩、睿智,把生命意義發揮到最極致的境界。

資料來源:中時新聞資料庫          

2009年12月26日 星期六

Conrad Hilton

先有一系列的 Hilton Hotels

再另外Conrad Hotels定位為更高級的

再整個賣掉?


Spotlight:

Pittsburg's Hilton Hotel
Pittsburg's Hilton Hotel
Is there any room at the inn? Conrad Hilton answered yes to that question, and became one of the world's wealthiest men. When he was a child, Hilton helped his father welcome business travelers to the rooms they had set up in their home in San Antonio. He learned well what the travelers were looking for in a temporary home. In 1919, Hilton bought his first hotel and several years later he opened his first Hilton Hotel, the Dallas Hilton. America's first coast-to-coast hotel chain opened inns overseas in the 1940s. Conrad Hilton was born on December 25, 1887.

Quote:

"Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don't quit."Conrad Hilton

2009年12月22日 星期二

為什麼我們必須反共抗馬

為什麼我們必須反共抗馬--本周周三23日起停刊數日--版主在某新聞管制之國家

2009年12月21日 星期一

瓦文萨

历史 | 2009.12.21

瓦文萨回忆二十年前波兰事件:一切是值得的

1989年波兰发生的事件是欧洲新纪元的先兆。当年6月,波兰举行了第一次自由选举;而反对党出人意料地获得选举的胜利;马佐维奇成为东欧社会主义阵营中 第一个非共产党员的总理。这一切都发生在柏林墙倒塌,东欧巨变之前。而波兰争取民主的运动比这还早了10年。在丹泽的列宁造船厂,由瓦文萨领导的波兰团结 工会是这场民主运动的发起者。

欧洲共产党的失败始于波兰团结工会的成立。这是东欧的第一个独立工会,由列宁造船厂电工瓦文萨领导。瓦文萨组织了东欧历史上最大的罢工,并 且后来成为波兰总统。他回忆道:"在1980年的罢工中,我们成功地统一了波兰所有社会组织,甚至外国工会也表示了对我们的支持。我们可以对那些共产党人 说,你们一直在欺骗我们,我们才是大多数,我们不想再让你们统治了。这是反共产主义民众第一次以和平的方式战胜了共产主义。他们不再具有号召力,也不能再 象以前那样行事了。另外一个成功是,这是东欧第一个非政党运动。"

百分之八十的波兰人相信,1979年一位波兰人被推选为教皇约翰·保罗二世对团结工会的成立,以及东欧共产主义体制的崩溃产生了直接的影响。波兰政 府1981年12月13日颁布了戒严令,并且将瓦文萨关押了一年。但这并没有动摇瓦文萨认为共产体制必将崩溃的信念,"我在被关押期间对当局称,我们将是 最后的胜利者!我们将为你们这些共产党人钉最后一颗棺材钉。我当时非常肯定,这样强大的运动是难以阻挡的。在胜利的道路上尽管仍旧有这样或者那样的挫折, 但我从来没有对我们取得最后胜利产生过怀疑。"

1983年,瓦文萨获得了诺贝尔和平奖。这更增强了他的必胜信念。由于瓦文萨不愿意离开波兰,他的夫人和儿子去斯德哥尔摩代他领取了奖章和证书。瓦文萨一直坚信,他领导的这场民主运动迟早要获得诺贝尔和平奖的。而该奖又为团结工会的民主运动带来了动力。

1980年,瓦文萨对罢工的工人讲话Bildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: 1980年,瓦文萨对罢工的工人讲话1988 年,雅鲁泽尔斯基的波兰政府表达了妥协的意愿,请求瓦文萨停止罢工活动,与政府举行谈判。这位工会领袖清楚,他们离最终目标更近了,"我坚信一点,也努力 为之奋斗,即,没有团结工会便没有自由。我打算继续推动这场运动,直至共产党政权的垮台。当然我也与政府达成了一定的妥协。没有妥协也不能取得最后的胜 利。"

波兰共产党领导人终于明白了,如果他们继续禁止团结工会,忽视瓦文萨的存在,那将会在波兰一事无成。瓦文萨回忆说:"我认为圆桌会议是一剂迷魂药。 共产党领导人知道我们的弱点,也知道尽管他们自己并不是很强大,但比我们强大。因此他们提出了一项对自己保险的提案,即为团结工会提供35%的议会席位。 而我们必须乖乖地为他们解决那些棘手的问题。如此,共产党政权可以继续。而我想的是,只要给我一块阵地我就能扩大它。推翻波兰共产党政权的最后一战就此拉 开了序幕。"

如果瓦文萨回忆波兰共产党垮台后这20年历史的话,他对自己的奋斗没有丝毫的后悔,尽管他曾为此付出了自由的代价,"这一切都是值得的。如果我有机 会再选择一次的话,我会做同样的事情。我在之前从来不敢相信波兰能够在我的有生之年从苏联的奴役下解放出来,成为一个自由的国家。而这一切都成为了现实, 而且我为此做出了一份贡献。我对波兰的发展及我们的胜利感到万分的高兴。"

作者:Barbara Coellen / 王雪丁

责编:乐然

2009年12月14日 星期一

Paul A. Samuelson, Economist, Dies at 94

Paul A. Samuelson, Economist, Dies at 94


Published: December 13, 2009

Paul A. Samuelson, the first American Nobel laureate in economics and the foremost academic economist of the 20th century, died Sunday at his home in Belmont, Mass. He was 94.

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Paul A. Samuelson at M.I.T. in 1950, where he used mathematics to analyze complex economic theories.

Luc Novovitch/Reuters

In 1996, President Clinton awarded the National Science and Technology medal to Mr. Samuelson.

Robert Spencer for The New York Times

Mr. Samuelson discussed the implications of outsourcing in his office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2004.

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Mr. Samuelson arrived at Yale graduation ceremonies in 2004.

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His death was announced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which Mr. Samuelson helped build into one of the world’s great centers of graduate education in economics.

In receiving the Nobel Prize in 1970, Mr. Samuelson was credited with transforming his discipline from one that ruminates about economic issues to one that solves problems, answering questions about cause and effect with mathematical rigor and clarity.

When economists “sit down with a piece of paper to calculate or analyze something, you would have to say that no one was more important in providing the tools they use and the ideas that they employ than Paul Samuelson,” said Robert M. Solow, a fellow Nobel laureate and colleague of Mr. Samuelson’s at M.I.T.

Mr. Samuelson attracted a brilliant roster of economists to teach or study at the university, among them Mr. Solow as well as others who would go on to become Nobel laureates like George A. Akerlof, Robert F. Engle III, Lawrence R. Klein, Paul Krugman, Franco Modigliani, Robert C. Merton and Joseph E. Stiglitz.

Mr. Samuelson wrote one of the most widely used college textbooks in the history of American education. The book, “Economics,” first published in 1948, was the nation’s best-selling textbook for nearly 30 years. Translated into 20 languages, it was selling 50,000 copies a year a half century after it first appeared.

“I don’t care who writes a nation’s laws — or crafts its advanced treatises — if I can write its economics textbooks,” Mr. Samuelson said.

His textbook taught college students how to think about economics. His technical work — especially his discipline-shattering Ph.D. thesis, immodestly titled “The Foundations of Economic Analysis” — taught professional economists how to ply their trade. Between the two books, Mr. Samuelson redefined modern economics.

The textbook introduced generations of students to the revolutionary ideas of John Maynard Keynes, the British economist who in the 1930s developed the theory that modern market economies could become trapped in depression and would then need a strong push from government spending or tax cuts, in addition to lenient monetary policy, to restore them. Many economics students would never again rest comfortably with the 19th-century view that private markets would cure unemployment without need of government intervention.

That lesson was reinforced in 2008, when the international economy slipped into the steepest downturn since the Great Depression, when Keynesian economics was born. When the Depression began, governments stood pat or made matters worse by trying to balance fiscal budgets and erecting trade barriers. But 80 years later, having absorbed the Keynesian teaching of Mr. Samuelson and his followers, most industrialized countries took corrective action, raising government spending, cutting taxes, keeping exports and imports flowing and driving short-term interest rates to near zero.

Lessons for Kennedy

Mr. Samuelson explained Keynesian economics to American presidents, world leaders, members of Congress and the Federal Reserve Board, not to mention other economists. He was a consultant to the United States Treasury, the Bureau of the Budget and the President’s Council of Economic Advisers.

His most influential student was John F. Kennedy, whose first 40-minute class with Mr. Samuelson, after the 1960 election, was conducted on a rock by the beach at the family compound at Hyannis Port, Mass. Before class, there was lunch with politicians and Cambridge intellectuals aboard a yacht offshore. “I had expected a scrumptious meal,” Mr. Samuelson said. “We had franks and beans.”

As a member of the Kennedy campaign brain trust, Mr. Samuelson headed an economic task force for the candidate and held several private sessions on economics with him. Many would have a bearing on decisions made during the Kennedy administration.

Though Mr. Samuelson was President Kennedy’s first choice to become chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, he refused, on principle, to take any government office because, he said, he did not want to put himself in a position in which he could not say and write what he believed.

After the 1960 election, he told the young president-elect that the nation was heading into a recession and that Kennedy should push through a tax cut to head it off. Kennedy was shocked.

“I’ve just campaigned on a platform of fiscal responsibility and balanced budgets and here you are telling me that the first thing I should do in office is to cut taxes?” Mr. Samuelson recalled, quoting the president.

Kennedy eventually accepted the professor’s advice and signaled his willingness to cut taxes, but he was assassinated before he could take action. His successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, carried out the plan, however, and the economy bounced back.

Adding Bite to Academia

In the classroom, Mr. Samuelson was a lively, funny, articulate teacher. On theories that he and others had developed to show links between the performance of the stock market and the general economy, he famously said: “It is indeed true that the stock market can forecast the business cycle. The stock market has called nine of the last five recessions.”

His speeches and his voluminous writing had a lucidity and bite not usually found in academic technicians. He tried to give his economic pronouncements a “snap at the end,” he said, “like Mark Twain.” When women began complaining about career and salary inequities, for example, he said in their defense, “Women are men without money.”

Remarkably versatile, Mr. Samuelson reshaped academic thinking about nearly every economic subject, from what Marx could have meant by a labor theory of value to whether stock prices fluctuate randomly. Mathematics had already been employed by social scientists, but Mr. Samuelson brought the discipline into the mainstream of economic thinking, showing how to derive strong theoretical predictions from simple mathematical assumptions.

His early work, for example, presented a unified mathematical structure for predicting how businesses and households alike would respond to changes in economic forces, how changes in wage rates would affect employment, and how tax rate changes would affect tax collections.

His relentless application of mathematical analysis gave rise to an astonishing number of groundbreaking theorems, resolving debates that had raged among theorists for decades, if not centuries.

An Economic Theorem

Early in his career, Mr. Samuelson developed the rudimentary mathematics of business cycles with a model, called the multiplier-accelerator, that captured the inherent tendency of market economies to fluctuate.

The model showed how markets magnify the impact of outside shocks and turn, say, an initial one dollar increase in foreign investment into a several dollar increase in total domestic income, to be followed by a decline.

Mr. Samuelson provided a mathematical structure to study the impact of trade on different groups of consumers and workers. In a famous theorem, known as Stolper-Samuelson, he and a co-author showed that competition from imports of clothes and similar goods from underdeveloped countries, where producers rely on unskilled workers, could drive down the wages of low-paid workers in industrialized countries.

The theorem provided the intellectual scaffold for opponents of free trade. And late in his career, Mr. Samuelson set off an intellectual commotion by pointing out that the economy of a country like the United States could be hurt if productivity rose among the economies with which it traded.

Yet Mr. Samuelson, like most academic economists, remained an advocate of open trade. Trade, he taught, raises average living standards enough to allow the workers and consumers who benefit to compensate those who suffer, and still have some extra income left over. Protectionism would not help, but higher productivity would.

Mr. Samuelson also formulated a theory of public goods — that is, goods that can be provided effectively only through collective, or government, action. National defense is one such public good. It is nonexclusive; the Navy, for example, exists to protect every citizen. It also eliminates rivalry among its many consumers; that is, the amount of security that any one citizen derives from the Navy subtracts nothing from the amount of security that any other citizen derives.

The features of public goods, Mr. Samuelson taught, stand in direct contrast to those of ordinary goods, like apples. An apple eaten by one consumer is not available to any other. Public goods, he concluded, cannot be sold in private markets because individuals have no incentive to pay for them voluntarily. Instead they hope to get a free ride from the decisions of others to make the public goods available.

A Predictive Principle

Mr. Samuelson pushed mathematical analysis to new levels of sophistication. For example, economists routinely write mathematical models of market economies that assume consumers and producers make choices to maximize their well-being. The question arises when such economies are stable: if disturbed by, say, droughts or wars or technological change, will the economy return to appropriate levels of prices and output or, instead, fly out of control? What Mr. Samuelson’s “correspondence principle” shows is the theoretical link between the behavior of individuals and the aggregate stability of the entire economic system. Information about individual responses, Mr. Samuelson’s theorem holds, shapes predictions about overall economic stability.

He analyzed the evolution of economies with a mathematical model, called an overlapping generations model, that scholars have since used to study, for example, the functioning over time of the Social Security system and the management of public debt.

He also helped develop linear programming, a mathematical tool used by corporations and central planners in socialist countries to calculate how to produce pre-set levels of various goods and services at the least cost.

Late in his career, Mr. Samuelson laid out the mathematics of stock price movements, an analysis that became the basis for Nobel Prize-winning research by his student Mr. Merton and Myron S. Scholes. They designed formulas that Wall Street analysts use to trade options and other complicated securities known as derivatives.

But beyond his astonishing array of scientific theorems and conclusions, Mr. Samuelson wedded Keynesian thought to conventional economics. He developed what he called the Neoclassical Synthesis. The neoclassical economists in the late 19th century showed how forces of supply and demand generate equilibrium in the market for apples, shoes and all other consumer goods and services. The standard analysis had held that market economies, left to their own devices, gravitated naturally toward full employment.

Economists clung to this theory even in the wake of the Depression of the 1930s. But the need to explain the market collapse, as well as unemployment rates that soared to 25 percent, gave rise to a contrary strain of thought associated with Keynes.

Mr. Samuelson’s resulting “synthesis” amounted to the notion that economists could use the neoclassical apparatus to analyze economies operating near full employment, but switch over to Keynesian analysis when the economy turned sour.

Midwestern Roots

Paul Anthony Samuelson was born on May 15, 1915, in Gary, Ind., the son of Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, and the former Ella Lipton. His family, he said, was “made up of upwardly mobile Jewish immigrants from Poland who had prospered considerably in World War I, because Gary was a brand new steel town when my family went there.”

But after his father lost much of his money in the years after the war, the family moved to Chicago. Young Paul attended Hyde Park High School, where as a freshman he began studying the stock market. At one point he helped his algebra teacher select stocks to buy in the boom of the 1920s.

“Hupp Motors and other losers,” he remembered in an interview in 1996. “Proof of the fallibility of systems,” he said.

He left high school at age 16 to enter the University of Chicago. “I was born as an economist on Jan. 2, 1932,” he said. That was the day he heard his first college lecture, on Thomas Malthus, the 18th-century British economist who studied the relation between poverty and population growth. Hooked, he began taking economics courses.

The University of Chicago developed the century’s leading conservative economic theorists, under the later guidance of Milton Friedman. But Mr. Samuelson regarded the teaching at Chicago as “schizophrenic.” This was at the height of the Depression, and courses about the business cycle naturally talked about unemployment, he said. But in economic-theory classes, joblessness was not mentioned.

“The niceties of existence were not a matter of concern,” he recalled, “yet everything around was closed down most of the time. If you lived in a middle-class community in Chicago, children and adults came daily to the door saying, ‘We are starving, how about a potato?’ I speak from poignant memory.”

After receiving his bachelor’s degree from Chicago in 1935, he went to Harvard, where he was attracted to the ideas of the Harvard professor Alvin Hansen, the leading exponent of Keynesian theory in America.

As a student at Chicago and later at Cambridge, Mr. Samuelson had at first reacted negatively to Keynes. “What I resisted most was the notion that there could be equilibrium unemployment” — that some level of unemployment would be impossible to eliminate and have to be tolerated. “I spent four summers of my college career on the beach at Lake Michigan,” he said. “It was pointless to look for work. I didn’t even have to test the market because I had friends who would go to 350 potential employers and not be able to get any job at all.”

Eventually he was converted. “Why do I want to refuse a paradigm that enables me to understand the Roosevelt upturn from 1933 to 1937?” he asked himself.

Mr. Samuelson was perceived at the outset of his career as a brilliant mathematical economist. He shot to academic fame as a 22-year-old prodigy at Harvard when he began a boldly sweeping and highly technical doctoral dissertation, published as a book in 1947 by Harvard University Press.

At Harvard, as at Chicago, he was not shy about criticizing his professors — “respecting neither age nor rank,” according to James Tobin, a Nobel laureate of Yale University. The young Mr. Samuelson’s chief complaint against economists was that they preoccupied themselves with finer economic principles while all around them people were being thrown into bread lines.

A Bold Dissertation

His attitudes did not endear him to the austere chairman of the economics department at Harvard, Harold Hitchings Burbank, with whom he had a rocky relationship.

But the publication of his dissertation was an immediate success. It won him the John Bates Clark Medal awarded by the American Economic Association to the economist showing the most scholarly promise before the age of 40; it would eventually help him win his Nobel, and it was frequently reprinted despite the heavy resistance of Professor Burbank, selling to economists around the world for more than 20 years. (“Sweet revenge,” Mr. Samuelson said.)

Among Mr. Samuelson’s fellow students was Marion Crawford. They married in 1938. Mr. Samuelson earned his master’s degree from Harvard in 1936 and a Ph.D. in 1941. He wrote his thesis from 1937 to 1940 as a member of the prestigious Harvard Society of Junior Fellows. In 1940, Harvard offered him an instructorship, which he accepted, but a month later M.I.T. invited him to become an assistant professor.

Harvard made no attempt to keep him, even though he had by then developed an international following. Mr. Solow said of the Harvard economics department at the time: “You could be disqualified for a job if you were either smart or Jewish or Keynesian. So what chance did this smart, Jewish, Keynesian have?”

During World War II, Mr. Samuelson worked in M.I.T.’s Radiation Laboratory, developing computers for tracking aircraft, and was a consultant for the War Production Board. After the war, having resumed teaching, he and his wife started a family. When she became pregnant the fourth time, she gave birth to triplets, all boys.

Marion Samuelson died in 1978. Mr. Samuelson is survived by his second wife, Risha Clay Samuelson; six children from his first marriage: Jane Raybould, Margaret Crawford-Samuelson, William and the triplet sons, Robert, John and Paul; and 15 grandchildren. Mr. Samuelson is also survived by a brother, Robert Summers, a professor emeritus of economics at the University of Pennsylvania and father of Lawrence H. Summers, director of President Obama’s National Economic Council and former secretary of the Treasury under President Clinton and former president of Harvard.

A Keynesian Textbook

The birth of the triplets doubled the number of children in the Samuelson household, which soon found itself sending 350 diapers to the laundry each week. His friends suggested that Mr. Samuelson needed to write a book to earn more money.

He decided to write an economics textbook, but one that would not only be compelling for students but also sophisticated and comprehensive. And he wanted to center it on the still poorly understood Keynesian revolution. President Herbert Hoover, he noted, had never referred to Keynes other than as “the Marxist Keynes.”

“I never quite understood that venom,” Mr. Samuelson said.

He said he “sweated blood” writing his book, employing detailed charts, color graphics and humor. He wrote: “Economists are said to disagree too much but in ways that are too much alike: If eight sleep in the same bed, you can be sure that, like Eskimos, when they turn over, they’ll all turn over together.”

It would be difficult to overestimate the influence of “Economics.” Business Week, taking note of the textbook’s publication in Greek, Punjabi, Hebrew, Russian, Serbo-Croatian and other languages, once said that it had “gone a long way in giving the world a common economic language.” Students were attracted to its lively prose and relevance to their everyday lives. Many textbook authors began to copy its presentation.

“Economics,” together with shrewd investing, made Mr. Samuelson a millionaire many times over.

Friendship With a Rival

A historian could well tell the story of 20th-century public debate over economic policy in America through the jousting between Mr. Samuelson and Milton Friedman, who won the Nobel in 1976. Mr. Samuelson said the two had almost always disagreed with each other but had remained friends. They met in 1933 at the University of Chicago, when Mr. Samuelson was an undergraduate and Mr. Friedman a graduate student.

Unlike the liberal Mr. Samuelson, the conservative Mr. Friedman opposed active government participation in most areas of the economy except national defense and law enforcement. He thought private enterprise and competition could do better and that government controls posed risks to individual freedoms.

Both men were fluid speakers as well as writers, and they debated often in public forums, in testimony before Congressional committees, in op-ed articles and in columns each of them wrote for Newsweek magazine. But Mr. Samuelson said he always had fear in his heart when he prepared for combat with Mr. Friedman, a formidably engaging debater.

“If you looked at a transcript afterward, it might seem clear that you had won the debate on points,” he said. “But somehow, with members of the audience, you always seemed to come off as elite, and Milton seemed to have won the day.”

Mr. Samuelson said he had never regarded Keynesianism as a religion, and he criticized some of his liberal colleagues for seeming to do so, earning himself, late in life, the label “l’enfant terrible emeritus.” The experience of nations in the second half of the century, he said, had diminished his optimism about the ability of government to perform miracles.

If government gets too big, and too great a portion of the nation’s income passes through it, he said, government becomes inefficient and unresponsive to the human needs “we do-gooders extol,” and thus risks infringing on freedoms.

But, he said, no serious political or economic thinker would reject the fundamental Keynesian idea that a benevolent democratic government must do what it can to avert economic trouble in areas the free markets cannot. Neither government alone nor the markets alone, he said, could serve the public welfare without help from the other.

As nations became locked in global competition, and as the computerization of the workplace created daunting employment problems, he agreed with the economic conservatives in advocating that American corporations must stay lean and efficient and follow the general dictates of the free market.

But he warned that the harshness of the marketplace had to be tempered and that corporate downsizing and the reduction of government programs “must be done with a heart.”

Despite his celebrated accomplishments, Mr. Samuelson preached and practiced humility. The M.I.T. economics department became famous for collegiality, in no small part because no one else could play prima donna if Mr. Samuelson refused the role, and, of course, he did. Economists, he told his students, as Churchill said of political colleagues, “have much to be humble about.”

2009年12月13日 星期日

Paul A. Samuelson

國首位諾貝爾經濟學獎得主保羅•薩繆爾森(Paul A. Samuelson)週日去世﹐享年94歲。

薩繆爾森的分析著作奠定了現代經濟學的基礎﹐他的教科書是大學流傳最廣的教材之一。用美聯儲主席貝南克(Ben Bernanke)的話講﹐薩繆爾森是經濟學界最偉大的教師之一﹐是經濟學巨匠。

AFP/Getty Images
美國前總統克林頓幫助薩繆爾森(左)佩戴1996年國家科學獎章
貝南克在麻省理工學院求學時曾是薩繆爾森的學生。他說﹐薩繆爾森既是一位具有開創性也是一位高產的經濟理論學家。

薩 繆爾森在20世紀著作甚豐﹐他的經濟學職業延續了長達80年。1932年還在上高中時﹐他聽了一堂芝加哥大學的經濟學課程﹐並深受吸引。但他在今年初接受 《華爾街日報》採訪時說﹐當他在大蕭條時期就讀芝加哥大學時﹐他才真正意識到課堂上教授的內容與在街頭巷尾的所見所聞之間的差異。

不顧芝 加哥大學教授的反對﹐1935年薩繆爾森到哈佛大學就讀研究生。1941年﹐他的博士論文論述了經濟學下的數學結構﹐這就是後來出版的《經濟分析基 礎》(Foundations of Economic Analysis)。這種做法在經濟學領域具有革命性的意義﹐時至今日﹐經濟學家仍常常借助數學手段證明他們的理論。

普林斯頓大學經濟學家迪克西特(Avinash Dixit)說﹐對我來說﹐這是一個巨大的損失。我的整體研究風格﹐以及支持我的幾乎全部論文的技術都來自於他的基礎性文章。

薩 繆爾森1940年開始在麻省理工學院授課﹐這是他與該大學終生聯繫在一起的開始﹐也讓這所大學的經濟學系成為了全球最受尊崇的學科。1948年﹐他編寫的 教科書《經濟學》首次出版﹐多年來都是最為廣泛使用的大學教科書﹐他的分析方法也成為了本科課程的標準。這本書還將凱恩斯(John Maynard Keynes)的著作引入到了大學的課程中。這本書現在已經是第19版﹐仍然深受歡迎。貝南克在其美聯儲辦公室的書架上就放著一本薩繆爾森簽名的《經濟 學》。

麻省理工學院經濟學家、美國國家經濟研究局主席波特伯(James Poterba)記得高中時就看過薩繆爾森的教科書。他說﹐每個大學生都從中學到了很多﹐我們都理所當然地認為薩繆爾森在編纂和發掘方面絕對發揮了關鍵作 用。這就好比是想象人們在牛頓之前是如何處理力學問題的。

1970年﹐薩繆爾森在設立諾貝爾經濟學家的第二年就獲此殊榮﹐他也是美國的第一位諾貝爾經濟學獎得主。諾貝爾獎委員會寫道﹐與其他當代的經濟學家不同﹐薩繆爾森的貢獻推動了經濟學總體分析和方法論水平的提高。實際上他是改寫了相當一部分經濟理論。

薩繆爾森一直是民主黨人﹐他曾擔任肯尼迪和約翰遜總統的顧問﹐但他拒絕在政府中擔任官職。

薩繆爾森出身於一個著名經濟學家家庭﹐包括弟弟羅伯特•薩默斯(Robert Summers)、弟媳阿妮塔•薩默斯(Anita Summers)和侄子勞倫斯•薩默斯(Lawrence Summers)。

擔任奧巴馬總統國家經濟委員會主任的勞倫斯•薩默斯週日說﹐除此之外﹐薩繆爾森還是一名學者。他過去曾經驕傲地說﹐他從來沒有在華盛頓度過一週以上。但是﹐通過他的研究、教學和寫作﹐他對美國乃至全球的經濟生活產生了比任何政府官員和許多總統更大的影響。

薩 繆爾森今年3月在接受《華爾街日報》採訪時談到了努力平息金融危機的那些人。他說﹐當年的典型權威可能是25年前我在麻省理工學院時的學生。我對貝南克非 常敬佩。但出生於1956年的他可能對金融危機沒有多少感覺。他說﹐如果你是上世紀50年代以後出生的﹐你骨子裡不會真正有大蕭條的感覺。作為麻省理工學 院的聰明學生也不能替代這點。

事實上﹐麻省理工大學的博士主導著這個專業﹐在政府中佔據很多高級職位﹐包括貝南克和經濟顧問委員會主席克里斯蒂娜•羅默(Christina Romer)。

Justin Lahart / Jon Hilsenrath

Paul A. Samuelson, whose analytical work laid the foundation for modern economics, died Sunday. He was 94.

Mr. Samuelson, the first American to win the Nobel Prize in economics and the author of one of the most-ubiquitous college textbooks ever, was 'one of the greatest teachers that economics has ever known' and 'a titan of economics,' according to Federal Reserve chairman Ben Bernanke.

'Paul Samuelson was both a pathbreaking and prolific economic theorist,' said Mr. Bernanke, a former student of Mr. Samuelson's at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Actively publishing into the 2000s, Mr. Samuelson's career in economics spanned eight decades. As a high school student in 1932, he wandered into an economics lecture at the University of Chicago and was enamored. But attending Chicago as an undergraduate during the Great Depression, he became acutely aware, he said in an interview with The Wall Street Journal earlier this year, of the differences between what was being taught in the classroom and 'what I heard out the windows and I heard from the street.'

In 1935 he went, despite his Chicago professors' protestations, to Harvard University for his graduate work. His 1941 PhD thesis, later published as 'Foundations of Economic Analysis,' examined the mathematical structure underlying economics. The approach revolutionized the field, to the point where economists today are often consumed with finding mathematical proofs for their theories.

'For me, it is a special bereavement,' said Princeton University economist Avinash Dixit. 'My whole style of research, and the techniques that support almost all of my own papers, derive from his foundational articles.'

Mr. Samuelson started teaching at MIT in 1940, the beginning of a lifelong association with the university that helped its economics program become the most highly-regarded in the world. Through his 'Economics' textbook, first published in 1948 and for years the most widely used college textbook on any topic, his analytical approach became the standard for undergraduate courses. It also introduced the work of John Maynard Keynes into the college curriculum. Now in its 19th edition, it is still popular. Mr. Bernanke keeps a copy signed by Mr. Samuelson on the shelves in his office at the Fed.

'There's just an enormous amount of what every undergraduate learns that we take for granted that Paul played an absolutely critical role in codifying and uncovering,' said MIT economist and National Bureau of Economic Research president James Poterba, who remembers carrying around Mr. Samuelson's textbook as a high school student. 'It's like trying to envision how did people do mechanics before Newton.'

In 1970, Mr. Samuelson was the first American to win the Nobel Prize in economics, the second year the prize was offered. 'Samuelson's contribution has been that, more than any other contemporary economist, he has contributed to raising the general analytical and methodological level in economic science,' wrote the Nobel prize committee. 'He has in fact simply rewritten considerable parts of economic theory.'

Mr. Samuelson, a lifelong Democrat, acted as an adviser to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, though he refused to take an official position in government.

Mr. Samuelson hailed from a family of well-known economists, including brother Robert Summers, sister-in-law Anita Summers and nephew Lawrence Summers.

'Above all else, Paul Samuelson was a scholar,' Lawrence Summers, who runs President Obama's National Economic Council, said Sunday. 'He used to proudly remark that he had never spent a full week in Washington. But through his research, teaching, and writing he had more impact on the economic life of this country and the world than any government economic official and many presidents.'

Mr. Samuelson, in a March interview with The Wall Street Journal, took aim at those trying to quell the financial crisis. 'The typical pundit today would be somebody who might have been my student at MIT 25 years ago. I have great admiration for Ben Bernanke. But having been born in 1956 he did not have a feel for what it was like. If you were born after 1950, you really don't have the feel of that Great Depression in your bones,' he said. 'Being a bright boy at MIT, it's not really a substitute for that.'

Indeed, MIT PhDs now dominate the profession and hold many high positions in government, including Mr. Bernanke and Christina Romer, chair of the Council of Economic Advisers.

Justin Lahart / Jon Hilsenrath
2009年12月14日09:42
Economist Paul A. Samuelson Dies At 94




Warren G. BennisAn invented life: reflections on leadership and change

An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership ...

This collection brings together the best of Warren Bennis--essays spanning three decades and covering such revolutions as the information explosion, Watergate, the emergence of Japan, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. A retrospective on the life and work of one of America's most respected authorities on business leadership.
由 Warren G Bennis 著作 - 1994 - 258 頁
books.google.com - 關於此書 - 更多書籍結果 »


回憶錄36頁 許多典故 "新領袖主義"翻譯都錯惡
譬如說 哈姆雷特的 to know a hawk from handsaw

Act II. Scene II. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Craig, W.J., ed. 1914 ...

- [ 翻譯此頁 ]Thine evermore, most dear lady, whilst this machine is to him, HAMLET. ..... mad north-north-west: when the wind is southerly I know a hawk from a handsaw. ...
地名
Boston 的 B Hill

Wikipedia article "Trinity Hall, Cambridge".

Warren Gamaliel Bennis (born March 8, 1925) is an American scholar, organizational consultant and author, widely regarded as a pioneer of the contemporary field of Leadership studies. [1] [2] Bennis is University Professor and Distinguished Professor of Business Administration and Founding Chairman of The Leadership Institute at the University of Southern California. [3]

“His work at MIT in the 1960s on group behavior foreshadowed -- and helped bring about -- today's headlong plunge into less hierarchical, more democratic and adaptive institutions, private and public,” management expert Tom Peters wrote in 1993 in the foreword to Bennis’ An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change. [1]

Management expert James O’Toole, in a 2005 issue of Compass, published by Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, claimed that Bennis developed “an interest in a then-nonexistent field that he would ultimately make his own -- leadership -- with the publication of his ‘Revisionist Theory of Leadership’ in Harvard Business Review in 1961.” [4] O’Toole observed that Bennis challenged the prevailing wisdom by showing that humanistic, democratic-style leaders better suited to dealing with the complexity and change that characterize the leadership environment. [5]

Contents

[hide]

Military Service & Education

Bennis grew up within a working-class Jewish family in Westwood, New Jersey, before enlisting in 1943 in the United States Army. He would go on to serve as one of the Army’s youngest infantry officers in the European theater of operations, and was awarded the Purple Heart and Bronze Star. [6]

He enrolled in Antioch College in 1947 following his military service. Antioch president Douglas McGregor, considered one of the founders of the modern democratic management philosophy, would take on Bennis as a protégé, a scholarly relationship that would prove fruitful when both later served as professors at the MIT Sloan School of Management. [There, Bennis would hold the post of chairman of the Organizational Studies Department.] [7]

Career

Within the area of management, Bennis sought to move from theory to practice in 1967, taking the post of provost of the State University of New York at Buffalo and the presidency of the University of Cincinnati in 1971. He authored two books on leadership during his presidency: The Leaning Ivory Tower, 1973, and The Unconscious Conspiracy: Why Leaders Can’t Lead, 1976. [8]

Bennis chose to return to the life of a teacher, consultant and author following a heart attack in 1979, joining the faculty of the University of Southern California. Most of the best-known of his 27 books followed, including the bestselling Leaders and On Becoming A Leader, both translated into 21 languages. [9] An Invented Life was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. More recent books, Organizing Genius, 1997, Co-Leaders, 1999, and Managing The Dream, 2000, summarize Bennis’s interests in leadership, judgment, organizational change and creative collaboration. Geeks & Geezers, 2002, examines the differences and similarities between leaders thirty years and younger and leaders seventy years and older.[5][2]

Bennis spent time as an adviser to four United States presidents and several other public figures, and has also consulted for numerous FORTUNE 500 companies. [10]

He has also spent time on the faculties of Harvard and Boston University and taught at the Indian Institute of Management-Calcutta, INSEAD and IMD. In addition to his current posts at USC, Bennis serves as chairman of the Advisory Board of the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard University’s Kennedy School. He is a visiting professor of leadership at the University of Exeter (UK) and a senior fellow at UCLA’s School of Public Policy and Social Research.

Impact

Bennis’ impact on the fields of leadership and management theory is significant. The Wall Street Journal named him as one of the top ten most sought speakers on management in 1993; Forbes magazine referred to him as the “dean of leadership gurus” in 1996. The Financial Times referred to Bennis in 2000 as “the professor who established leadership as a respectable academic field.” In August, 2007, Business Week ranked Bennis as one of the top ten thought leaders in business. [11] [12]

Bennis has been ranked as one of the top 30 Leadership professionals in the international Leadership Gurus survey for 2008. The “Leadership Gurus survey” award, by Global Gurus International identifies the top and most influential Leadership professionals in the world by merit and public voting.

Associated Publications

References

  1. ^ a b Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Fall 2005
  2. ^ a b Center for Excellence in Teaching, University of Southern California
  3. ^ USC Experts Directory, University of Southern California
  4. ^ Bennis, W.G. (1961), "Revisionist theory of leadership", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 39
  5. ^ a b Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Fall 2005
  6. ^ Bennis, Warren, "Managing the Dream," Chapter 16, pages 195-199, Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2000
  7. ^ [ennis, Warren, "Managing the Dream," Chapter 16, pages 199-211, Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2000
  8. ^ Bennis, Warren, "Managing the Dream," Chapter 16, pages 204-226, Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2000
  9. ^ [Bennis, Warren, "Managing the Dream," Chapter 16, pages 212-226], Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2000
  10. ^ Center for Excellence in Teaching, University of Southern California
  11. ^ http://content.ksg.harvard.edu/leadership/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=107
  12. ^ Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Fall 2005

Bibliography

  • 'Beyond Bureaucracy: Essays on the Development and Evolution of Human Organization'
  • 'Beyond Counterfeit Leadership: How You Can Become a More Authentic Leader'
  • 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology' (ISBN 155786960X)
  • 'Co-Leaders: The Power of Great Partnerships'
  • 'Geeks & Geezers : How Era, Values, and Defining Moments Shape Leaders' (ISBN 1578515823)
  • 'Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge' (ISBN 0887308392)
  • 'Managing People Is Like Herding Cats: Warren Bennis on Leadership' (ISBN 096349175X)
  • 'Managing the Dream: Reflections on Leadership and Change' (ISBN 0738203327)
  • 'On Becoming a Leader' (ISBN 0738208175)
  • 'Organizing Genius: The Secrets of Creative Collaboration' (ISBN 0201570513)
  • 'Reinventing Leadership: Strategies to Empower the Organization' (ISBN 9780060820527)
  • 'The Leaning Ivory Tower' (ISBN 0875891578)
  • 'The Planning of Change' (ISBN 0030895189)
  • 'The Unreality Industry: The Deliberate Manufacturing of Falsehood and What It Is Doing to Our Lives '
  • 'Visionary Leadership: Creating a Compelling Sense of Direction for Your Organization'
  • 'Why Leaders Can't Lead: The Unconscious Conspiracy Continues' (ISBN 1555421520)
  • 'Judgment: How Great Leaders Make Winning Calls' co-authored with Noel Tichy{ISBN 1591841534, 9781591841531}
  • 'Transparency: How Leaders Create a Culture of Candor' co-authored with Dan Goleman and Jim O'Toole {ISBN 0470278765, 9780470278765}

External links

2009年12月12日 星期六

Harriet Beecher Stowe

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Beecher_Stowe

Harriet Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and author. Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) depicted life for African-Americans under slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the U.S. and Britain and made the political issues of the 1850s regarding slavery tangible to millions, energizing anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South. Upon meeting Stowe, Abraham Lincoln allegedly remarked, "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war!"[1]

想當年,林肯總統會見《湯姆叔叔的小屋》(Uncle_Tom‘s_Cabin)的作者斯托夫人(Harriet_Beecher_Stowe)時,曾稱頌這位瘦小的老太太為美國黑奴解放戰爭的偉大旗手。

哈里特·伊莉莎白·比徹·斯托Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe1811年6月14日1896年7月1日),美國作家、廢奴主義者,最著名的作品《湯姆叔叔的小屋》成為美國南北戰爭的導火線之一。她的一生以寫作為生,發表了多部作品。

斯托夫人的父親里曼·比徹(Lyman Beecher)是著名的公理會牧師和廢奴主義者,共有8個孩子。她四歲喪母,由長姊教育,在哈特福德長大,後來隨父移居俄亥俄州辛辛那提,一個廢奴情緒強烈的州。成為教師的她,積極參加文學界和教育界的活動。1836年和牧師兼神學院教授斯托(Stowe)結婚,丈夫鼓勵她繼續寫作,但丈夫體弱多病,因此生活貧寒;他們共生有7個孩子,但大都早夭。

辛辛那提蓄奴州肯塔基州只有一河之隔,他們在那裡生活了18年,經常接觸逃亡奴隸。她自己也到過南方,親眼目到黑奴的悲慘生活。他們的家後來成為幫助南方奴隸逃亡的中轉站之一。1850年,由於丈夫工作變遷,他們搬到緬因州,她從1851年1852年華盛頓特區的 報紙《民族時代》撰寫連載小說《湯姆叔叔的小屋,卑賤者的生活》,揭露南方黑奴受到非人的待遇,因此受到南方奴隸主的痛恨,卻在北方受到熱烈的歡迎——成 本印刷出書時,首天就賣出三千本,第一年賣出30萬冊,翻譯成超過40種文字,後來改編成劇本,每次上演場場爆滿,大大促進了北方的廢奴情緒。1853年她發表了《湯姆叔叔的小屋題解》,列舉了大量文件和證據證實《湯姆叔叔的小屋》中的描寫是真實的。同年她去歐洲旅行,在英國受到熱烈讚揚。

1856年她發表《德雷德,陰沉地大沼澤地的故事》,進一步揭露蓄奴制的社會墮落現象。

1859年她發表小說《牧師的求婚》。1869年,《老鎮居民》都是描寫她熟悉的新英格蘭生活。

1869年,她經過對歷史資料的研究,發表了《拜倫生活真相》,揭露拜倫和他妹妹有過亂倫的戀愛關係。因為詩人拜倫是英國人心中的偶像,這篇文章在英國引起大嘩,英國人開始攻擊她。

1896年,她在哈特福德去世,終年85歲。與丈夫合葬於安多佛菲利普斯學院校園內。

2009年12月9日 星期三

Agnès Varda

The octogenarian filmmaker Agnès Varda

Varda has been a pioneer in the world of cinema since the 1950s. Today at the age of 81, she remains highly active.

Agnès Varda met her husband-to-be and fellow film-maker, the late Jacques Demy back in the 50s. Her autobiographical ‘Les Plages d’Agnès’ – released in English as ‘The Beaches of Agnes’ – won a César (the French equivalent of the Oscars) for best documentary earlier this year, and more recently, she has been experimenting with installations involving film, in exhibits at galleries in Lyons and Oporto.


Varda, Agnès (änyĕs' värdä') 1928-, French filmmaker, b. Brussels. She studied at the Sorbonne, École du Louvre, and a Paris photography school and began working as a theatrical photographer (1951-61) and photojournalist. Varda's first film, La Pointe Courte (1954), has been called the first work of France's cinematic new wave. Fiercely independent, she established a reputation for originality and feminist concerns in Cleo from 5 to 7 (1961), the "real-time" story of a pop star awaiting a crucial medical diagnosis. Since then, she has directed some 30 films (and written many of them), which often deal with themes of isolation and loneliness. Her best-known features include Happiness, (1965) The Creatures (1966), One Sings, the Other Doesn't (1977), Vagabond (1985), and Jane B. by Agnes V. (1987). Varda has also made documentaries, e.g., Black Panthers (1968), and two tributes (1991 and 1995) to her late husband, the director Jacques Demy.

Bibliography

See study by A. Smith (1998).

  1. 針對 Agnès Varda 搜尋的圖片結果

    - 檢舉圖片
  2. Agnès Varda的影片搜尋結果。

    LES PLAGES D'AGNES un film de VARDA film annonce
    3 分 39 秒 - 2008年11月26日
    www.dailymotion.com
    ITW Agnès Varda - Les Plages d'Agnès
    7 分鐘 - 2008年12月10日
    www.dailymotion.com

Agnes Varda的搜尋結果- PChome 新聞台Blog

◆◇Jacquot De Nantes(導演:Agne's Varda)◆◇安妮華達,法國導演傑克德米的妻子,
裁剪拼貼少年傑克的純情電影夢。整部影片以黑白色調復刻那青春…(詳全文) ..



2009年12月3日 星期四

平山郁夫 Ikuo Hirayama 悠悠大河/ 死去


写真自作の前で語る平山郁夫さん=07年2月26日

写真2009年秋に開かれた再興第94回院展に出品された平山郁夫さんの日本画「文明の十字路を往く――アナトリア高原 カッパドキア トルコ」

 日本画壇の第一人者で、シルクロードを描いた作品で知られ、文化財保存活動にも尽力した文化勲章受章者の平山郁夫(ひらやま・いくお)さんが、2日午後0時38分、脳梗塞(こうそく)で死去した。79歳だった。

 広島県で生まれ、旧制中学3年で被爆した。東京美術学校(現・東京芸術大学)で、日本画家の前田青邨(せいそん)に師事。卒業後母校の助手となり、 1953年に日本美術院展に出品して初入選。以後、同展を拠点に発表し、59年発表の「仏教伝来」や61年の「入涅槃(にゅうねはん)幻想」などで評価さ れ、仏教やシルクロードの歴史・風物、各地の文化遺産などを主題にした作風を確立する。

 また、法隆寺金堂や高松塚古墳の壁画の模写に従事。中国・敦煌の石窟(せっくつ)寺院を守るために、展覧会を開催して得た2億円を寄付するなど、 世界の文化遺産の保存・修復活動を展開した。カンボジアのアンコールワットやアフガニスタンのバーミヤン仏教遺跡なども含む広い範囲を対象とし、「文化財 赤十字」構想を唱えてライフワークとした。

 その一方、73年から東京芸大の教授を長らく務めて後進の指導にあたり、89年に同学長に。95年に一度退いたが、2001年に再び選ばれて05 年まで学長を務めた。その間、98年の文化勲章や03年度の朝日賞など受章・受賞を重ねた。このほか、所属していた日本美術院の理事長に就いたのをはじ め、日中友好協会会長や日本育英会会長、日本ユネスコ国内委員会会長などの要職を歴任した。

*****


photoIkuo Hirayama, in front of his Silk Road works (ASAHI SHIMBUN FILE PHOTO)

Ikuo Hirayama, a Japanese-style painter famous for his Silk Road series of works as well as his efforts to protect cultural heritage sites in Japan and overseas, died of a stroke Wednesday. He was 79.

During his 60-year career, Hirayama painted people, landscapes, and historical and cultural assets in a distinctive style marked by glowing colors, based on precise sketches, and imbued with a sense of grandeur, romance and the vastness of time.

He received the Order of Culture in 1998.

Among his many roles, he served as president of the Tokyo National University of Arts and Music (now Tokyo University of the Arts), chairman of the Japan Art Institute and a UNESCO goodwill ambassador.

Hirayama was born in Hiroshima Prefecture in 1930 and, after surviving the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima city, grew ill at one time from a radiation-related illness. His experience of the cataclysmic attack apparently shaped his yearning for peace and respect for cultural heritage.

He studied Japanese painting under Seison Maeda at a predecessor of the arts university in Tokyo. He inherited Maeda's respect for the Orient, and valued traditional Japanese virtues.

Hirayama first received acclaim for a series of paintings based on Buddhist themes, such as "Bukkyo Denrai" (The Transmission of Buddhism) in 1959 and "Nyu-Nehan Genso" (Fantasy of Nirvana) in 1961.

His 1979 work "Hiroshima Shohen-zu" (The Holocaust of Hiroshima) avoids a direct portrayal of the atomic bombing, and depicts instead richly red flames that rise up to Acalanatha, a Buddhist deity who destroys delusion and rescues people.

But he is most famous for his paintings of Silk Road desert landscapes, people and history.

During the 1960s and 1970s, Hirayama took part in the restoration of the murals of Horyuji temple's main hall and of the ancient Takamatsuzuka tumulus.

He also contributed to the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage sites in several countries, such as the Angkor Wat ruins in Cambodia, the Buddhas of Bamiyan in Afghanistan--much of which were blown up by the Taliban in 2001.

He also donated 200 million yen to protect a cave-temple in Dunhuang, China.

From 1973, Hirayama served as a professor at his alma mater, where he taught up-and-coming artists. He served as president from 1989 to 1995, and again from 2001 to 2005.

He received the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Peace and International Understanding in 2001 and the Asahi Prize for fiscal 2003.

He was also chairman of the Japan-China Friendship Association, president of the Japan Scholarship Foundation and chairman of the Japanese National Commission for UNESCO.

Just as his lifelong passion, the Silk Road, connected the East and the West, Hirayama played a major role in connecting countries, sectors and peoples.(IHT/Asahi: December 3,2009)



仏教を題材にした幻想的な作風で知られる日本画家で、東京芸術大学長も務めた平山郁夫(ひらやま・いくお)氏が2日午後0時38分、脳梗塞(こうそく)のため、東京都内の病院で死去した。79歳だった。(14:10)
****

日本画壇の第一人者で、シルクロードを描いた作品で知られ、文化財保存活動にも尽力した文化勲章受章者の平山郁夫さんが、2日午後0時38分、脳梗塞で死去した。79歳だった。  広島県で生まれ、旧制中学3年で被爆した。東京美術学校(現・ 東京芸術大学)で、日本画家の前田青邨に師事。卒業後母校の助手となり、1953年に日本美術院展に出品して初入選。以後、同展を拠点に発表し、59年発 表の「仏教伝来」や61年の「入涅槃幻想」などで評価され、仏教やシルクロードの歴史・風物、各地の文化遺産などを主題にした作風を確立する。また、法隆 寺金堂や高松塚古墳の壁画の模写に従事。中国・敦煌の石窟寺院を守るために、展覧会を開催して得た2億円を寄付するなど、世界の文化遺産の保存・修復活動 を展開した。カンボジアのアンコールワットやアフガニスタンのバーミヤン仏教遺跡なども含む広い範囲を対象とし、「文化財赤十字」構想を唱えてライフワー クとした。 その一方、73年から東京芸大の教授を長らく務めて後進の指導にあたり、89年に同学長に。95年に一度退いたが、2001年に再び選ばれて05年まで学 長を務めた。その間、98年の文化勲章や03年度の朝日賞など受章・受賞を重ねた。このほか、所属していた日本美術院の理事長に就いたのをはじめ、日中友 好協会会長や日本育英会会長、日本ユネスコ国内委員会会長などの要職を歴任した。 (アサヒコム) わたしは幾度か瀬戸田の平山郁夫美術館に行ったことがありま す。視野の広いおぼろげな表現が多く、静かな心持にさせてくれます。なかでも「入涅槃幻想」(釈迦の死の情景を描く)は秀逸な作品です。シルクロード(仏 教美術)をテーマに独自の境地を極めた画家だと思います。高松塚古墳の壁画の模写や日本美術院の理事長など、制作以外の仕事(雑用も含めて)にも関わり、 画家としては例外的にマルチ(多忙)な人でした。砂漠にひとつの確かな目が、いつまでも眺めていたもの・・・その眼も消えた。



****
2008/6/7

2008年[日]平山郁夫" 悠悠大河"出版
應該是配合展覽 "4月、北京の中国美術館で「平山郁夫芸術展」開催"。
當然他是中國的老朋友 這中文出版是可能第5本呢 不過那是網路時代之前的
中國的出版品都強調他的絲路等作品 其實他的取材旅行之足跡遍世界 台灣起碼來過兩次
翻譯很有道地中文味 可惜作品名中不少佛教等領域之漢字沒處理
作者自己都誤記他16歲上美術學校 其實應該是17歲
讀這本書可以了解他的太太和恩師等情緣和社會風俗等


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Ikuo Hirayama (平山 郁夫 born 15 June 1930 , Setoda, Hiroshima)is a Japanese Nihonga painter, born in Setoda-chō, Hiroshima Prefecture, famous in Japan for Silk Road paintings of dreamy desert landscapes in Iran, Iraq, and China.

In 1952, he graduated from the Tokyo School of Art, and became a disciple of Maeda Seison.

Ikuo also has his career as the president of the university.

A hibakusha, he produced a series of paintings depicting the introduction of Buddhism to Japan. Later, he portrayed the A-bomb attack on Hiroshima. He is also active in the preservation of the cultural heritage of the world (for example, the Bamiyan Buddhas) and is internationally appreciated for his efforts in this sphere. Hirayama was awarded the Order of Cultural Merit in 1998.

He has a studio in Kamakura, Kanagawa. There is a dedicated museum in Setoda, having an English Web site at [1].

[edit] External Links

■平山郁夫の生い立ち
(1)中学入学・原爆被爆
(2)東京美術学校入学
(3)日本画家への道
(4)仏教伝来
(5)ヨーロッパの分厚い宗教芸術の伝統に触れる
(6)日本文化の源流を訪ねて
(7)世界へ向けて
(8)薬師寺玄奘三蔵院 ≪大唐西域壁画≫
(9)文化活動と社会的貢献
(10)文化財赤十字構想

平山郁夫

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

平山 郁夫ひらやま いくお1930年(昭和5年)6月15日 - )は、日本画家教育者東京藝術大学学長日本美術院理事長。現代日本画壇の最高峰に位置する画家であり、その作品価格は存命する画家の中で飛びぬけて高い。日韓友情年日本側実行委員長、日中友好協会会長、ユネスコ親善大使など多くの役職に就いている。称号広島県名誉県民栄典文化勲章受章、大韓民国修交勲章興仁章受章など。

目次

[非表示]

[編集] 来歴・人物

1930年(昭和5年)、瀬戸内海に浮かぶ広島県豊田郡瀬戸田町(現尾道市瀬戸田町)に生まれる。1945年(昭和20年)旧制広島修道中学(現修道中学校・高等学校)3年在学中、勤労動員されていた広島市内陸軍兵器補給廠広島市への原子爆弾投下により被災。この被爆経験が後の「文化財赤十字」活動などの原点になっている。

戦後は実家に近い旧制忠海中学(現忠海高校)に転校し、1947年(昭和22年)東京美術学校(現・東京藝術大学)に入学、前田青邨に師事する。1952年(昭和27年)、卒業とともに同校助手となり、助教授、教授を経て1989年(平成元年)には東京藝術大学第6代学長に就任している。

平山はかつて原爆後遺症で一時は死も覚悟した。そうしたなか、1959年(昭和34年)に玄奘三蔵(三蔵法師)をテーマとする《仏教伝来》を描きあげ、院展に入選する。以降、平山の作品には仏教をテーマとしたものが多い。

仏教のテーマはやがて、古代インドに発生した仏教をアジアの果ての島国にまで伝えた仏教東漸の道と、文化の西と東を結んだシルクロードへの憧憬につながっていった。平山は1960年代後半からたびたびシルクロードの遺跡や中国を訪ね、極寒のヒマラヤ山脈から酷暑のタクラマカン砂漠に至るまで、シルクロードをくまなく旅している。その成果は奈良薬師寺玄奘三蔵院の壁画に結実している。

1989年(平成元年)12月21日から1995年(平成7年)12月20日まで東京藝術大学学長。1992年(平成4年)5月より世界平和アピール七人委員会の委員となる。1996年(平成8年)1月1日から2001年(平成13年)12月20日まで日本育英会会長。1998年(平成10年)11月3日文化勲章を受章。2001年(平成13年)12月21日から再び東京藝術大学長に就任。2004年(平成16年)12月22日大韓民国政府より北朝鮮高句麗古墳群のユネスコ世界文化遺産登録に寄与した功績で修交勲章興仁章受章。2005年(平成17年)日韓友情年日本側実行委員長も務める。日中友好協会会長やユネスコ親善大使平城遷都1300年記念事業特別顧問の肩書もある。他にも高松塚古墳壁画の模写、カンボジアアンコール遺跡救済活動、「文化財赤十字」(この呼称が赤十字社の許可を得ているかは不明)の名のもとに中東など紛争地域の文化財保護に奔走するなど、その活動は幅広く、社会への影響も大きい。

こうした活動を前向きに評価する意見がある一方、国立大学(後に国立大学法人) である東京藝術大学の学長という公職にありながら、出版社、百貨店、放送局などとタイアップした自作の展示販売を大々的に行い、莫大な利益を上げている点 などを批判する向きもある。また、日本とアジア諸国との友好活動や東北アジア・中央アジアでの文化財保護活動は国際的に非常に高く評価されているものの、 あきらかに誤った歴史的事実と認識(中国において文化大革命や都市開発により破壊された建築物を、戦時中に日本が破壊したとしている)に基づく活動を主導するなどの批判がある。また、日本国外での国際的な芸術的評価は低く、画家としての知名度は国内に比べると低い。

故郷の広島県尾道市瀬戸田町には「平山郁夫美術館」があり、滋賀県守山市佐川美術館にも作品が収蔵される。

2007年4月、内閣官房「美しい国づくり」プロジェクト・企画会議座長に決定。

[編集] 代表作品

  • 仏教伝来(1959)(佐久市立近代美術館蔵)
  • 入涅槃幻想(1961)(東京国立近代美術館蔵)
  • 広島生変図(1979)(広島県立美術館蔵)
  • 大唐西域壁画(薬師寺玄奘三蔵院壁画)(2000)

[編集] 関連項目

[編集] 外部リンク

悠悠大河


作者简介

平山郁夫 (HIRAYAMA IKUO)1930年6月15日生于日本广岛县。l945年8月6日经历了原子弹轰炸,劫后余生。1952年于东京美术学校(现东京艺术大学)日本画科毕 业,师从前田青邨。l953年作品《家路》首次入选第38届日本美术院展。l959年《佛教传来》入选第44届院展后开始创作佛教题材作品。1961年 《人涅槃幻想》获日本美术院奖(大观奖)。1968年以后开始走访丝绸之路,迄今已寻访百余次,足迹遍布阿富汗、伊拉克、伊朗、土耳其等中亚各国及印度 等,创作了大量佛教与东西文化交流题材的作品。l975年首次访华;l979年首访敦煌,以后每年一次或多次访华,至今已逾百次。1989年就任东京艺术 大学校长。提倡“文物保护红十字”的理念,积极推进世界文化遗产的保护修复事业。l992年开始担任日中友好协会会长;l996年任日本美术院理事长;荣 获法国荣誉军团勋章。2000年12月31日完成历经30年创作的奈良药师寺玄奘三藏院Ⅸ大唐西域壁画》。2002年9月获中国政府颁发的文化交流贡献 奖。2005年4月任东京国立博物馆特任馆长;2006年成立“文化遗产国际协力协调机构”并任会长。2008年4月在北京中国美术馆举办“平山郁夫艺术 展”。主要著述《青春物语》、《悠悠大河》、《玄奘三藏漫漫取经路》、《永远的丝绸之路》等。




日本著名畫家平山郁夫是1945年8月6日廣島原子彈爆炸的幸存者,他目睹了這場凶險慘絕的人間悲劇,也曾因原子彈後遺癥徘徊在生死邊緣。繪畫成了他生命 中的轉折點,特別是以佛教題材的繪畫來洗滌創傷、淨化心靈;他視玄奘為人生之師,踏遍西域各國和絲綢之路,追尋玄奘的足跡,體驗三藏求法的精神。在藝術創 作之余,多年來他一直為世界文化遺產的保護、人與人之間的文化藝術交流及和平友好到處奔走。








本書是平山郁夫的人生自述,是劫後餘生者的肺腑之言。




目錄

top
賀詞
致中國讀者

我的藝術朝聖之旅
緒言 火
第一章 寂靜與湛藍的海
佛教東漸之路
大連帶的圓環
生命之源文化之源
踏上茫茫的征程
第二章 閃光
1945年8月6日
慘絕人寰
逃出廣島
在冥冥的邊緣
立志學畫
第三章 求法
從佛畫和古典中汲取營養
在死亡的陰影威脅下
生命之光
入涅?幻想
奔向無窮世界
第四章 宿命與緣分
公寓里的人情冷暖
擁抱死神的朋友
性本善的鄰居
妻子美知子
中板橋一帶
回憶前田青 先生
引領我的力量
第五章 絲綢之路
首次東方之旅
干一輩子也值
遍訪絲綢之路
第六章 交流
第七章 傳統的分量
第八章 新征程
結語

“大唐西域壁畫”創作之旅
後記
說說平山這個人 平山美知子
對談 平山郁夫+常沙娜
平山郁夫略年表






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