2014年1月31日 星期五

詩人 W.D. Snodgrass, 臨終受訪的感想



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W.D. Snodgrass, Pulitzer-winning poet, at Emory University in Atlanta in April 2008. Erik S. Lesser for The New York Times
Somber news comes with the territory I patrol as obituaries editor for this newspaper, and it was in that capacity I learned that W.D. Snodgrass was dying.
A colleague had been reading email one morning in the fall of 2008 when he called up a message that had been sent overnight. It was from a woman, he said, who wanted to advise the obit desk that her husband, a poet, was losing his fight with cancer. Knowing that The Times, for practical reasons, will often prepare an obit while the subject is still alive, she said, she wanted to give us a heads-up about his condition.
What was the poet’s name, I asked.
“W.D. Snodgrass,” my colleague said.
It brought me up short.
In the winter of 1976, I was a graduate student at Syracuse University, and Snodgrass, a Pulitzer Prize winner, was a literary celebrity on campus. Our paths had no reason to cross in the classroom; he was teaching poetry, I was being schooled in journalism. But I had an assignment — to write a profile of a person of my own choosing — and I suppose it was the residual English major in me that drew me to someone in the literary trades. So I called him and he agreed to an interview, inviting me to his house.
It was a wet, cold and gray March morning when I drove deep into the frozen farmland of central New York. Snodgrass’s house sat back from the road on a snow-covered slope that beyond the backyard steepened into a wooded hill. He greeted me at the door. Tall, bearded and robust at 50, he had the merry eyes of a man perpetually amused by the world.
We talked about poetry and his life for probably an hour. I went home and wrote the article, received a satisfying grade and peddled the piece to an alternative weekly newspaper in Syracuse. Happily it was accepted — my first professional byline — earning me enough to buy dinner (at a diner).
I didn’t hear from Snodgrass afterward, but no matter: The world spun on, and as it did, the half-dozen copies I’d saved were scattered to who knows where, until the pile had dwindled to one, left to yellow in a box under similar memorabilia.
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The author's first article as a professional journalist. 
But now, as he lay dying, I had a fleeting thought: What if I went to see him again, to talk about his life, literature and perhaps, with his so near, death? I contacted his wife, Kathy Snodgrass, a critic and translator of literary works. She talked it over with De, as his friends and family called him, and soon got back to me.
“When I asked De his thoughts on an interview,” she wrote in an email, “he pretty much said no, not for what I’m guessing is the most frequent response, that someone isn’t prepared to admit the end is near, but rather that he thinks dying persons’ opinions on life and art are suspect.”
It had been 32 years, and though the words came filtered through his wife, his tone and manner suddenly returned to me: direct, impatient with high-flown sentiment and a bit disarming, not unlike his poetry. I feared I had left a misimpression, however. I did not want to speak to him for his obituary, I assured Ms. Snodgrass. This would be an article that he might, if he held on, actually read.
Two days later she wrote back: “De says yes, he’d be happy for you to come interview him.”
So on a brisk fall morning, I again drove deep into central New York, now heading north from New York City on a trip that began in sunshine and a wildfire of foliage but soon, predictably, cooled and clouded over.
William DeWitt Snodgrass spent a half-century or more writing poetry, most of it vigorous and plain-spoken. In the 1960s, the poet and critic Gavin Ewart was unequivocal in calling him “one of the six best American poets today.” (“Who the other five are would be arguable,” Ewart added.) Some critics placed Snodgrass in the confessional school, which by his lights was a wrongheaded and too-easy label, as if his poems were nothing more than a coming clean about his transgressions. His verse was a one-man soul-baring operation — honest, sometimes piercingly frank, often wry and witty — that might uncover universal truths along the way.
He could mock himself (“Your name’s absurd,” he wrote in an early poem); proclaim his presence (“Snodgrass is walking through the universe”); and mine his anguish, as he did in “Heart’s Needle,” probably his best-known poem, about the loss of a child through divorce. He wrote:
Winter again and it is snowing;
Although you are still three,
You are already growing
Strange to me.
His was an inward-turning art that appealed to a generation younger than his — one torn between communitarian ideals and a self-involved thirst for emotional and professional fulfillment.
He published more than 30 books of poetry, criticism and translations. He taught generations of young writers and read his work in public often and avidly with a theatrical flair, a product of his formal voice training as a younger man and an ear for music he said he had been born with. He won a fair share of acclaim, most notably in the form of the Pulitzer in 1960, for the volume “Heart’s Needle.” His friend and mentor Robert Lowell found inspiration in that collection, Snodgrass would recall proudly.
I found him in a spare room at the top of a narrow staircase sitting up in bed, a tube in his nose. I pulled up a chair, and so did Ms. Snodgrass.
The poet did not remember our interview from 32 years earlier, and when I heard this I blinked a couple of times and looked down at my notebook, humbled. I suppose we delude ourselves to think that whatever impression we leave with others will be lasting.
Despite his illness, Snodgrass was in fine spirits, and for the next hour or more he talked to me again about his poetry and life: the failed ambitions to be a musician, a timpanist; his war experience in the Navy in the Pacific; his joining a writing workshop at the University of Iowa, switching from playwriting to poetry and finding himself learning from the likes of Lowell, John Crowe Ransom, Karl Shapiro and John Berryman; the suicide of a young friend with whom he had exchanged poems in the mail and then discussed them over the phone.
He told of growing up in Beaver Falls, Pa., where he played the violin well and tennis badly. He spoke of his conflicted feelings about his parents: the obstinate mother he blamed for his sister’s death from asthma at 24, the competitive father, an accountant, who believed that his son’s winning the Pulitzer “unhinged his position” of authority in the family, or so the son said.
But, as his wife had intimated, Snodgrass would not speak of illness or death. (“Everybody has said everything that can be said about it,” he declared.) Nor would he discuss more vaporous matters like the source of his creative impulse. “That’s a critic’s question,” he would say.
Still, I had enough material and drove away with every intention of writing about him and our meeting again after so many years.
We all know about good intentions. Soon came a pileup of holidays, end-of-year workplace responsibilities and my own habits of procrastination, and it was January before I started.
Then, on the morning of Jan. 14, I logged on to my computer to find an item by The Associated Press. W.D. Snodgrass, it said, had “died at his upstate New York home after a four-month battle with inoperable lung cancer.”
I let loose an expletive and sagged in my chair. I who had been taught on the job about the unpredictability of death had not learned my lessons well enough. Whatever I might write now he would never read. Still, I couldn’t let it end there. I contacted Ms. Snodgrass, expressed my condolences and assured her that, yes, we would publish an obituary.
I had edited obituaries for several years but had never assigned myself to write one; we have an able staff of reporters. But it was clear to me that I would have to write it – not because I knew the material, which I fairly did, but because I felt compelled to finish what I had begun that fall morning as I’d headed back into central New York to knock once again on the poet’s door.
I’m not entirely sure what lesson to draw from this. Writing the obit and seeing it published oddly put me in a mournful mood, one I had never felt in a job that demands detachment. I suppose that with Snodgrass’s death, I was forced to acknowledge what else had passed away, my youth. But I also felt a quiet satisfaction. On a country road I had retraced some steps, and a path taken long ago had somehow, fittingly, come full circle.

Isabella Rossellini, David Attenborough, Jean-Claude Carrière,






Isabella Rossellini: Shrimp foreplay and anchovy orgies

(Jody Shapiro)
(Jody Shapiro)
The Italian model and actor brings her Green Porno web series to the stage with a one-woman show.
David Attenborough has an unexpected rival: Isabella Rossellini is bringing her Green Porno short films to the stage.
Commissioned by the Sundance Channel in 2008, the 40-part web series features the star of Blue Velvet and Wild at Heart dressed as creatures including an earthworm, a squid and a spider to explain the mating rituals of the animal kingdom.
Rossellini is embarking on a global tour with a one-woman show adapted by French screenwriter Jean-Claude Carrière, who collaborated with Luis Buñuel on films like Belle de Jour and The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie. The octogenarian helped Rossellini turn her animal sex videos into a theatrical take on a scientific lecture with fluorescent costumes and paper puppets.
From the masturbation of dolphins and the wild orgies of anchovies to snail sadomasochism and shrimp foreplay, Rossellini showcases her knowledge of natural history; the actor enrolled in a degree in animal studies at New York University five years ago.
After a successful run in New York, Green Porno is travelling to Londonand Adelaide in February and March.

2014年1月30日 星期四

張超英,張秀哲,張寬敏,陳柔縉



花王的臉 偷偷在改變

  
花王在台灣已是老牌子,在她的出生地日本,更老。花王現在有洗衣精、洗髮精、洗面乳,產品琳瑯滿目,1890年面世當時,花王只是一塊「石鹼」的商品名。
「石鹼」即日文的香皂。19世紀下半葉,日本已經有很多歐美舶來的石鹼。一位叫長瀨富郎的24歲年輕人,1887年在東京開了「長瀨商店」,專賣一些「洋小間物」,像是洋菸、火柴、皮鞋、洋傘、帽子、咖啡和洋酒等等,其中石鹼最孚人氣,美國的「蜂印」化妝用石鹼更是大牌子。
很快,長瀨老闆不想只當個賣外國香皂的商人,他聘請一位藥劑師協助,跨足石鹼製造業。有了產品,接下來就要取個響亮的名字。當時稱洗臉用的香皂「顏の石鹼」,長瀨老闆靈光一閃,想取名「香王」,發音和「顏」一樣,都念「ka-o」。長瀨富郎很慎重請來精通漢詩的書道家永坂石埭一起商量,永坂先生建議「華王」,讀音和香王相同。一經激盪,華跟花兩字相通,長瀨富郎隨之提議「花王」,兩人終於意見一致。
老牌都有個讓人難忘的商標圖案,森永有天使,仁丹有翹鬍子元帥,花王則是有個半月臉,也來自長瀨富郎的發想。他進口一款鉛筆,商標是星月,因此得到靈感。不過,百年的花王半月臉易容多次,早期濃眉老成,新近大眼俏麗。最早的半月臉還會吹氣,吐出「花王石鹼」四個字,伴有星星,長瀨認為如此設計有高品質的感覺。

作文比賽轟動全台

日本時代一開啟,花王跟著就來台灣了。本來由一家台北站前的化妝品代理商「大崎公司」經銷,到三○年後期,花王在現今台北西門町設「出張所」(類似辦事處),1940年更設立「台灣花王株式會社」,之後改造台中沙鹿的一座糖廠,生產香皂和食用油,大概有300位左右的台灣籍員工。
早期花王和台灣更可愛的因緣還有1937年的有獎作文比賽。花王送出大獎,要請6位小朋友同遊日本半個月,結果,吸引了全島小學生投出5500多篇稿子。最終得獎名單出爐,其中有兩個台灣小孩,一位是新竹竹北六家公學校(今六家國小)的郭清棟,另一位是台南市媽祖宮公學校(今安南區海東國小)的林文穎。
掐指推算,郭清棟和林文穎現在頂多也是88歲,或許還可以找出他們,跟大家說說當年從大阪玩到名古屋、東京,再轉回京都、奈良,那趟花王帶給他們驚喜的旅程。 
編按:商標圖取自花王官網
《老牌子到台灣 陳柔縉》 http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/forum/20140130/35612051/%





張超英
張超英口述 陳柔缙執筆《宮前町九十番地》台北:時報出版,2006
張英超不提他在日本出版的著作,或許是自謙,或許是因為主題是介紹台灣之文化與社會習俗的,回到台灣,似乎是多餘的。其實不然,譬如說,龍山寺為什麼佛道雜收呢?他在日文書解釋:當時統治的日本,將民間道教定為非法的邪教,必須清除之,所以龍山寺收容之…….。這其實不是本文的要點。
我很佩服的是,以作者的家世,竟然能當完三十幾年的公務員,兩度退休;姑且不談諸如他59歲去學開飛機之壯志。這本書,貫穿著如何對台灣的前途有好處的苦心,它也給我們一台灣家族的關係簡圖,執筆者陳柔缙,很擅長此道,所以政治大學的台灣企業家族研究小組,都必須向她請教,請她去交流。


宮前町九十番地 台湾をもっと知ってほしい日本の友へ / 張超英 陳柔縉

 ------

書名 「勿忘臺灣」落花夢
作者 張秀哲
編者 陳柔縉審定
出版社 衛城出版
出版日期 2013-02-27

  一個不肯受到殖民政權綑綁的臺灣知識份子
為尋求臺灣自主之路而漂浪的人生

來自一九四七年的聲音,二二八紀念出版!
張炎憲、李筱峰、曹長青 專文推薦

日治時期
●他曾豪氣以一圓日幣把中山北路豪宅租給中國當駐臺領事館
●他曾經與蔣渭水聯手阻止日本在臺灣開放買賣鴉片政策
●魯迅幫他翻譯的《國際勞働問題》寫序
●蔣渭水、杜聰明是他的結婚介紹人
●革命同志張深切說他,長得就像托洛茨基,如果除掉了少爺脾氣,便是一個好革命家

一九四七年二二八事件後,對於十幾歲的張超英來說,父親張秀哲從此成為沉默的存在,他滿臉鬍子地被家族從警總營救出來後,從此封閉在自己的書房。一九四七年八月這本《「勿忘臺灣」落花夢》出版了,但很快又因故收回煙滅。此後的父親成為一個活死人,餘生抑鬱以終。
只有在《「勿忘臺灣」落花夢》裡,張秀哲是一個不同的父親,是個活躍的革命家。這本書裡,他如夢一樣地回憶了自己在一九二○、三○年代的年輕歲 月,以熱情與豪氣在中國宣傳臺灣解放,反對殖民統治,即使入獄也未曾後悔。他交遊廣闊,在廣州組織「臺灣革命青年團」,與魯迅、郭沫若、戴季陶、甘乃光往 來,自費印行小冊《勿忘臺灣》與雜誌《臺灣先鋒》,革命是他的事業。
《「勿忘臺灣」落花夢》重新出版,彷彿是皆已離世的父子兩人,透過出版繼續在時空對話,其中更有許多珍貴的一手文獻,可以窺見當時日治時期臺灣知 識份子的心靈世界,以及對日本、中國的觀察。張秀哲自己在書中緒言提道,這本書是「臺灣解放運動的一頁史實速寫」,「在已往數十年來,是不能在臺灣自由公 開赤裸裸的寫出來!況且先前在帝國主義者蠻行統治的時代,極端壓制之下,都是沒有機會公開發表的,而同志們都星散了,也沒人肯用功寫出來的。」如今,就是 它再度現身的時刻,也是張超英心中真正父親的復活。



我 的好友張寬敏醫師曾提供「勿忘臺灣落花夢」珍藏舊本,重新製版再刊發行,除讓張秀哲半生念茲在茲救台愛國精神不至灰滅,且與身為人子的被其家教過之張超 英,因此可以減輕遺憾 ,為台灣留下至為寶貴的見證...張寬敏醫師不幸於日前高齡辭世,訂今(25)日上午10點在台北市首座天主教堂,台北市民生西路245號天主堂(聖母無 原罪主教座堂),舉行追思出殯儀式,回顧他生前常常公開慨歎「台灣人迄今還是奴隸」,如今斯人安息主懷,還是希望在天之靈能庇佑台灣故土~

2014年1月29日 星期三

台灣的新佛教徒Meeting Taiwan's new-age Buddhists By Cindy Sui

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-25772194


Meeting Taiwan's new-age Buddhists


Volunteers serve food at a Tzu Chi event on 18 January 2014Taiwan's Buddhist organisations are increasingly looking to help out those in need
Sorting through a large pile of used clothes and household items, Hsiao Hsiu-chu is the picture of a new-age Buddhist.
The 63-year-old retiree used to practice her religion by praying at temples, but now she volunteers seven days a week at a recycling centre to raise funds for Taiwan's Buddhist association Tzu Chi.
"I have no time to go to temples. Praying is not important. Coming here every day is like praying," said Ms Hsiao.
This is not how most people practice Buddhism in Chinese-speaking or even non-Chinese Buddhist societies. Their faith is usually self-focused: praying for protection in their current life and to be born into a better life after they die.
But Taiwan is leading a quiet, yet powerful movement that has turned traditional Buddhism on its head, converting many Buddhists such as Ms Hsiao into doers, not just believers.
Hsiao Hsiu-chuFor Hsiao Hsiu-chu, Buddhism means taking action rather than praying
Burning paper money and incense is discouraged - it's bad for the environment. Going to temples is low priority. Even praying too much is frowned upon.
The focus now is on what the Taiwanese call "humanistic Buddhism" - caring for others and for society. It returns Buddhists to the core principles of Buddhism - speaking good words, thinking good thoughts and doing good deeds.
"According to Buddhism, it's not enough to have benefits for oneself only, you must also have benefits for others. We should try to help as many people as we can to be relieved of suffering," said Head Abbot Hsin Bao of another major Taiwanese Buddhist association, Fo Guang Shan.
The practice has helped Taiwan's leading Buddhist organisations expand in unprecedented ways.
Statues of the Buddha at the Fo Guang Shan temple in southern TaiwanThere are thought to be between half and one billion Buddhists around the world
Tzu Chi Foundation - which is at the vanguard of the movement - has seven million followers, including two million overseas.
Its 100,000 volunteers in Taiwan are seen everywhere in their trademark blue shirts and white trousers. They recycle plastic bottles to raise charity funds, check on elderly people living alone, provide support to poor and at-risk families, tutor children and help respond to natural disasters.
Another influential Taiwanese Buddhist group, Dharma Drum Mountain, regularly holds "Buddhism 101" classes to teach people how to apply the philosophy to their lives.
In one recent class for about 200 people, a psychologist used Buddhism's teachings to advise students on how to recognise and work on their own negative emotions, and how to deal with troubled family relations.
"Buddhism's teachings can be used everyday and where's the best place to use them? In your family," Yang Pei told the class.
Fo Guang Shan, meanwhile, holds youth camps for children.
"These organisations are very different from traditional Buddhism," said Kuo Cheng-tian, a professor at National Chengchi University. "They emphasise lay believers running temples and Buddhist organisations, not just monks. And they use ordinary believers to lead charity missions."

Buddha statue at the Fo Guang Shan temple in KaohsiungAnnual cleaning is a big event at the Fo Guang Shan temple in Kaohsiung, in southern Taiwan.
1/5
It is unclear how many Buddhists there are in the world. Buddhism is not an institutionalised religion and many Buddhists also believe in other faiths. But some estimates suggest there are half a billion to one billion Buddhists globally, making it the world's fourth largest religion.
What makes Taiwanese Buddhism unique is its strong emphasis on helping society. Tzu Chi, for example, has provided post-disaster relief in more than 84 countries, including in the Philippines, where it recently paid 50,000 households to rebuild homes destroyed by Typhoon Haiyan.

Buddhism in China

With growing pressure in their rapidly changing society, people in China are increasingly turning to Buddhism. But while a lot of money has been poured into rebuilding temples destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, and the temples have collected a vast amount in entrance fees or donations, they don't have the practice of giving back to society, said Fu Xinyi, a Nanjing University academic who specialises in Buddhism.
"They build temples for tourism, for money, but they don't know how to spread Buddhism's ideology," Mr Fu said. "This is regrettable. Society has so many problems, Buddhism should play its role in helping people and giving them spiritual guidance."
Mainland China can learn from Taiwan, he said, but the government's suspicion of religions will limit Taiwanese Buddhists' ability to spread humanistic Buddhism there.
"They can spread the ideology, but the actions can't be as big as in Taiwan because the government will feel threatened," Mr Fu said.
Still, China's people and even leaders are becoming more familiar with Taiwan's Buddhism.
Tzu Chi is the first foreign non-governmental religious organisation to be allowed to set up a branch in China. Chinese President Xi Jinping also recently met with Fo Guang Shan's Master Hsing Yun, who is popular in the mainland.
Chinese leaders may be realizing Buddhism can be a stabilising force in society.
And although Buddhist groups have traditionally been less active, compared to Christian counterparts, in spreading their religion, that is changing.
Taiwan's major Buddhist associations have their own TV channels, publishing houses, and news agencies, as well as hospitals and universities. They send volunteers to schools to teach children about good behaviour, through storytelling.
But they say they are not trying to convert non-believers.
"We see no need for you to be converted; we're not aiming to proselytise," said Chien Tung-yuan, a Tzu Chi spokesman. "From the beginning, Shakyamuni (Buddha) taught people to help those who are suffering, without conditions, and not to want anything in return."
Changing the way Buddhism is practiced has not only led to a revival of the religion in Taiwan, but its expansion overseas.
Fo Guang Shan, for example, has 200 temples worldwide, including 20 in Europe and 24 in the US, not just for overseas Taiwanese but local people.
Dharma Drum Mountain, meanwhile, has 125 chapters worldwide, while Tzu Chi boasts many branches in 48 countries. In Malaysia, its members jumped from 100,000 to one million last year.
"We want to use Taiwan as a base to spread Buddhism to mainland China and the rest of the world," said Fo Guang Shan's Head Abbot Hsin Bao.
A mass wedding at Dharma Drum Mountain in northern TaiwanA mass Buddhist wedding in northern Taiwan: Part of a trend to make the religion an integral part of daily life
Taiwan is also helping mainland China rediscover the religion. Although Buddhism has nearly 2,000 years of history in China, it had diminished in importance in recent centuries because of wars, political turmoil and suppression, and a focus on modernisation.
Millions of Chinese listen to Taiwanese masters' teachings on DVDs or MP3s. They download material from websites and spread them online.
With improved relations between the two sides in recent years, many Chinese Buddhists leaders and adherents are now able to travel freely to Taiwan. Taiwan's Buddhists also can more easily spread their message in the mainland, even if it is in low-key ways such as repairing a temple or promoting "reading clubs" - similar to Bible study.
A volunteer cuts a man's hair at a Tzu Chi event on 18 January 2014Affluence means Taiwanese Buddhists have more time to help out, like at this hair-cutting session
Scholars believe Taiwan is playing a key role because many charismatic Buddhist leaders fled to the island after the Communists took over the mainland in 1949. Influenced by the respected late Buddhist leader Taixu's calls for contributing to society to gain enlightenment, the masters and their disciples made the idea a reality.
Taiwan's groups were also influenced by Christianity, adopting practices such as doing charity work.
At the same time, growing wealth here meant Taiwan's middle class, especially elderly people, have more money and time to help others, as they seek meaning in life.
Back at the Taipei recycling centre, more bags of used clothes arrive for Ms Hsiao to sort.
She said putting Buddhism's teachings to practice has given her the strength to cope with her mother's sudden death and helped her improve relations with her children.
'It's opened the knot in my heart,' Ms Hsiao said. Her advice to other Buddhists: "Don't just believe in Buddhism, do something to help others."

徐旭東 (遠東集團) / eTag,榊原定徵 (東麗/ 經團連)

遠通在高速公路架設310閘道,實為4G、5G之未來領域鋪路!所以官股控掌的資策會負責人居然是由遠東集團的元智大學校長兼任(從政務委員轉任)

民報
財經圈人士笑稱,徐旭東「口無遮攔」應該跟生意做得太順有關!去年為了SOGO經營權之爭,公司要求遠紡、遠銀等集團員工近萬人每天中午放棄午休,走到經濟部門口大聲抗議,幫老闆顧權益,但集團尾牙時卻只換來徐旭東「加碼」10萬元的SOGO禮券當獎品?
眾員工哀聲嘆氣、小小抱怨,沒想到徐董的親信聽了竟狠狠地撂下一句:「不喜歡可以不要領!」口氣與徐董如出一轍,小員工們最後也只好默默接受…。徐董還有哪些「嘉言錄」?詳情請上<民報>
http://www.peoplenews.tw/news/29b710eb-cd1b-4fe1-9986-80d22c86752c
http://www.peoplenews.tw/news/c4a8fdc8-0727-4eb1-b016-dee4593f7baa

日本經濟界新領袖享受中韓VIP待遇

2014/01/16
 
       日本東麗公司會長榊原定徵將就任日本經濟界最大團體「日本經濟團體連合會」(簡稱:經團連)的下任會長。榊原將在6月份的大會上接過現任會長住友化學會長 米倉弘昌的接力棒。日本最具實力的經濟團體的會長連續2任都來自材料行業。由於被視為最有力候選人的人才請辭,曾擔任經團連副會長的榊原被破例召回。有聲 音擔心榊原作為經濟界人士知名度低、東麗的業務規模小,但是如果觀察榊原和東麗的背景會發現,榊原擁有解決如今經團連2大管道堵塞問題的潛能。

  談判達人

      第一個問題是經團連與現任政權的管道堵塞。不僅現任會長米倉,從上任會長御手洗富士夫(佳能會長兼社長)時代開始,經團連會長就很難與執政黨的首相碰面。 經團連迫切希望實現政經的關係緊密化。榊原擔任日本政府産業競爭力會議的民間議員,在産業競爭力會議上積極主張「應該增加科學技術振興費」。據悉在政府內 部,稱其為雄辯家的評價迅速傳播。

日本東麗公司會長榊原定徵
      從外部來看,榊原因將先進材料碳素纖維培育成東麗的主打業務而廣為熟知,被評價為精通技術研發。但是,榊原真正的本事並不在於此。在公司內部,很多人會列 舉榊原在美國等國實施併購以及1990年代泡沫崩潰後,其作為經營企劃負責人實施重組的「戰績」。一位東麗老人説:「榊原是一位時而曉之以理、時而動之以情的談判專家。如果期待加強與政府的意見溝通,那麼榊原再適合不過了」。

      其二是因釣魚台(中國名:釣魚島)和歷史問題而出現堵塞的日本與中韓兩國的管道。如果真的能夠實現「政經分離」還好,但是受日本首相安倍晉三參拜靖國神社影響,日本與中韓政治層面的緊張關係已經對企業活動産生了消極影響。

      即使當前在安倍經濟學的帶動下,日本迎來了經濟復甦的東風,但是從中長期來看,受人口減少和少子老齡化所帶來的勞動力減少等問題影響,日本的內需難以擴 大。擴大海外業務,尤其是擴大亞洲的業務成為日本企業的共同課題。經團連需要做的是進一步激活民間經濟交流,至少要使民間經濟交流恢復到「政冷經熱」的狀 態。

     榊原的父親是一位潛艇艇長,在太平洋戰爭中戰亡。榊原可以向安倍晉三以及中韓經濟界人士講述其作為戰歿者家屬的痛苦記憶。

      另外,東麗是踐行「政冷經熱」的少數企業的代表。東麗常年在中韓開展纖維、面向電子設備的薄膜以及功能性樹脂等業務。榊原不顧政治關係緊張,積極擴大業務,不僅去年9月決定在韓國斥資約400億日元收購水處理膜企業,還于去年12月在中國四川舉行了樹脂化合物新工廠的開業慶典。據相關人士透露,當地非但 沒有受到反日情緒高漲的影響,反而歡迎東麗。

獲得韓國政府頒發的産業勳章


2010年4月23日,韓國政府高官在首爾授予榊原(右)産業勳章
      雖然擁有歷時40多年培育的信賴關係和品牌實力作為基礎,但是中韓不斷向東麗暗送秋波的最大原因在於其卓越的技術實力。例如,東麗的逆滲透膜(RO膜)的 海水淡化技術水平全球最高。膜的表面佈滿直徑以納米為單位的小孔,過濾海水時,鹽分和雜質無法通過,而淡水則可以通過。除了用於生産飲料用水和工業用水外,還可以用於去除污水和工業排水的有害物質。水污染問題嚴重的中國地方城市紛紛積極邀請東麗在當地建廠。

      在韓國,榊原享受著VIP的待遇。東麗積極在韓國開展技術交流和業務受到好評, 2010年4月,時任東麗社長的榊原獲得了韓國政府授予的「産業勳章」,而且是金銀銅鐵石5個等級中的「金塔」,為最高等級的商界人士勳章。

      榊原如何有效利用自身與東麗的背景?由來自不同行業的企業組成的經團連有時內部利害關係會出現對立,見解會與政府産生分歧。因此,如果使用方法不當,有時候長處也會變成短處。

   本文作者為日本經濟新聞(中文版:日經中文網)電子報導部 石塚史人
 *****

在80-90年代初, IBM還是超級公司的時候,我就注意到徐旭東是台灣IBM公司的董事.....
從經營事業的角度看,徐旭東很優秀,寶刀未老。商,政,教一把抓。兩岸通吃。
在政商方面,他是遠東集團等二百多家公司頭頭,又可能是地下經濟--交通部長的幕後大金主。

現在讓他當上"儲蓄徐"的遠通,是過去幾家要吃交通部高速公路金飯碗的公司之倖存公司。它剛開始的時候,有點出師不利。不過,它是最後的贏家。
他深懂得交通部和經濟部等等,只不過是要政績卻沒能力的空殼子單位。不過它們是公共資產的金山。
*****

風評:那些年,他們一起搞過的弊案

主筆室 2014年01月26日 11:58


抗議etag,千人聚凱道。(余志偉攝)
就在交通部焦頭爛額規畫春節疏運計畫之際,千人齊聚凱道,要求「eTag收歸國有」。所謂「冤有頭債有主」,回溯國道電子收費爭議史,這股怨氣衝著政府之外,別忘了讓電子收費系統交由民辦的還是立法院。

國道電子收費計畫早自前總統李登輝執政時期,因為牽涉上千億商機,規畫伊始,各方利益團體即透過朝野立委遊說施壓,最早在立法院領銜提案要求將系統交由BOT民辦的是後來從國民黨跳巢民進黨的陳明文,42位共同連署的立委橫跨朝野。

不過,這個提案在當年可是「進步觀念」,政治開放百業鬆綁,公營事業要釋股轉民營,最典型的例子就是因此引爆一波金控併購潮,後續引發的扁家弊案則在意想之外;公共建設要釋放民間投資BOT,台灣高鐵因運而生。

不過,交通部一直由中華電信研發測試,直到政黨輪替之後的2002年,交通部招標箭在弦上,利益團體遊說力道加大,朝野立委在國會大打紅外線與微波 兩個系統的代理人戰爭,還彼此互控介入弊案,不過,不論是紅外線派或微波派,共同目標就是先阻絕中華電信公家承攬的機會,果然,立法院一紙決議,電子收費 就從公辦轉而為民營。

當年,曾有交通部官員直言,這個決定和方向從沒在他們的計畫和研究之內,完全是「從上到下」交代的。2005年ETC上路前果然爆發弊案,官司打了 六年,前交通部長林陵三機要宋乃午判刑11年定讞,行賄的業界白手套早就落跑海外,再無其他官員捲入,而所有傳言中可能牽連在內的朝野立委全部安全下莊, 甚至繼續當名嘴大談「那些年我們一起玩過的弊案」。

遠通以相對落後的紅外線系統得標後,姿態立刻轉高,扁政府時期價格高昂的OBU裝機率低,徐旭東說法是:「嫌貴,就不要裝嘛!」政府要開罰,他就仗著政府沒有出資一毛錢,「這是做公益事業。」ETC上路九年,最終還是要靠微波系統補救。

然而,這九年來既罰不到遠通,更逮不到更大的弊案,因收受美金茶葉罐的前交通部長郭瑤琪當年就想和遠通解約,由政府收回接管,最後是副院長蔡英文和 政務委員林錫耀(時任行政院長蘇貞昌的親信左右手)連袂疏通,理由是避免政府要付出巨額賠償金,最後與立法院達成的共識是:若有行賄弊案,政府就接管。待 宋乃午判刑定讞,扁政府已經下台三年了。

然而,這個爛攤子,馬政府顯然也沒太多能力處理。

全文網址: 風評:那些年,他們一起搞過的弊案-風傳媒





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惹人嫌的官員不少,但惹人厭的企業家不多,徐旭東是其中之一。
罵徐旭東的人來自四面八方。一般民眾用戶罵翻了天,有不少人被重複扣款或幽靈扣款。越來越多人退出,但退租手續很不方便,民怨沖天。徐老闆滿臉橫肉地說:「喜歡退就退吧!」還說:「生下來就是做公益,大家要同情我。」用戶問:大家同情你,誰來同情我們?

政府公權力不彰

立院不分藍綠罵成一團。有的說徐財閥態度醜陋;有的說得了便宜還賣乖;有的說:同情徐,誰來同情用路人和失業收費員?有人指出,國道計程收費講了2年,為什麼沒做好測試?高公局為何沒有妥善監督?交通部長也被質疑沒盡到責任。
網路名人朱學恒諷刺徐老闆:「徐旭東太霸道,乾脆把國道改名為徐旭東紀念公路算了。」並質疑eTag為何只能在遠傳門市申辦?龐大金流為何只能經 過遠東銀行?消基會董事長點出消費者不滿並非eTag出包,而是那「不然要怎樣」的傲慢態度,還擺出一副「財團吃定政府」的嘴臉。
此案關鍵在於政府公權力的闇弱無能及商人的傲慢馬虎態度,把一件很容易的小事,鬧成擾民大案。有高速公路的國家沒聽說過會這樣,真是貽笑國際了。


 *****2009.2.8

......儘管近兩年SOGO案影響了情緒與對外形象,這位主持220多家企業的集團董事長,擴張集團版圖的動作,卻像鴨子划水,不受外界紛擾,從來沒停過。
眾所矚目的SOGO天母店、三鐵共構的板橋遠東百貨,明年將一一開幕。而先替這些喜事暖場的,是遠傳電信將在明年春節前夕贊助太陽劇團,藉機努力提升手機 用戶數。亞泥在大陸今年也增加了兩條生產線,未來兩年將以「一年多兩條」的增速,在江西、湖北、四川陸續開新窯,至2010年的水泥年產量,預計將達到 2000萬噸。
遠東是台灣最老牌的民營上市集團、擁有最多九家上市公司,集團內第一家上市公司亞泥,股票掛牌的時間,甚至比產業龍頭台塑還早。
與上下游垂直整合的台塑集團相比,遠東集團事業遍及百貨、紡織、水泥、化纖、航運、電信、金融,比較偏向多元化水平整合,兩者大異其趣。也因此一張快樂購(HAPPY GO)卡,可以從遠百、SOGO、愛買集點集到遠企、遠東商銀和遠傳。
管理作風開明 充分授權
出生於上海的徐旭東,15歲就到美國接受教育,擁有美國聖母大學企管碩士學位及哥倫比亞大學經濟碩士學位,個性洋派,英文比中文還要好。受 西式教育的他,興趣廣泛,熱愛運動,早年玩橄欖球、拳擊,現在以跑步為主,拜運動所賜,至今67歲了,身邊老臣透露,「他還沒有老花眼,白頭髮也很少,」 令人覺得神奇。
他還喜歡下廚、閱讀和收藏藝術品。踏進遠企38樓,抽象畫、水墨畫、現代雕塑外,還有飛機模型和超人塑像,甚至還有一個小玻璃櫃整齊排列著7.62公厘步槍的子彈。
不過,在徐旭東眾多興趣當中,最特別的一項是「開公司」,到目前為止,遠東集團內大大小小的子公司、孫公司,將近220多家。
管理這麼多的企業,徐旭東首度公開他的管理風格,是採用「Y理論」
1960年,麻省理工學院教授麥格里哥(Douglas Mcgregor)提出兩種截然不同的管理方式,X理論和Y理論。採用X理論的管理者,對人性抱持悲觀,認為員工不喜愛工作,必須運用強迫、威脅、處罰等手段才能達成組織目標。
而奉行Y理論的管理者則假設員工能夠承擔責任,而且組織中有能力的人很多,應激發員工的創造力。授權對這類管理者來說,像喝水呼吸一樣自然。
以身作則公私分明 待人寬厚
徐旭東對員工向來寬厚。遠傳一位主管便說:「你從來沒聽過遠東集團大量裁員或減薪。」集團內員工總是津津樂道,今年67歲的徐旭東,總是對高齡85歲,遠東最出名的老臣、亞泥總經理張才雄說:「你才38歲。」
「而且他記得集團內各公司每一位高階主管的名字,」亞泥財務長吳玲綾說。
就在受訪的前一星期,徐旭東在三天之內飛了中國六個城市,足跡遍布上海、重慶、成都、大連、天津、北京。舟車勞頓的主要目的是「勞軍」,太平洋百貨正在大陸這些城市卯足了勁做周年慶,戰情正在緊要的當口,「我去幫他們打打氣,」徐旭東以再平常不過的口吻說。
不過徐旭東可是個工作狂。很多遠東人也都知道,若有緊急事件,只要徐旭東沒出國,晚上8點還能在遠企38樓的辦公室找得到大老闆,星期六也一樣。
「他不是事必躬親,而是以身作則,」遠東百貨的一位貼身幕僚說。
外表洋派,骨子裡「很中國」的徐旭東,除了勤勞,公私分明也是他比較不為人知之處。即使是在自家經營的遠東飯店喝杯咖啡,也是當場自己掏腰包付帳。
身兼台灣百貨大亨、化纖龍頭、散裝船運第一大,徐旭東在訪談中快人快語,談到集團發展、百貨整合和競爭優勢,難得透露了些許接班訊息,展現霸業大志。以下是專訪摘要:
客戶群大 綜效發揮大
《遠見》問(以下簡稱問):你如何管理產業多元化集團?
徐旭東答(以下簡稱答):我們有九家上市公司,每一個都是單獨的特殊商業體。所謂的關係企業,是因為亞泥、遠紡是最早的公司,衍伸出後面的220幾家公司。實際上,每個公司獨立,有自己的結構,集團設個總管理處來稽核。你說複雜,也是複雜,你說簡單,也很簡單。
但是行業不同,腦筋要區分清楚,不然在跟百貨公司開會時,你講化纖的事情,就很奇怪。
問:集團裡的企業這麼多,是否發揮了綜效?
答:有,尤其是零售企業的綜效是最大的。百貨系統有遠百、太百和愛買,行動電話有遠傳,再加上旅館、醫院、銀行和證券,這些都是以顧客為主,所以我們的客戶群很大,跨的行業很多,其中發揮綜效最好的例子是HAPPY GO集點卡。當然,一個集團的綜效是走不完的。
問:這個模式會用在大陸嗎?
答:當然。遠東投資中國有30到40億美元,14家百貨公司,化纖廠應該排中國第二名,水泥廠年產2000萬噸,其他不少企業則還沒允許登陸呢。
【文/邱莉燕、林美姿】
百貨》國際化、在地化並進
問:遠東有三個百貨系統,各自的期許為何?未來三者是否有整合的機會?
答:三者整合的話,有好的一面,也有不一定好的一面,因為每個區域有時候客群不太一樣,同時有兩個牌子的百貨也不差,量販店倒是沒影響。
我們的百貨是不是要全部都叫同一個名字?這也是我這段時期一直極力腦力激盪的地方。若三個百貨都叫同一個牌子,我們在兩岸立刻就有43個據點。
問:太平洋百貨在大陸的競爭優勢為何?
答:第一,很多人以為有塊好地皮,就能開百貨,是情緒化的想法。每個行業有本身的知識,要累積,當然,我們在百貨上有很多年的經驗;第二,我們滿國際化的,應該在很多地方都能適應。我們將來在管理上會更進一步,更進兩步,更進三步,譬如科技化的聯合採購。
大陸百貨競爭激烈,同一條街有好幾家,已經走到一個新的境界,要靠格調,進入專業管理。
問:怎麼看中國百貨業發展?
答:中國的百貨是不是只有一種經營模式?還是可以有不同的模式,來反應各省市的需求?
就像現在,太平洋百貨在上海,是15年前蓋的,現在尺寸已經不合了,要走更大面積的模式,但要走哪一個呢?
上海正大廣場剛剛開幕時,是非常好的規劃設計,現在的客流量大,但吃東西的人多,買東西少,真正的購買量不大。然後,恆隆廣場是好看,卻不叫座。所以,反而是太平洋百貨不錯,只是太小了。
問:可否談談太平洋百貨未來在大陸的計畫?
答:希望一年開一間新的百貨公司。但是前陣子找店很難,因為地價很高。
化纖》合併以因應金融海嘯
問:化纖事業在大陸發展如何?
答:年產量160萬噸,產品種類跟著市場走,成長到上游,並延伸下游,做汽車輪胎、功能性衣服,最主要的是一貫化作業,有其方便之處。
我們替NIKE代工運動服,而且不是單單做衣服,還研究到兩年後的絲會是什麼樣子,我們已經有能力考量到這麼多。
問:金融海嘯對你的化纖事業有無影響?
答:中國大陸化纖的產量占全世界的一半,甚至超過一半,真是不得了。
當然,中國每年出口都成長,現在開始可能沒那麼順了,那就變成更要增加內需,要調節。最重要的是,多餘的產量怎麼辦呢?產業可能會合併,或是淘汰一些。
水泥》沒漲價 實現社會責任
問:要不要談談你的水泥業?
答:以前,大陸中央要我們去華中蓋水泥廠,就先去了江西九江,去的時候,別人認為我腦袋不對。有一點是去幫助開發江西,剛開始時滿辛苦,我們還好有航運,不然今天也不見了。
亞泥後來延伸到成都、武漢,當然一直也在上海做加工,可說是從長江中游到下游。
水泥這個行業是大投資、大成本、大的建設,亞泥的產能規劃非常好,一年工作340天,別人一般是240天,而且講究品質。
成都的水泥廠,很幸運地沒受到四川大地震影響,其它的水泥廠產量都下來了。成都的水泥在短缺,現在我們要加第三套窯,市場前景不錯。
不過,不是每樣東西供需都會平衡,這個時候,我們也做了很多不錯的事,地震之後,我們的水泥沒漲價,我要漲價也可以,但我是為了社會責任。
明年中國政府有好多災後重建的規劃會出來,有些東西要重新設計規劃,明年才會動工。
紡織》追求高附加價值
問:遠紡的情況呢?
答:紡織業是很具挑戰的,我們正往高附加價值走,譬如西裝不易縐,就是附加價值,更厲害的是,我們現在可以生產因應冷熱而調節溫度的服裝。
中國一年生產8000萬錠,大約占全世界產量的55%,中國最近會有大大的調整。中國的紡織業也正往有設計感、個性化的方向去做。
問:中國國務院預計投入4兆人民幣,刺激內需,你怎麼看?
答:中國政府很偉大,管理系統很好,外銷不行就增加內需,要建九條鐵路、2萬2000公里的公路,這個就是有效領導。
問:可否談談你的管理風格?
答:當然是充分授權。如果你是真正念管理的人,會知道X理論和Y理論,我是Y理論,就是相信人性本善,激勵員工。
問:對於集團內的虧損企業,如何用Y理論管理?
答:我們沒有太多虧損的企業,有時候虧損,是因為景氣循環。虧損的企業,就要持續創新。今天,我們一個化纖企業開了五個小時的會,就是開創新會議。
誠勤樸慎 遠東人的精神
問:經營之神王永慶生前安排了「七人小組」來接班,遠東集團在這方面有什樣的計畫?
答:我也有很多的安排,但我還沒到那個年紀。
問:貴公子將來會在集團內幫忙嗎?
答:他正在念MBA。他本來是海軍陸戰隊,打了三年仗,參加過伊拉克戰爭。戰爭時,我當然擔心,但如果阻止他去參戰,他會一輩子恨我。
他曾經在辦公室做過兩年事,覺得不太舒服,後來去海軍陸戰隊,帶200多個兵。
他媽媽一直很怕會出事,因為美國的海軍陸戰隊,是領導走在最前面。這個就看你管理得好不好,管理得好,士兵會說長官你不能走前面。
我當然希望他回來幫忙,但強迫他也沒用。他應該會回來。
問:你認為遠東集團成功的原因是什麼?
答:誠勤樸慎,是遠東人的精神,遠東人的文化。正規經營,按部就班,不取巧。
問:為什麼11月11日當天要在各大報的頭版登那麼大篇的廣告?
答:因為這些名嘴亂講,我不得不登報澄清那些沒有的事情。我公司那麼多員工,他們會受影響,我要出來講講清楚。我沒送吳淑珍禮券,也沒從荷蘭銀行調錢,我要表達清楚。
【本文摘自遠見雜誌12月號,訂閱遠見雜誌電子版

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