2010年1月29日 星期五

J. D. Salinger

J. D. Salinger, Literary Recluse, Dies at 91


Published: January 28, 2010

J. D. Salinger, who was thought at one time to be the most important American writer to emerge since World War II but who then turned his back on success and adulation, becoming the Garbo of letters, famous for not wanting to be famous, died on Wednesday at his home in Cornish, N.H., where he had lived in seclusion for more than 50 years. He was 91.

Mr. Salinger’s literary representative, Harold Ober Associates, announced the death, saying it was of natural causes. “Despite having broken his hip in May,” the agency said, “his health had been excellent until a rather sudden decline after the new year. He was not in any pain before or at the time of his death.”

Mr. Salinger’s literary reputation rests on a slender but enormously influential body of published work: the novel “The Catcher in the Rye,” the collection “Nine Stories” and two compilations, each with two long stories about the fictional Glass

family: “Franny and Zooey” and “Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction.”

“Catcher” was published in 1951, and its very first sentence, distantly echoing Mark Twain, struck a brash new note in American literature: “If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you’ll probably want to know is where I was born and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don’t feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth.”

Though not everyone, teachers and librarians especially, was sure what to make of it, “Catcher” became an almost immediate best seller, and its narrator and main character, Holden Caulfield, a teenager newly expelled from prep school, became America’s best-known literary truant since Huckleberry Finn.

With its cynical, slangy vernacular voice (Holden’s two favorite expressions are “phony” and “goddam”), its sympathetic understanding of adolescence and its fierce if alienated sense of morality and distrust of the adult world, the novel struck a nerve in cold war America and quickly attained cult status, especially among the young. Reading “Catcher” used to be an essential rite of passage, almost as important as getting your learner’s permit.

The novel’s allure persists to this day, even if some of Holden’s preoccupations now seem a bit dated, and it continues to sell more than 250,000 copies a year in paperback. Mark David Chapman, who killed John Lennon in 1980, even said the explanation for his act could be found in the pages of “The Catcher in the Rye.” In 1974 Philip Roth wrote, “The response of college students to the work of J. D. Salinger indicates that he, more than anyone else, has not turned his back on the times but, instead, has managed to put his finger on whatever struggle of significance is going on today between self and culture.”

Many critics were more admiring of “Nine Stories,” which came out in 1953 and helped shape writers like Mr. Roth, John Updike and Harold Brodkey. The stories were remarkable for their sharp social observation, their pitch-perfect dialogue (Mr. Salinger, who used italics almost as a form of musical notation, was a master not of literary speech but of speech as people actually spoke it) and the way they demolished whatever was left of the traditional architecture of the short story — the old structure of beginning, middle, end — for an architecture of emotion, in which a story could turn on a tiny alteration of mood or irony. Mr. Updike said he admired “that open-ended Zen quality they have, the way they don’t snap shut.”

Mr. Salinger also perfected the great trick of literary irony — of validating what you mean by saying less than, or even the opposite of, what you intend. Orville Prescott wrote in The New York Times in 1963, “Rarely if ever in literary history has a handful of stories aroused so much discussion, controversy, praise, denunciation, mystification and interpretation.”

As a young man Mr. Salinger yearned ardently for just this kind of attention. He bragged in college about his literary talent and ambitions, and wrote swaggering letters to Whit Burnett, the editor of Story magazine. But success, once it arrived, paled quickly for him. He told the editors of Saturday Review that he was “good and sick” of seeing his photograph on the dust jacket of “The Catcher in the Rye” and demanded that it be removed from subsequent editions. He ordered his agent to burn any fan mail. In 1953 Mr. Salinger, who had been living on East 57th Street in Manhattan, fled the literary world altogether and moved to a 90-acre compound on a wooded hillside in Cornish. He seemed to be fulfilling Holden’s desire to build himself “a little cabin somewhere with the dough I made and live there for the rest of my life,” away from “any goddam stupid conversation with anybody.”

He seldom left, except occasionally to vacation in Florida or to visit William Shawn, the almost equally reclusive former editor of The New Yorker. Avoiding Mr. Shawn’s usual (and very public) table at the Algonquin Hotel, they would meet under the clock at the old Biltmore Hotel, the rendezvous for generations of prep-school and college students.

After Mr. Salinger moved to New Hampshire his publications slowed to a trickle and soon stopped completely. “Franny and Zooey” and “Raise High the Roof Beam,” both collections of material previously published in The New Yorker, came out in 1961 and 1963, and the last work of Mr. Salinger’s to appear in print was “Hapworth 16, 1924,” a 25,000-word story that took up most of the June 19, 1965, issue of The New Yorker.

In 1997 Mr. Salinger agreed to let Orchises Press, a small publisher in Alexandria, Va., bring out “Hapworth” in book form, but he backed out of the deal at the last minute. He never collected the rest of his stories or allowed any of them to be reprinted in textbooks or anthologies. One story, “Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut,” was turned into “My Foolish Heart,” a movie so bad that Mr. Salinger was never tempted to sell film rights again.

Befriended, Then Betrayed

In the fall of 1953 he befriended some local teenagers and allowed one of them to interview him for what he assumed would be an article on the high school page of a local paper, The Claremont Daily Eagle. The article appeared instead as a feature on the editorial page, and Mr. Salinger felt so betrayed that he broke off with the teenagers and built a six-and-a-half-foot fence around his property.

He seldom spoke to the press again, except in 1974 when, trying to fend off the unauthorized publication of his uncollected stories, he told a reporter from The Times: “There is a marvelous peace in not publishing. It’s peaceful. Still. Publishing is a terrible invasion of my privacy. I like to write. I love to write. But I write just for myself and my own pleasure.”

And yet the more he sought privacy, the more famous he became, especially after his appearance on the cover of Time in 1961. For years it was a sort of journalistic sport for newspapers and magazines to send reporters to New Hampshire in hopes of a sighting. As a young man Mr. Salinger had a long, melancholy face and deep soulful eyes, but now, in the few photographs that surfaced, he looked gaunt and gray, like someone in an El Greco painting. He spent more time and energy avoiding the world, it was sometimes said, than most people do in embracing it, and his elusiveness only added to the mythology growing up around him.

Depending on one’s point of view, he was either a crackpot or the American Tolstoy, who had turned silence itself into his most eloquent work of art. Some believed he was publishing under an assumed name, and for a while in the late 1970s, William Wharton, author of “Birdy,” was rumored to be Mr. Salinger, writing under another name, until it turned out that William Wharton was instead a pen name for the writer Albert du Aime.

In 1984 the British literary critic Ian Hamilton approached Mr. Salinger with the notion of writing his biography. Not surprisingly, Mr. Salinger turned him down, saying he had “borne all the exploitation and loss of privacy I can possibly bear in a single lifetime.” Mr. Hamilton went ahead anyway, and in 1986, Mr. Salinger took him to court to prevent the use of quotations and paraphrases from unpublished letters. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court, and to the surprise of many, Mr. Salinger eventually won, though not without some cost to his cherished privacy. (In June 2009 he also sued Fredrik Colting, the Swedish author and publisher of a novel said to be a sequel to “The Catcher in the Rye.” In July a federal judge indefinitely enjoined publication of the book.)

Mr. Salinger’s privacy was further punctured in 1998 and again in 2000 with the publication of memoirs by, first, Joyce Maynard — with whom he had a 10-month affair in 1973, when Ms. Maynard was a college freshman — and then his daughter, Margaret. Some critics complained that both women were trying to exploit and profit from their history with Mr. Salinger, and Mr. Salinger’s son, Matthew, wrote in a letter to The New York Observer that his sister had “a troubled mind,” and that he didn’t recognize the man portrayed in her account. Both books nevertheless added a creepy, Howard Hughesish element to the Salinger legend.

Mr. Salinger was controlling and sexually manipulative, Ms. Maynard wrote, and a health nut obsessed with homeopathic medicine and with his diet (frozen peas for breakfast, undercooked lamb burger for dinner). Ms. Salinger said that her father was pathologically self-centered and abusive toward her mother, and to the homeopathy and food fads she added a long list of other enthusiasms: Zen Buddhism, Vedanta Hinduism, Christian Science, Scientology and acupuncture. Mr. Salinger drank his own urine, she wrote, and sat for hours in an orgone box.

But was he writing? The question obsessed Salingerologists, and in the absence of real evidence, theories multiplied. He hadn’t written a word for years. Or, like the character in the Stanley Kubrick film “The Shining,” he wrote the same sentence over and over again. Or like Gogol at the end of his life, he wrote prolifically but then burned it all. Ms. Maynard said she believed there were at least two novels locked away in a safe, though she had never seen them.

Early Life

Jerome David Salinger was born in Manhattan on New Year’s Day, 1919, the second of two children. His sister, Doris, who died in 2001, was for many years a buyer in the dress department at Bloomingdale’s. Like the Glasses, the Salinger children were the product of a mixed marriage. Their father, Sol, was a Jew, the son of a rabbi, but sufficiently assimilated that he made his living importing both cheese and ham. Their mother, Marie Jillisch, was of Irish descent, born in Scotland, but changed her first name to Miriam to appease her in-laws. The family was living in Harlem when Mr. Salinger was born, but then, as Sol Salinger’s business prospered, moved to West 82nd Street and then to Park Avenue.

Never much of a student, Mr. Salinger, then known as Sonny, attended the progressive McBurney School on the Upper West Side. (He told the admissions office his interests were dramatics and tropical fish.) But he flunked out after two years and in 1934 was packed off to Valley Forge Military Academy, in Wayne, Pa., which became the model for Holden’s Pencey Prep. Like Holden, Mr. Salinger was the manager of the school fencing team, and he also became the literary editor of the school yearbook, Crossed Swords, and wrote a school song that was either a heartfelt pastiche of 19th-century sentiment or else a masterpiece of irony:

Hide not thy tears on this last day

Your sorrow has no shame;

To march no more midst lines of gray;

No longer play the game.

Four years have passed in joyful ways — Wouldst stay those old times dear?

Then cherish now these fleeting days,

The few while you are here.

In 1937, after a couple of unenthusiastic weeks at New York University, Mr. Salinger traveled with his father to Austria and Poland, where the father’s plan was for him to learn the ham business. Deciding that wasn’t for him, he returned to America and drifted through a term or so at Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pa. Fellow students remember him striding around campus in a black chesterfield with velvet collar and announcing that he was going to write the Great American Novel.

Mr. Salinger’s most sustained exposure to higher education was an evening class he took at Columbia in 1939, taught by Whit Burnett, and under Mr. Burnett’s tutelage he managed to sell a story, “The Young Folks,” to Story magazine. He subsequently sold stories to Esquire, Collier’s and The Saturday Evening Post — formulaic work that gave little hint of real originality.

In 1941, after several rejections, Mr. Salinger finally cracked The New Yorker, the ultimate goal of any aspiring writer back then, with a story, “Slight Rebellion Off Madison,” that was an early sketch of what became a scene in “The Catcher in the Rye.” But the magazine then had second thoughts, apparently worried about seeming to encourage young people to run away from school, and held the story for five years — an eternity even for The New Yorker — before finally publishing it in 1946, buried in the back of an issue.

Meanwhile Mr. Salinger had been drafted. He served with the Counter-Intelligence Corps of the Fourth Infantry Division, whose job was to interview Nazi deserters and sympathizers, and was stationed for a while in Tiverton, Devon, the setting of “For Esmé — with Love and Squalor,” probably the most deeply felt of the “Nine Stories.” On June 6, 1944, he landed at Utah Beach, and he later saw action during the Battle of the Bulge.

In 1945 he was hospitalized for “battle fatigue” — often a euphemism for a breakdown — and after recovering he stayed on in Europe past the end of the war, chasing Nazi functionaries. He married a German woman, very briefly — a doctor about whom biographers have been able to discover very little. Her name was Sylvia, Margaret Salinger said, but Mr. Salinger always called her Saliva.

A Different Kind of Writer

Back in New York, Mr. Salinger moved into his parents’ apartment and, having never stopped writing, even during the war, resumed his career. “A Perfect Day for Bananafish,” austere, mysterious and Mr. Salinger’s most famous and still most discussed story, appeared in The New Yorker in 1948 and suggested, not wrongly, that he had become a very different kind of writer. And like so many writers he eventually found in The New Yorker not just an outlet but a kind of home and developed a close relationship with the magazine’s editor, William Shawn, himself famously shy and agoraphobic — a kindred spirit. In 1961 Mr. Salinger dedicated “Franny and Zooey” to Shawn, writing, “I urge my editor, mentor and (heaven help him) closest friend, William Shawn, genius domus of The New Yorker, lover of the long shot, protector of the unprolific, defender of the hopelessly flamboyant, most unreasonably modest of born great artist-editors, to accept this pretty skimpy-looking book.”

As a young writer Mr. Salinger was something of a ladies’ man and dated, among others, Oona O’Neill, the daughter of Eugene O’Neill and the future wife of Charlie Chaplin. In 1953 he met Claire Douglas, the daughter of the British art critic Robert Langdon Douglas, who was then a 19-year-old Radcliffe sophomore who in many ways resembled Franny Glass (or vice versa); they were married two years later. (Ms. Douglas had married and divorced in the meantime.) Margaret was born in 1955, and Matthew, now an actor and film producer, was born in 1960. But the marriage soon turned distant and isolating, and in 1966, Ms. Douglas sued for divorce, claiming that “a continuation of the marriage would seriously injure her health and endanger her reason.”

The affair with Ms. Maynard, then a Yale freshman, began in 1972, after Mr. Salinger read an article she had written for The New York Times Magazine titled “An 18-Year-Old Looks Back on Life.” They moved in together but broke up abruptly after 10 months when Mr. Salinger said he had no desire for more children. For a while in the ’80s Mr. Salinger was involved with the actress Elaine Joyce, and late in that decade he married Colleen O’Neill, a nurse, who is considerably younger than he is. Not much is known about the marriage because Ms. O’Neill embraced her husband’s code of seclusion.

Besides his son, Matthew, Mr. Salinger is survived by Ms. O’Neill and his daughter, Margaret, as well as three grandsons. His literary agents said in a statement that “in keeping with his lifelong, uncompromising desire to protect and defend his privacy, there will be no service, and the family asks that people’s respect for him, his work and his privacy be extended to them, individually and collectively, during this time.”

“Salinger had remarked that he was in this world but not of it,” the statement said. “His body is gone but the family hopes that he is still with those he loves, whether they are religious or historical figures, personal friends or fictional characters.”

As for the fictional family the Glasses, Mr. Salinger had apparently been writing about them nonstop. Ms. Maynard said she saw shelves of notebooks devoted to the family. In Mr. Salinger’s fiction the Glasses first turn up in “A Perfect Day for Bananafish,” in which Seymour, the oldest son and family favorite, kills himself during his honeymoon. Characters who turn out in retrospect to have been Glasses appear glancingly in “Nine Stories,” but the family saga really begins to be elaborated upon in “Franny and Zooey,” “Raise High the Roof Beam” and “Hapworth,” the long short story, which is ostensibly a letter written by Seymour from camp when he is just 7 years old but already reading several languages and lusting after Mrs. Happy, wife of the camp owner.

Readers also began to learn about the parents, Les and Bessie, long-suffering ex-vaudevillians, and Seymour’s siblings Franny, Zooey, Buddy, Walt, Waker and Boo Boo; about the Glasses’ Upper West Side apartment; about the radio quiz show on which all the children appeared. Seldom has a fictional family been so lovingly or richly imagined.

Too lovingly, some critics complained. With the publication of “Franny and Zooey” even staunch Salinger admirers began to break ranks. John Updike wrote in The Times Book Review: “Salinger loves the Glasses more than God loves them. He loves them too exclusively. Their invention has become a hermitage for him. He loves them to the detriment of artistic moderation.” Other readers hated the growing streak of Eastern mysticism in the saga, as Seymour evolved, in successive retellings, from a suicidal young man into a genius, a sage, even a saint of sorts.

But writing in The New York Review of Books in 2001, Janet Malcolm argued that the critics had all along been wrong about Mr. Salinger, just as short-sighted contemporaries were wrong about Manet and about Tolstoy. The very things people complain about, Ms. Malcolm contended, were the qualities that made Mr. Salinger great. That the Glasses (and, by implication, their creator) were not at home in the world was the whole point, Ms. Malcolm wrote, and it said as much about the world as about the kind of people who failed to get along there.

An earlier version of this article stated incorrectly that Miriam was the name of the wife of Seymour Glass, one of Mr. Salinger's characters. And it erroneously gave June 4, 1944, as the date that Mr. Salinger landed at Utah Beach.

麥田捕手作者辭世 享年91歲

〔編譯陳成良/綜合二十八日外電報導〕以「麥田捕手」(The Catcher in the Rye)一書聞名於世的美國文壇巨擘沙林傑,二十七日在新罕布夏州的家中安詳辭世,享壽九十一歲,也引起外界揣測這位傳奇作家是否留下許多未發表的作品。

沙 林傑一九一九年出生於紐約曼哈頓,母親是愛爾蘭裔、父親是波蘭猶太人。他在青少年時代就開始寫作,一九四○年發表第一篇故事「青年們」;一九五一年發表 「麥田捕手」,充分反映了叛逆青少年的焦慮與苦悶,以青少年敏感特異的眼光和語言,披露社會現實與其心理,開啟當代美國文學心理現實主義之先河,也讓此書 成為全球文壇舉足輕重的作品,銷售量六千萬本。

這位美國極受景仰、影響力深遠的作家,一向極度保護隱私。自一九五六年開始就未再出版新書, 一九六五年在「紐約客」雜誌發表最後一篇系列小說「哈普沃茲16,1924」,即未再出版原創作品,一九八○年後甚至連採訪都不接受。「麥田捕手」帶來的 知名度讓他不堪其擾,於是決定減少露面,隱居在新罕布夏州小鎮的山邊小屋。

一九九七年有報導指出,「哈普沃茲16,1924」即將結集出版,振奮文壇。沙林傑將這部作品授權一個小的出版公司,但是至今都還沒有出版,原因不明。

沙林傑堅決護衛個人隱私,曾經上訴法庭,要求停止出版他的私人信函,並始終拒絕出售「麥田捕手」的電影版權。去年七月,美國法庭禁止出版一本瑞典作家未經授權撰寫的「麥田捕手續集」。

鄰居表示,沙林傑多年前曾透露,他至少寫了十五部未出版著作,鎖在家中保險箱。

一九五五年沙林傑和一名女學生克萊爾.道格拉斯結婚,生了兩個孩子,一九六七年離婚。沙林傑在一九七二年曾與十八歲的愛人梅納交往過一年,兩人經常魚雁往返。寫給梅納的情書,在一九九九年的一次拍賣會上,以超過十五萬美元的高價售出。

米作家・サリンジャー氏死去 「ライ麦畑でつかまえて」

2010年1月29日10時56分


写真J・D・サリンジャー氏

写真「ライ麦畑でつかまえて」の表紙=AP

 【ニューヨーク=田中光】世界的なベストセラー「ライ麦畑でつかまえて」(1951年)などで知られる米国を代表する作家、J・D・サリンジャーさんが27日、米東部ニューハンプシャー州の自宅で、老衰のため死去した。91歳だった。AP通信が家族の話として伝えた。

 ニューヨーク・マンハッタン生まれ。高校や大学を転々とした後、雑誌への小説の投稿を始めた。1942年から陸軍に所属し、第2次世界大戦で欧州戦線に 派遣されてノルマンディー上陸作戦も経験した。戦地でも書き続け、作品は名門誌「ニューヨーカー」に掲載されるようになる。

 「ライ麦畑」は、名門校を放校になった16歳の少年がニューヨークをさまよう青春小説で、米国の青年にとって必読書的な存在となった。世界各国で 翻訳され、発行部数は6千万部を超える。日本では野崎孝訳が64年に出版され、250万部を超えるロングセラーに。03年には村上春樹訳が出版された。

 短編集「ナイン・ストーリーズ」(53年)、「フラニーとゾーイー」(61年)などを相次いで発表したが、65年の「ハプワース16、一九二四」を最後に、ニューハンプシャー州の小さな街でひっそりと生活するようになった。

 私生活に触れられることを極端に嫌い、伝記の著者を相手取り最高裁まで争った。



2010年1月13日 星期三

塑造本世纪前十年的50人:商业篇

塑造本世纪前十年的50人:商业篇
在本世纪前十年结束之时,英国《金融时报》在政治、文化、经济、商业四个领域,共挑选出引领或塑造这10年全球变革的50人。这份名单也许颇具主观性——这50人背景各异、毁誉参半——但是我们试图找出的是在过去10年中,给全球或他(她)所在地区或行业带来的影响最大、最深刻影响历史进程的人物。


杰夫•贝佐斯(Jeff Bezos)
亚马逊网站(Amazon.com)创始人,首席执行官
这位亚马逊网站的创始人兼首席执行官用了十年时间来证明怀疑论者的错误。2001年,当互联网泡沫破裂时,他的线上零售商关闭了多家分销中心并且缩减规 模。而9年后,亚马逊已经成为世界最大的网上零售商,业务遍及包括中国在内的7个国家,2009年销售额预期增长25%,超过230亿美元。

2008年,贝佐斯朝着他要做“世界上最以顾客为中心的企业”的宏愿又迈进了一步。他发布了新产品Kindle电子阅读器,并且拿可下载电子书的出现与1455年约翰内斯•古滕堡(Johannes Gutenberg)的第一本印刷版《圣经》相比较。

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劳埃德•布兰克费恩(Lloyd Blankfein)
高盛(Goldman Sachs)首席执行官

来自纽约布朗克斯区的布兰克费恩最早是作为高盛子公司J.Aron的一名销售人员开始他的华尔街生涯的。十年前,他掌管的是史上最成功的赚钱机器之一—— 高盛的固定收益、外汇和大宗商品部(FICC)。这一部门获得前所未有的成功,奠定了交易部门作为高盛权力中心的地位,也让它的领导人也得以进入银行最高 管理层。

2006 年,时任首席执行官亨利•保尔森(Henry Paulson)被任命为美国新财政部长时,布兰克费恩顺理成章成为继任者。在他的领导下,高盛从70年来最严重的金融危机走了出来,成为全球最强大的投 资银行。不过,高盛耀眼的复苏却加剧了公众对它的神秘文化和令人乍舌的高薪的抵触情绪。

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沃伦•巴菲特(Warren Buffett)
伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway)董事长兼首席执行官

作为当世最成功的投资人,他的名声早已不可撼动。最近这十年,巴菲特将更多的时间花在塑造一个政治家、慈善家和不知疲倦的美国经济啦啦队长的形象。不管是 经常性的电视露面,还是在家乡内布拉斯加举办年会时吸引的创纪录的参与人群,抑或是向比尔梅林达•盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)捐款310亿美元的头条新闻,全世界都比以往更多地听到和看到这位“奥马哈圣贤”(Sage of Omaha)的事迹。

当经济衰退影响到巴菲特的众多业务时——管理着他各项投资的伯克希尔哈撒韦公司在2008年经历了巴菲特投资生涯中里最糟糕的年度——这位亿万富翁却以他所进行过的几桩最大、最冒险的交易为这十年画上了句号。
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柳传志
联想集团创始人及董事长

由柳传志于1984年创建的、创始资金仅20万元人民币的联想集团,在2005年以17.5亿美元收购国际商用机器公司(IBM)的个人电脑部,使联想得 以与惠普(HP)和戴尔(Dell)这样的企业同台竞技,也改变了全球计算机工业的格局。通过这次收购,柳传志也向中国企业展示了如何走向国际化——把公 司总部搬出中国,吸引外籍人士进入管理层,并且用英语作为董事会办公语言。

并购完成后,柳传志一度从联想董事长职位上退休。但是2009年2月,65岁的他重执帅印。金融危机使得联想出现亏损,而他用实干和远见卓识让联想扭亏为盈。

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安吉罗•莫兹罗(Angelo Mozilo)
美国国家金融服务公司(Countrywide)创始人之一

如果说这场次贷危机有一张面孔的话,那它就是安吉罗•莫兹罗那张黝黑、褶皱的脸。莫兹罗曾一度被当成是白手起家的商业英雄来顶礼膜拜:这位来自纽约布朗克 斯区的肉贩之子领导了美国最大的一家抵押贷款机构。而如今,他却变成了导致资产泡沫,进而引发金融动荡的宽松贷款的代名词。莫兹罗于1969年与人合作创 办了美国国家金融服务公司。他坚信在那些被银行信贷部门拒之门外的住房贷款申请人中,有一个巨大的、有待开发的市场。在这一信念的激励下,美国国家金融服 务公司的影响力和利润呈几何级数增长。

而 当本世纪初的那种廉价信贷狂潮消退,数以百万计的美国人发现他们已无力偿还贷款的时候,这一信念却成了莫兹罗及其公司的噩梦。2008年,在美国国家金融 服务公司被美国银行(Bank of America)兼并之后,莫兹罗离任。同年6月,证券交易委员会对莫兹罗提起民事诉讼,称他及另外两名公司高管在2006-07年间在公司的财务健康上 误导了投资者。

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莫•伊布拉欣(Mo Ibrahim)
电信巨头

莫•伊布拉欣很早就在移动电话改变非洲的潜力上下了赌注。2005年他将手中的Celtel公司卖出,一举赚了20亿美元。曾是苏丹共产党党员的伊布拉欣作为企业家而功成名就,而最近又成为慈善家,这使他成为非洲最受欢迎的人物之一。

Celtel表明,在非洲建立起一个声誉干净的世界级公司也是可能的。虽然大多数非洲人都生活在贫困中,但是Celtel与另外少数几家企业通过满足公众对服务业的潜在需求,还是撼动了投资者对非洲市场的看法。伊布拉欣的基金致力于改善非洲的政府治理状况。
*****
史蒂夫•乔布斯(Steve Jobs)
苹果公司(Apple)首席执行官

本世纪初,当乔布斯发布iPod时,苹果公司正在从被市场漠视的边缘返回主流。在这款依然占据市场统治地位的数码音乐播放器之后,苹果公司又推出了iTunes音乐商店。后者拯救了全球音乐产业,使其免遭盗版业的彻底摧毁。

2007年,乔布斯使用iPhone故伎重演,再次把还在苹果电脑世界以外徘徊的顾客带入了全新的数字时代。分析师称苹果的手机收益已经超过了其它任何公司。iPhone本质上已成为一款掌上电脑,提供超过10万款应用程序的它创造了一种崭新的数字生态系统。

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米哈伊尔•霍多尔科夫斯基(Mikhail Khodorkovsky)
监狱中的俄罗斯石油大亨

米哈伊尔•霍多尔科夫斯基曾经是俄罗斯首富,如今却成为那里最出名的囚徒。

46岁的霍多尔科夫斯基在上世纪动荡的 90年代,靠无情攫取大量国有石油资产,然后以尤科斯石油集团(Yukos)的形式组合这些资产而发家。他不断增长的政治影响力——包括他也许会参加总统 竞选的暗示——激怒了当局。2003年10月,安全部门人员在新西伯利亚机场突袭了他的私人飞机后将其逮捕。在之后的审判中,霍多尔科夫斯基以诈骗罪被判 刑八年,而他的支持者则宣称这场审判是政治原因推动的。尤科斯石油公司随即倒闭,其资产被国家没收以充当税款,而后出售给以俄罗斯石油公司 (Rosneft)为主的几个国有企业。正当服刑中的霍多尔科夫斯基可获假释之时,他又以新的诈骗罪名被起诉,将再次面临法庭审理。
***
拉克什米•米塔尔(Lakshmi Mittal)
钢铁业巨头

上世纪70年代的印度,米塔尔在父亲的小型金属公司里起步创业。他通过在全球范围内一系列规模越来越大的兼并,打造出全球最大的钢铁企业。2006年以 269亿欧元收购卢森堡的Arcelor是其中最大的一宗交易,米塔尔成为重组后的ArcelorMittal的董事长及大股东。

总 部设在伦敦的米塔尔近年来一直在扩张他的势力范围。他是美国投资银行高盛的董事,私交中包括前英国首相托尼•布莱尔(Tony Blair)以及英国商务大臣彼得•曼德尔森(Peter Mandelson)等。但是,由于钢铁行业目前看上去复苏乏力,他的2010年将不太好过。
***

英德拉•努伊(Indra Nooyi)
百事公司(PepsiCo)首席执行官

百事公司2006年10月任命努伊为首席执行官时,此举被认为凝聚了这十年的全球化精神,也象征着新一代女性首席执行官的出现。

努 伊在印度出生并接受教育,她的职业生涯是从在强生(印度)公司担任产品经理和一家纺织企业Mettur Beardsell开始的。在美国耶鲁大学完成研究生学业后,她先后供职于波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group),摩托罗拉(Motorola)和Asea Brown Boveri公司,1994年加入百事公司。在那里,她率先推动了公司北美饮料业务的重振计划。

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拉里•佩奇(Larry Page)与谢尔盖•布林(Sergey Brin)
谷歌(Google)创始人

如果说上世纪90年代的科技泡沫使得当“技术呆子”看上去很酷的话,那么最近十年中,谷歌的创始人更进了一步,证明技术呆子们果真能够统治商业世界。他们对计算机技术高度敏感,辅以雄心壮志,使他们打破了从传媒到通讯等许多行业中的传统智慧和做法。

2004年谷歌在华尔街上市时宣誓,将“不作恶”,“要把世界建的更好”。这表明了他们特立独行的决心,却被竞争对手指为天真和自傲。如今,虽然他们俩都已结婚且年近四十,但是丝毫没有放弃宏伟抱负的迹象。

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杰克•多尔西(Jack Dorsey),斯通(Biz Stone),与埃文•威廉姆斯(Evan Williams)
推特(Twitter)创始人

Twitter基于的概念看上去是如此之简单,甚至连它的创始人都是在数月之后才明白过来它的潜力有多大。他们中的多尔西是个软件工程师,之前曾经为出租 车和快递行业设计“派活儿”的软件。他在2006年就草拟出了基于网络的、发送简短讯息的信息交换平台这一概念。他的想法获得了30多岁的、之前曾分别在 硅谷创立数家小公司的威廉姆斯和斯通的支持。威廉姆斯早先曾经把他创立的博客公司卖给谷歌,错失了将其孵化成一个重要网站的机会。吸取了这样的教 训,Twitter的创始人们拒绝了来自Facebook的收购,决心在Twitter狂飙之路上一走到底。

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梅格•惠特曼(Meg Whitman)
eBay前总裁兼首席执行官

惠特曼是在本世纪之初的因特网繁荣期,将企业从传统商业世界推向互联网的企业家中最成功的一位。这位举止优雅的商业全才在宝洁(P&G)和迪士尼 (Walt Disney)取得斐然成绩后,于1998年加入eBay,当时eBay的收入只有500万美元。十年后她卸任时,eBay的销售额已经增长至80亿美 元。不过,她任期的最后几年也并非没有瑕疵。她对网络电话公司Skype的收购饱受争议;此外eBay不得不改进其网上市场以追赶竞争对手。

现在,惠特曼正在争取代表共和党参加2010年的加利福尼亚州州长竞选。

2010年1月4日 星期一

Brothers Grimm

我似乎去過他們的紀念館 不過不知道的還是太多啦

Spotlight:

Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
Did the Brothers Grimm actually write the tales they're credited with? When we hear the name Grimm, we think of fairy tales like "Rapunzel, " "Hansel and Gretel" and "Snow White." Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm were collectors of German folklore; they recorded and popularized traditional stories. The Grimm brothers were also renowned philologists. Jakob Grimm, born on this date in 1785, formulated Grimm's Law, showing how consonants shifted between the Indo-European and Germanic languages: the Indo-European p, t, and k became Germanic f, th, and h; Indo-European b, d, and g became Germanic p, t, and k; and Indo-European bh, dh, and gh became Germanic b, d, and g .

Quote:

"The real Brothers Grimm were scholars; they were these amazing heroes in Germany who... made Germans proud of their heritage."Matt Damon

高行健慶70歲生日:在藝術中尋找自己的流亡地



高行健倫敦慶70歲生日 盼世界不再有危機 【1/5 08:25】2010

〔中央社〕2000年諾貝爾文學獎得主高行健今天在倫敦歡度70歲生日。首次慶生的他說,生日的願望就是期待世界不再有危機;在完成電影製作及最新戲劇書籍後,「這生該做的事都做完了」。

高行健的好友包括作家陳邁平、馬建、詩人楊煉等人,在倫敦大學亞非學院(SOAS)舉辦「高行健創作思想研討會」,邀請來自瑞典、法國、捷克等國的漢學家與會,吸引數百名愛好文學的民眾踴躍參加,現場座無虛席。

一身黑色樸素裝扮的高行健一出場即受到熱烈掌聲,他說,自己向來不過生日,很意外好友們在倫敦為他舉辦這場盛大的活動,「令我非常感動」,現場觀眾隨即祝他生日快樂。

對中央社記者詢問生日願望為何?高行健說,希望新的一年,世界不要變得更壞,「世界不斷發生危機,沒有人知道明天會發生什麼事,最好的願望,就是明天不要有危機」。

對中央社記者再追問,回首人生,是否有些遺憾?最想做那些事?高行健表示,最近他完成有關他戲劇理論總結的新書「戲劇論」,這是他這一生一直想做的事,很高興終於做完了。

另一件事則是拍電影,高行健透露,19歲在大學求學時撰寫第一個電影劇本,期間也曾有中國、德國、法國的製片人邀請他共同合作拍片,但因對手要求拍攝的題材並非他要的電影,計畫遲遲未能實現。

同時擅長繪畫及戲劇創作的高行健說,電影製作不同於小說、繪畫,需要的資金很龐大,等待了50年,花了4年的時間,才完成「側影或影子」這部作品,圓了電影夢。

不過由於「側影或影子」這部影片不夠商業化,發行片商以無法賺錢將它拒於門外,高行健只得在有他參與的研討會和活動時播放,觀眾都很喜歡,反應也很熱烈。他因此認為,電影發行市場隔斷了藝術與觀眾的聯繫。

高行健表示,拍電影是他這生最艱難的願望,都實現了,加上剛完成戲劇理論總結的新書,「該做的事在70歲前都完成了」,原本計劃和陳邁平電話暢談一番慶生,沒想到熱心的好友安排了這場特別的活動,令他很感動。

他笑說,原本以為事情做完了可以休息,但邀訪活動已排到2011年初,「看來還是不能休息,還有很多事要做」。

研討會後現場播放「側影或影子」影片,現場觀眾全神貫注觀賞。對中央社記者詢問,希望觀眾從影片中獲得什麼訊息或意念?高行健說,影片是開放的,觀眾可以依據自己的人生經驗,有不同的詮釋,每個人都可以有自己的看法。

今天現場還播放高行健製作的音樂與舞蹈電影短片「洪荒之後」。

陳邁平說,由於中國政府的禁令,許多中國年輕人不認識高行健,高行健也無法到中國旅行,令人遺憾;今天在倫敦不僅是為高行健慶生,也是為中國的藝術慶祝。

他強調,高行健獲諾貝爾獎是因為他為中國文學、戲劇開出了一條文化新路,高行健是全球唯一獲得諾貝爾文學獎的華人,他扮演的正是先驅的角色。

曾數次前往台灣訪問的高行健告訴中央社記者,今年4月他將再度應邀前往台灣訪問,參加文學座談活動。(本文附有照片和影音)


文学艺术 | 2010.01.03

高行健:在藝術中尋找自己的流亡地

作家高行健曾於2000年榮獲諾貝爾文學獎。他最著名的作品是《靈山》。但他的書在中國被禁。自1987年起,高行健定居巴黎,並於1998年加入了法國國籍。今年1月4日,高行健將慶祝其70歲壽辰。本台記者為您介紹這位作家和藝術家的生平。


在高行健的長篇小說《靈山》中,主人公前往中國南方旅行,沿著揚子江前行。他的目的地是一座充滿神秘色彩的山--靈山。而最終,旅途本身其實正是旅行的目的。作品可以被理解成一種尋找自我與民族學研究的結合體。高行健講述巫師和隱居者的故事,描繪按照傳統風俗生活在山間的族群,以及揚子江畔的日常生活圖景。 《靈山》講述的是穿越迷失的家鄉這樣一種旅程。作者曾說過,我一出生就是一個流亡者:

"自從1989年天安門大屠殺之後,我就不再有理由回到家鄉。我已經過了20多年的流亡生活。中國已成為過去。"

自1987年起,高行健定居法國。文化大革命期間,他曾下放農村勞動,並被強迫燒毀自己的文稿。後來,特別是他的戲劇作品成為審查部門的眼中釘。風格荒誕的話劇作品《車站》是一出詩意喜​​劇。 80年代,高行健再次受到威脅,要把他送去勞動改造。於是他開始低調寫作,並最終前往法國。從那以後,高行健的文學作品在他的家鄉受到忽視,即便是2000年的諾貝爾文學獎也沒有帶來任何改變。

"我的作品在中國已經被禁止22年了。我的名字也被禁止提及。不久前,一位記者給我看了一份歷屆諾貝爾文學獎獲得者名單,在這份名單上,2000年這一年被跳了過去。我當時問這位記者能不能複印一份這個名單給我,作為紀念。"

在語言上,高行健也與自己的家鄉漸行漸遠。如今,他寫作的第一語言是法語。

"我沒有中文的受眾,那麼為什麼要用中文寫作劇本呢?那是非常可笑的。對我來說,用另一種語言寫作,如同一種歷險。"

高行健不認為自己是一位政治作家。這種脫離政治的態度、以及他對中國保持距離,令他的一些作家同行感到失望。去年秋天,中國作為主賓國參加法蘭克福國際書展期間,一位來自北京的作家公開批評說,高行健沒有把諾貝爾獎給他帶來的聲譽用來幫助其他異議人士。這位作家說,高行健完全沉浸在自己的藝術裡,這令人感到遺憾。高行健則表示,他認為思想的自由只存在於藝術世界裡。

藝術對於高行健來說不單是寫作。他同時也是一位知名的畫家。他的水彩作品深受中國傳統繪畫的影響,在繪畫市場上頗受歡迎。

"藝術創作對我來說並不是一種職業,所以我也不需要說我是一個畫家或者作家。有時候,我必須得寫作。也有時候,我被吸引著去創作繪畫作品,或者戲劇劇本。我不但寫劇本,而且負責當導演,我還拍電影。既不是故事片,也不是紀錄片,而是一種嘗試,一種新的類別,以電影形式表現的詩作。"

高行健,這位法籍華人,似乎在藝術中尋找到了自己的流亡地。

作者:ard/苗子

責編:樂然

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