2010年9月23日 星期四

/pablo-picasso

http://www.answers.com/topic/pablo-picasso
「我一生都在學習如何像兒童那樣的畫畫」、「每一個兒童都是藝術家,問題是長大成人後,如何繼續成為藝術家。」

2010年9月21日 星期二

王偉忠展節 (天下雜誌 456期 )

今天偶爾聽一位"達人"說
做不了李四端 也要做王偉忠
天下有這種事
天下此期正有他

http://www.cw.com.tw/article/index.jsp?page=4&id=41833

台灣稱王 偉忠幫 做媒體,求的是影響力

作者:馬岳琳  出處:天下雜誌 456期 2010/09

從綜藝節目到藝人經紀,搞劇場也賣眷村菜,娛樂奇才王偉忠心中最大的夢想,是建構起產業規模,把台灣文創推到「華人最高」的高度。

專輯精采重點:

Facebook討論》對於台灣的文創產業,你有什麼期待?請上天下Facebook與粉絲討論
最新》小S、黑人一句玩笑話,成就了「偉忠幫」?中國進行一場不公平的競爭!台灣只吃碎屑?更多精采文章請見第456期天下雜誌

「偉忠幫」三個字,其實是藝人大小S和黑人陳建州多年前的一句玩笑話,卻從此成了台灣教父級綜藝節目製作人王偉忠電視版圖的代名詞。

說是個幫,也的確像個幫。王偉忠二十六歲就名震江湖,成為當時最年輕的電視節目製作人,他創辦的金星娛樂公司,是台灣最大的娛樂製作與經紀公司,從 二十五年前的《連環泡》到時下最受全球華人歡迎的《康熙來了》、《全民最大黨》、《超級星光大道》等節目,台灣的觀眾在電視機前被逗得哈哈大笑,大陸的觀 眾從網路上看得直呼過癮,海外的留學生更是離不了這一帖來自家鄉的慰藉。

如果他的節目收視率和實際獲利絕對正比,如果在中國大陸廣大的山寨版影響力能換算成銀兩,他早就是幾架私人飛機的身價了。「收不到版權費沒關係,做媒體求的是影響力!」這位幫主豪氣不減。

最近,除了做節目、拍戲、推廣眷村文化,王偉忠多了一項身分,「文創一號」基金操盤手。

「到了年紀,要做不同的事,大趨勢拱著你往前走,浪來了,你要迎向前去,踏浪而行,」王偉忠口中的大趨勢、大浪潮,就是兩岸影視產業匯流下,台灣影視老將該如何領軍面對。

從前在台灣市場做節目,不需要靠大資金,靠的是自己腦袋瓜裡的創意,「但現在華人的大市場出來了,再加上中國大陸有一批天才在追趕,我們需要建構產 業規模,也需要資金投入和文創管理。」對王偉忠而言,台灣最好的位置是具有台灣特色的中華文化,在華人市場很有利基,「我們應該要把高度拉到華人世界最 高,這方面我們要守住,不能輕言就讓出,這是我們台灣製作人的『展節』(台語)。」

過去創意無邊、說了就幹的王偉忠,現在開始談研究、評估、產業鏈,他希望把自己和一票台灣天才的「江湖知識」,歸納後實踐,讓以後想做文創的年輕人有路可尋。因為天才可以放煙火,但人才才能串接起產業規模。


王偉忠對做文創有一個基本信念,「你的東西要先能感動自己,才有機會感動大陸人、全華人。」在台灣商業電視台激烈競爭、製作費愈來愈低的環境中,他 用創意突破、另類變主流。政治人物希望在他的《全民最大黨》中被模仿,亞洲大牌明星宣傳電影、電視劇、唱片時,絕對不能錯過《康熙來了》。

「跟偉忠哥一起工作,最重要的是事情有趣好玩,賺錢不是第一,他相信你把事情做好,該來的就會來,」曾是《全民大悶鍋》編導、現為《全民大劇團》團 長的謝念祖觀察,「王氏喜劇」要的是「情理之中,意料之外」,「王氏壓力」來自於資料正確、邏輯無誤。在下屬的眼裡,王偉忠是非常非常嚴格的領導者,所以 能為台灣演藝圈培養出許多非帥哥美女、卻能活躍於華文舞台的人才。

當夢想家遇到實踐者

王偉忠最重要的製作公司金星娛樂,大約有一百七十位員工,節目部一百五十人,經紀部二十人,他和副總經理詹仁雄,在殘酷的收視率競爭下,兩人總是鼓 勵旗下十幾個製作人,「不要怕失敗,大不了重新再做,」詹仁雄說,王偉忠是個能讓部屬安心、有夢想的老闆,「只要你有創意,他永遠挺你。」

進入金星娛樂經紀部六年,負責十二位經紀人、近四十位藝人的經紀部副總監郭子綺觀察,王偉忠是四年級生,具夢想家特質;詹仁雄五年級生,是實踐者、有成本概念,兩人從十四年前的《我猜我猜我猜猜猜》開始合作,互補性很強。

過去台灣綜藝節目實力稱霸華人世界,但二○○七年,當湖南衛視製作出《超級女聲》選秀節目席捲華人市場時,讓王偉忠開始思考該如何維持台灣綜藝節目競爭力的領先地位。當詹仁雄提出《超級星光大道》企劃案時,他立刻定調,這個節目必須為台灣演藝圈找出新一代生力軍。

《超級星光大道》特意把家庭因素放入節目中,因為大陸的家庭因素比較少,一胎化後年輕人沒有兄弟姐妹,親情的情趣沒有台灣濃厚。在節目中,觀眾看到的不只是年輕人唱歌,還有孩子成長的故事。

《星光》的成功,讓金星經紀部每天至少會接到二十封想成為藝人的自我推薦信,對表演有興趣的台灣年輕人愈來愈多。去年王偉忠又與資深藝人、創作者合 作,成立了明星藝能學園,希望能以專業領域的規劃,形成另一種明星打造機制。事實上,經過《星光》的訓練,許多唱片公司就直接與優秀的表演者簽約,為台灣 流行音樂培養出新一波人才。

跨足劇場 創「達人經紀」

在大陸,電視節目被官方嚴加看管,台灣的綜藝節目都是經由網路被傳播。除了正規管道,奉行play smart原則的王偉忠,去年還成立《全民大劇團》,要在小眾的劇場空間裡,打造另一個「台灣製造、華人世界演出」的小兵影響力。

《全民大劇團》的第一檔戲《瘋狂電視台》除了在台灣的四十場演出,因為有趣的情境狂戲也吸引了對岸,今年十二月起將開始在大陸巡演二十四場。事實上,這檔戲演滿二十場就可以達到收支平衡,商業操作能力在劇場界十分突出。

操作舞台劇的心得,來自於出身眷村的王偉忠和台灣劇場界大師賴聲川之前合作《寶島一村》,經過幾輪大陸巡演,許多大陸觀眾都想來台灣看看眷村這個特殊的文化地景與現象。甚至有大陸遊客來台灣還特別指明訂購「偉忠姐姐的眷村菜」醬料,約定在中正紀念堂牌樓下交貨。

《寶島一村》的成功,可看出王偉忠善於結合資源、創造價值的能力,也是台灣文創的優勢所在。「賴聲川是精緻文化,我是通俗文化,他是把好的倚天劍,我是把好的菜刀,」王偉忠生動形容兩人的合作,在他的想像裡,這種模式值得持續推廣,打出不同天地。

二○○七年開始,王偉忠認真思考台灣戲劇節目的發展,與詹仁雄、郭台銘之子、山水國際娛樂公司創辦人郭守正和做兒童節目的劉紀綱,共同投資風賦國際娛樂公司,由劉紀綱擔任總經理,製作出掀起一波懷舊熱潮的《光陰的故事》等優質戲劇。

「偉忠過去希望把眷村文化當成一種文化現象推出去,現在他則希望把台灣的某種生活情境、元素,也塑造成現象擴展到整個華人世界,」劉紀綱指出。

今年,王偉忠製作《發現台灣天才》節目,對像麵包師傅吳寶春、舞鈴劇團等台灣「文化達人」有更進一步的思考。

「我們具有獨特創意的人才很多,要如何把他們藉由台灣流行影視的實力,帶到華人世界這個更寬廣的舞台,是我和偉忠哥現在想一起做的,」三立電視執行 副總蘇麗媚指出,除了藝人經紀,「達人經紀」也是台灣文創可以耕耘的一條路,無論是戲劇、綜藝節目,都可以把達人元素鑲嵌進去,把台灣美好的生活創意傳遞 出去。

敢嘗新,才有未來

很難想像,就是為了這個「台灣美好的生活創意」,還有四年級生一定要扛在肩上的「使命感」,讓王偉忠這個大製作人可以一邊搞《康熙盛典》演唱會,又一邊弄弄酢醬餃子豆腐乳的「眷村菜」。這個精力旺盛、能說善道的電視奇才,講到最後還是要擔心台灣未來的電視節目製作能力。

「電視台不敢嘗新,做一個節目有八百六十個節目抄你,小孩子進來你也無法加他薪水,帶出的人才還要擔心被挖角,我們是腹背受敵啊!」「腹背受敵」還連講三遍。

怎麼感覺王偉忠又回到了當年那個什麼都缺的眷村?但從小的磨練讓他從來不把問題當成困難,期待他「窮則變,變則通」的創意招式,能為台灣影視、文創產業再上演幾齣膾炙人口的新鮮戲碼。





2010年9月18日 星期六

Baby Boomers

Baby Boomers Also Jumped From Job to Job

The Atlantic's Daniel Indiviglio has potentially surprising news for twentysomethings bouncing from job to job: Their parents probably did the same thing. Contrary to conventional wisdom, new data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics finds that baby boomers held about 11 jobs during the 22 years after college, spending "about 2.4 years at each job." The survey looked at the number of jobs baby boomers held before they were 44—the group included people born between 1957 and 1964—and how long they stuck with them. Like their kids, only 4 percent of boomers who got jobs between the ages of 23 and 28 kept them for longer than 15 years. Researchers also found that the number of jobs people held wasn't affected by their level education, although it was impacted by age: "As careers mature, the boomers stayed at their jobs for longer." With millennials taking a similar attitude toward their professional lives, Indiviglio suggests that today's parents might not have such a hard time relating to their kids.

Read original story in The Atlantic | Monday, Sept. 13, 2010

2010年9月16日 星期四

李敖文字的成長一例 "畜生之學".

"......密宗这种秘密佛教,本来在佛教真谛上已是妖妄,从佛教经典看,这种世俗的咒术密法,根本就是“畜生之学”。而林云呢,却连这种“畜生之学”都要加工打 造。他把密宗的“畜生之学”中国化,保留了原始的咒术密法,又加上中国的气、道、风水堪舆之类,最后再附会上他自己的红绳、铜钱、橘皮之学,遂成一家之 妖。......" 2 小寒纪 十五二十,时我少年,陷身孤岛,一片小寒。

李敖-->李敖快 意恩仇录-->2 小寒纪

- [ 轉為繁體網頁 ]

-----
以後可能成長成更能引經據典的

"密宗 在佛教真諦上已是妖妄 從中阿含 長阿含四分律.....不成體統 從巴利經典小品小事篇看 根本就是"畜生之學"....." 這是從李敖禍台40年中一本錄出 這段在該書出現兩次 是當時他很得意的作品





------Comments
日本由於唐朝傳入的密教的受者是空海等.......

Yifer
TO ME
Dear HC,

以後可能成長成更能引經據典的

"密宗 在佛教真諦上已是妖妄 從中阿含 長阿含四分律.....不成體統 從巴利經典小品小事篇看 根本就是"畜生之學"....." 這是從李敖禍台40年中一本錄出 這段在該書出現兩次 是當時他很得意的作品 "

這基本上是尊崇《阿含》與戒律,而排斥密宗的看法,正統佛教裡持這種意見的不在少數,印順法師與仁俊法師是這種主張的,而聖嚴法師、日常法師與海濤法師是屬於禮敬密宗的。
  呵呵,我與印順法師相同,並且仁俊法師再三強調「密教之興,是佛教在印度滅絕的主要原因」時,我就坐在旁邊聆聽此項宣示的。
  印順法師與仁俊法師是日常法師的師父,有時老師弟子之間也無可奈何。如今日常法師已經去世,仁俊法師已是近百的高齡了。
李敖此話也說得四平八穩咧...

2010年9月13日 星期一

英雄噶爾丹 Choros Erdeniin Galdan ガルダン・ハーン

英雄噶爾丹

  • 2010-09-13
  • 中國時報
  • 【?席慕蓉】

 折翼之鷹仍是鷹/蒼天高處,仍有不屈的雄心

 我今來此虔誠跪拜/遙向,準噶爾汗國的/博碩克圖汗/我們的/英雄噶爾丹

 紅日將墜/帶著塵沙的暮色更顯蒼茫/族人至今守護著的哈剌蘇力德/還矗立在大地之上/憤怒的黑纓在風中兀自飄揚/聽,厄魯特的遺民仍在四野呼喚/呼喚,我們的,我們的/英雄噶爾丹

 聽啊,那三百年來不曾散去的呼喚/仍在四野,回望歷史的煙雲/命運的轉折是何等劇烈/道別的手勢,為什麼/次次都如此決絕

 ●

 初時,變起倉卒皇兄被弒/憂汗國之將滅前路未明何人願與我同行/長年身在佛門的王子,含淚/捨棄了自幼修習的佛法慈悲/星夜裡,飛騎從拉薩奔回/奔向遙遠的國土/奔向那心之所在,血之所屬

 往昔的悠然靜定,再不容回顧/從佛國的智者呼圖克圖/一夕之間/成為準噶爾的大汗/年輕的噶爾丹登上汗位,起初/是為了維持這美好的版圖/供奉汗父制定的察津.必齊克/這傳世法典,期盼/再造一個團結興旺的衛拉特蒙古/並無意與任何他者衝突/卻不料,在窺伺者的心中/早已有了埋伏

 種種的限制與禁止不斷來自清廷/縮小甚至封閉了貿易的道路/口岸與貨物越來越少/同時嚴厲取締鐵器的交易/眼見民生凋敝,空有肥壯的牛羊/卻居無鍋碗,出無衣/更不提那幾番交涉之間的無禮/那已經是非常顯明的/壓迫與歧視,絲毫不想掩飾/如兀鷹般只須在一旁等待/等待,那最後一日的到來

 (要讓他們如願嗎,還是另求生路/堅強的噶爾丹當然不會屈服)

 如史書所明記/大汗先招徠歸附,禮謀臣/再相土宜,課耕牧/在境內修明法令,賞罰有信/又使戰備的補給便捷,資源充足/多年的準備之後/整個汗國神采煥發/天空澄澈如洗,連雲朵也整潔有序/充沛的力量/如月之十五夜那初升的月光

 於是,召喚了勇士中的勇士/集結了駿馬中的駿馬/旌旗高舉,號角低鳴/戰士們手持短鎗,腰弓矢佩刀/更使鎧甲輕便如衣,又讓回軍教習火器/再以橐駝負重炮/在無垠的藍天之下,向夢想出發/這一支如史詩所描述的雄獅隊伍/果然,在轉瞬間/就掌握了天山南北兩路

 大軍再往西進,攻下了塔什干/費爾干納,橫渡了帕米爾的穆爾加布河/登上了高高的薩雷闊里山/兵鋒銳不可擋,直抵黑海邊岸/旌旗如雲,軍心鼓舞/年輕壯盛的隊伍簇擁著所向無敵的/博碩克圖汗,我們的/英雄噶爾丹

 正是赤驥奔跑得飛快的時候/正是金劍出鞘最鋒利的辰光/誰再能阻擋胸中那澎湃的,想望/西進的勝利既已確定/大軍遂轉向東方/轉向噶爾丹心中,一處/真正的,夢土/從北元到明清,是幾百年來/多少英雄與可汗渴望去恢復的/大一統的蒙古本部

 於是,東征喀爾喀已見成功/再由克魯倫河輾轉南下/經科爾沁,錫林郭勒,直抵烏珠穆沁/那年是西元一六九○/六月,康熙集大臣於朝,下詔親征/八月,準噶爾騎兵深入烏蘭布通/七百里外,清廷的京師驚惶震動

 夏日,烏蘭布通有最肥美的水草/草原嫵媚茂密,一直鋪向遙遠的天邊/三百年後,我來憑弔/也是八月/正是那幾萬人一夕陣亡的慘烈時節/自 晨至暮,史書上註記/廝殺之聲響徹天地/至今,克什克騰旗的父老還向我說起/有時在深夜,草原上還聽見戰馬嘶鳴/夾雜著兵刃相交,眾人殺伐哭號的聲音/是 不甘心的亡魂還想轉敗為勝嗎

 (不能甘心啊,難道/就此墜落到暗黑的深淵,就在這一夜/向所有的期待啊,倉惶作別)

 從烏蘭布通一戰的幾乎全軍覆沒/到昭莫多之役以後的流離失所/六年之間,康熙步步進逼/截斷退路,四向已再無可投奔之處/勇士傷亡殆盡, 親信出走降清/身邊只剩下忠誠的/阿拉爾拜,納顏格隆兩位將領/和始終不離不棄卻已不足百人的兵丁/牛羊早已散失,只能捕獸為食/穹廬氈被也都遭焚燬/眾 人在曠野中勉強露宿/夜夜星光滿天,難以成眠/曾經像天空一樣廣闊的胸懷/如今,也像天空一樣保持沉默/不理會清廷的殷殷招降/這支驕傲的隊伍,始終不發 一言/隱身在草原深處

 (隱身在草原深處,無人能知/那最後幾個月的時光究竟如何漫長/也無人能知/可汗的憤怒和悲傷)

 隔年初春,英雄逝去/在一處名叫阿察阿穆塔台的地方/獵獵朔風,紛紛雨雪/從此,身後的許多傳說總是帶有惡意/在他人書寫的歷史裡,受盡汙蔑/獨有劫後餘生的厄魯特人,子子孫孫/一代又一代敬謹相傳/在心中深深刻印著自己的大汗

 遙想那汗國的牆垣猶存/在斜陽的光照裡/猶有餘溫

 ●

 折翼之鷹仍是鷹/蒼天高處,仍有不屈的雄心

 我今來此虔誠跪拜/遙向,準噶爾汗國的/博碩克圖汗/我們的/英雄噶爾丹

 曠野無垠,長日將盡/獨有歷經災劫的哈剌蘇力德傲然矗立/深知自己是撫慰也是見證/是永不容扭曲和磨滅的生命記憶/是的,在我們的信仰裡/只要他的黑纓戰旗恆在/英雄就不會離去

 是的,在我們的信仰裡/英雄從未離去/聽,厄魯特的遺民仍在四野聲聲呼喚/呼喚啊,我們的/我們的/英雄噶爾丹


ガルダン・ハーン

出典: フリー百科事典『ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)』

ガルダン・ハーン1644年 - 1697年)は、ジュンガル・ハーン国の第3代ハーン(在位:1671年 - 1697年)。オイラトチョロス部出身。バートル・ホンタイジの四男にしてジュンガル・ハーン国の創立者、またホショト部グシ・ハーンの孫でもある。

ガルダンは幼少時にラマとなる教育を受けるため、ラサダライ・ラマ5世のもとに送られた。1653年に父のバートル・ホンタイジが三男であるガルダンの兄センゲを後継者に指名して死に、その後継者となったセンゲは彼の異母兄にしてバートル・ホンタイジの長男Tseten、次男Tsobdaに順番を飛び越して相続したことで恨まれ、1670年に殺された。兄の訃報を聞きつけたガルダンは還俗し、エルティシ川に舞い戻って兄の仇を討ち、ダライ・ラマ5世から「ホンタイジ」の称号を授けられ、ジュンガルの3代目ハーンとなった。

ガルダンは1677年にホショト部のオチルト・ハーンを破ってオイラトの指導者となり、ダライ・ラマ5世から最高位のボショクト・ハーンの称号を授けられた。ガルダンの勢いはとどまらず、1679年までにウイグル族東トルキスタン及びカザフ族の中央アジアの一部をも支配下にした。1688年、カルダンは清朝の膨張に対抗するためにモンゴルを統一しようと考え、東モンゴリアのハルハ部の領地に侵入し、ハルハ族を大破した。敗れたハルハ部は内モンゴリアに逃れ、清朝に保護を求めた。1690年、センゲの長男でガルダンの甥に当たるツェワン・ラブタンが反乱を起こし、ジュンガリアと東トルキスタンを制圧した。帰路を断たれたガルダンは、水草が豊かな漠南地区を目指して進軍中、清朝軍とウランブーダンで衝突し、双方に大きな損害を出し、再起を図るべく退却した。1696年、清の康熙帝が東モンゴリアへ親征を行い、ガルダンは大半の兵士を失い敗走、病没した。


噶爾丹

維基百科,自由的百科全書
跳轉到: 導航, 搜尋

噶爾丹蒙古語ᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠᠨ Галдан1644年1697年4月4日),蒙古準噶爾汗國大汗。因受藏傳佛教影響,其名實取自藏文甘丹一詞。

目錄

[隱藏]

[編輯] 生平

噶爾丹是準噶爾首領巴圖爾琿台吉的四子,1648年藏傳佛教格魯派認定為三世溫薩活佛(四世班禪羅卜藏確吉堅贊之師)的轉世,1656年西藏拉薩大昭寺接受五世達賴灌頂,此後去日喀則扎什倫布寺拜四世班禪為師。1662年四世班禪去世,他又回到大昭寺追隨達賴,極受達賴器重,其間與第巴桑結嘉措結為好友。1666年十一月廿三,噶爾丹返回準噶爾。[1](一說1670年方回。)

1670年,噶爾丹之兄僧格被害,他即以活佛身份號召支持者擊敗入侵的車臣部,奪取了準噶爾汗位。1672年,噶爾丹宣布還俗,繼位為準噶爾部落首領,號「琿台吉」,並遣使向中國清朝政府朝貢,要求其承認自己的統治權。1678年,噶爾丹統一衛拉特蒙古,五世達賴賜予其「博碩克圖汗」稱號,正式宣布準噶爾汗國的建立。此後,噶爾丹遣軍向東攻取哈密吐魯番,向西臣服哈薩克諸部。1682年,在伊斯蘭教白山派的支持下滅天山以南的葉爾羌汗國。此時,他自感力量強大,提出要與中國清朝皇帝平起平坐。1685年,他攻佔安集延,臣服吉爾吉斯

1686年,噶爾丹借喀爾喀蒙古諸部內亂之機插手其內部事務。1687年,與扎薩克圖部等結盟,出兵攻打土謝圖部1688年,土謝圖汗殺扎薩克圖汗和噶爾丹之弟多爾吉扎布。噶爾丹遂在俄國支持下發兵蒙古高原。至8月30日,噶爾丹已佔領喀爾喀全境,土謝圖汗和哲布尊丹巴率喀爾喀全族南下尋求中國清朝保護。但此時南疆穆斯林叛亂,噶爾丹不得已回軍。不待噶爾丹回軍,留守本土的僧格之子策妄阿拉布坦已經平定了叛亂,但是他的才幹引起了噶爾丹的猜忌,噶爾丹甚至暗殺了其弟索諾布阿拉布坦,迫使策妄阿拉布坦率領部眾逃至博爾塔拉河,噶爾丹親率追兵,仍被擊敗。

1689年,中國和俄國簽訂尼布楚條約,俄國遂放棄對噶爾丹的公開支持。1690年,噶爾丹駐地科布多發生大旱,噶爾丹被迫率軍東征,此時,策妄阿拉布坦乘虛而入,佔據了準噶爾本土。後路被斷的噶爾丹只得一股作氣,與清朝爭奪水草豐滿的漠南地區。6月21日,噶爾丹擊敗清軍,兵鋒直指據北京僅有700里的烏蘭布通(今內蒙古克什克騰),並拒絕清朝的提和,向其使者表示:「聖上君南方,我長北方」。清朝康熙帝初擬親征噶爾丹,但因患瘧疾返回北京。9月4日,在烏蘭布通之戰中,清軍擊敗噶爾丹。噶爾丹僅率數百人逃回科布多。

1691年,噶爾丹受到策妄阿拉布坦的突然襲擊,糧食和物資為之一空,幸受到在拉薩掌權的第巴桑結嘉措的支持,方才得以與策妄阿拉布坦議和。1692年,噶爾丹遣使聯絡科爾沁蒙古首領沙津反清,沙津按照清朝旨意假意應允。

1695年,經過數年的休養,噶爾丹在第巴桑結嘉措的支持下,再次進軍喀爾喀。1696年,康熙帝親自率軍與其決戰於昭莫多,獲決定性勝利。次年,康熙帝前往寧夏,組織對噶爾丹的包圍。4月4日,噶爾丹在策妄阿拉布坦和清朝軍隊的夾攻之下走投無路,服毒自盡。(一說急病死亡。)

[編輯] 後續

噶爾丹雖死,但準噶爾部在雍正、乾隆年間多次叛亂,最終於1757年乾隆下令滅族。


[編輯] 參考文獻

  1. ^ [1]

[編輯] 外部連結




Choros Erdeniin Galdan (1644–1697) was a Dzungar-Oirat Khan of the Dzungar Khanate. He was the fourth son of Erdeni Baatur Hongtaiji, founder of the Dzungar Khanate, thus Galdan is a descendant of Esen taishi. Galdan's mother Amin-Dara was a daughter of Güshi Khan, the first Khoshut-Oirat King of Tibet and 4th Wênsa Zhügu.

As a youth, Galdan was sent to Lhasa to be educated as a lama under the 5th Dalai Lama. When Galdan heard that his eldest brother, Sengge, was murdered by a half brother, Tseten, he renounced his status as a lama and quickly returned to the Irtysh[citation needed] Valley to avenge his brother's death. Galdan was granted the title, Hongtaiji, in 1671 by the Dalai Lama. After victory over Ochirtu Khan, the Dalai Lama gave Galdan the highest title of Boshughtu Khan.

During Galdan's rule, Dzungaria embraced Eastern Turkistan and parts of Central Asia, which he conquered by 1679. He is the founder of Kobdo city, which was his military garrison. To oppose the expansion of the Manchu Empire, Galdan attempted to unify Mongolia by occupying Khalkha in 1688. While he was fighting in Eastern Mongolia, his nephew Tsewang Rabtan seized the Dzungarian throne in 1689. After a series of successful battles in the Khangai mountains, at Lake Olgoi and Ulahui river, he approached near the Great Wall. The Khalkha leaders retreated to Inner Mongolia with their troops and the Khalkha territory fell under Galdan's rule. The Qing deceived him to arrive near Beijing saying that they needed a treaty, but ambushed him at Ulaan Budan, where Galdan's troops were seriously defeated by the Khalkha troops supported by the Qing army and Galdan retreated back to Khalkha. This time, the Qing Emperor dared to cross the Gobi to invade Khalkha and Galdan's troops were surrounded by the overwhelming Qing army at a site Zuunmod at the river Terelj in 1696. Galdan was saved freed from the encirclement by his spouse queen Anu who herself lost her life during the battle. With his remaining troops, Galdan retreated to Kobdo. He died in 1697. The Dzungars said it as a sudden illness. Later Chinese historians said it was suicide. Murder is also a possibility.

[edit] Popular fiction

Galdan appears in Jin Yong's final Wuxia novel, The Deer and The Cauldron, where he became sworn brothers with the novel's main protagonist Wei Xiaobao and the Tibetan Lama Sangjie.

[edit] Further reading

  • Zlatkin, Ilia Iakovlevich (1964). История Джунгарского ханства, 1635-1758. (History of the Jungarian Khanate, 1635-1758 ).

2010年9月12日 星期日

鏡頭下的女神-夢露 /Rilke

公視
鏡頭下的女神-夢露
節目來源: 外片
播出語言:英? 法


透過她的知音所拍的照相集和旁白

呈現出少見的 相片傳記
----

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marilyn_Monroe
-----
她讀Ril・ke 方式讓我想查德文和日文的翻譯
  • 〔rílk

[名]Rainer Maria, リルケ(1875-1926):オーストリアの詩人.


結果發現三種發音 i/e/



http://www.answers.com/topic/rainer-maria-rilke

賀金庸拿劍橋博士

昨天看到一小朋友拿金庸的武俠小說
這一代的人應比我們進步
我第一次讀香港版本的金庸是1979年在竹北Philips
27歲

金庸受電視訪問說劍橋的老師體諒他每周要花近千元台幣車資去導師家
改成老師去學生家

博士論文不是當初立志搞的莎士比亞 這或許是限制條件
-----

86歲金庸好學 拿劍橋博士
武俠小說大師金庸日前以八十六歲高齡獲得英國劍橋大學哲學博士。(資料照)

〔記者趙靜瑜/綜合報導 〕武俠小說名家金庸(查良鏞)日前以八十六歲高齡獲得英國劍橋大學哲學博士。事實上,金庸八十歲時,英譯版的《鹿鼎記》出版時,劍橋大學已經頒給他榮譽文學博士學位,金庸則出人意料的向劍橋校長提出︰「讀一個真正博士學位的請求」。

選擇念劍橋 傳與詩人表哥徐志摩有關

曾有媒體訪問金庸時問,選擇念劍橋是不是跟他的表哥、著名的詩人徐志摩有關?金庸說:「小的時候,受他的影響是有的,表哥在劍橋大學念書,爸爸說大了以後,你也去念。」

與金庸是長年老友,遠流出版社董事長王榮文說,金庸一生都在讀書,從歷史找尋題材與想法。這個博士論文的完成,對金庸來說是一個極為重要的事件,他也正在邀請金庸訪台,不過因為時間上尚未決定,目前不便透露。

金庸的老師、劍橋漢學名譽教授麥大維(David McMullen)向香港明報表示,金庸的博士論文研究唐代盛世時期,東宮太子繼承皇位制度。

由開國的唐高祖說到唐玄宗,生動刻劃了古代太子的禮節、職責、繼位儀式及東宮的影響力,更透過整合正史、野史,分析太子繼位牽涉的宮廷政治及權力鬥爭。

論文研究初唐盛世 太子繼承皇位制度

金庸的博士論文提及唐代由盛轉衰的關鍵——安史之亂。安祿山叛變時,唐玄宗李隆基派了兒子榮王平亂,後來榮王戰死,正史沒提死因,金庸覺得正史有問題,分析是太子把弟弟榮王殺掉。

金 庸直指古中國為何缺少民主︰「從唐太宗開始,到宋元明清,都是哪個人兵權在手,就是哪個人做皇帝。」他的論點是︰「中國皇帝的皇位應該傳給嫡長子的,實際 上卻是哪個有兵權、哪個會打仗,就傳給哪個。中國是不講憲法、講兵權。外國也講兵權,但是外國表面上做得漂亮一點。 」

麥大維表示,金庸和其他博士生一樣,撰寫論文的過程中會拿著草稿跟他多次討論修訂。

「金庸很喜歡跟劍橋的學生接觸。」麥大維記得,一次聖約翰學院的學生為金庸辦了個派對,有些華裔學生特地扮成郭靖、黃蓉、楊過、小龍女,向武俠小說大師致敬。

同樣也是武俠小說家郭箏說,金庸之前的武俠小說比較流俗,沒有當代小說的結構,金庸將人物角色、場景描述都提升到一個現代小說的討論位置,這也讓武俠小說有了空前的地位。

郭箏說,金庸小說誕生在沒有電視娛樂的時代,透過他描述的瑰麗武俠世界,影響了那麼多的華語讀者,他的歷史地位無庸置疑。

2010年9月11日 星期六

Days of Reflection for Lee Kuan Kew

The Saturday Profile

Days of Reflection for Man Who Defined Singapore

Sam Kang Li for the International Herald Tribune

Lee Kuan Kew at his office in Singapore.


SINGAPORE

“SO, when is the last leaf falling?” asked Lee Kuan Yew, the man who made Singapore in his own stern and unsentimental image, nearing his 87th birthday and contemplating age, infirmity and loss.

“I can feel the gradual decline of energy and vitality,” said Mr. Lee, whose “Singapore model” of economic growth and tight social control made him one of the most influential political figures of Asia. “And I mean generally, every year, when you know you are not on the same level as last year. But that’s life.”

In a long, unusually reflective interview last week, he talked about the aches and pains of age and the solace of meditation, about his struggle to build a thriving nation on this resource-poor island, and his concern that the next generation might take his achievements for granted and let them slip away.

He was dressed informally in a windbreaker and running shoes in his big, bright office, still sharp of mind but visibly older and a little stooped, no longer in day-to-day control but, for as long as he lives, the dominant figure of the nation he created.

But in these final years, he said, his life has been darkened by the illness of his wife and companion of 61 years, bedridden and mute after a series of strokes.

“I try to busy myself,” he said, “but from time to time in idle moments, my mind goes back to the happy days we were up and about together.” Agnostic and pragmatic in his approach to life, he spoke with something like envy of people who find strength and solace in religion. “How do I comfort myself?” he asked. “Well, I say, ‘Life is just like that.’ ”

“What is next, I do not know,” he said. “Nobody has ever come back.”

The prime minister of Singapore from its founding in 1965 until he stepped aside in 1990, Mr. Lee built what he called “a first-world oasis in a third-world region” — praised for the efficiency and incorruptibility of his rule but accused by human rights groups of limiting political freedoms and intimidating opponents through libel suits.

His title now is minister mentor, a powerful presence within the current government led by his son, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. The question that hovers over Singapore today is how long and in what form his model may endure once he is gone.

Always physically vigorous, Mr. Lee combats the decline of age with a regimen of swimming, cycling and massage and, perhaps more important, an hour-by-hour daily schedule of meetings, speeches and conferences both in Singapore and overseas. “I know if I rest, I’ll slide downhill fast,” he said. When, after an hour, talk shifted from introspection to geopolitics, the years seemed to slip away and he grew vigorous and forceful, his worldview still wide ranging, detailed and commanding.

And yet, he said, he sometimes takes an oblique look at these struggles against age and sees what he calls “the absurdity of it.”

“I’m reaching 87, trying to keep fit, presenting a vigorous figure, and it’s an effort, and is it worth the effort?” he said. “I laugh at myself trying to keep a bold front. It’s become my habit. I just carry on.”

HIS most difficult moments come at the end of each day, he said, as he sits by the bedside of his wife, Kwa Geok Choo, 89, who has been unable to move or speak for more than two years. She had been by his side, a confidante and counselor, since they were law students in London.

“She understands when I talk to her, which I do every night,” he said. “She keeps awake for me; I tell her about my day’s work, read her favorite poems.” He opened a big spreadsheet to show his reading list, books by Jane Austen, Rudyard Kipling and Lewis Carroll as well as the sonnets of Shakespeare.

Lately, he said, he had been looking at Christian marriage vows and was drawn to the words: “To love, to hold and to cherish, in sickness and in health, for better or for worse till death do us part.”

“I told her, ‘I would try and keep you company for as long as I can.’ That’s life. She understood.” But he also said: “I’m not sure who’s going first, whether she or me.”

At night, hearing the sounds of his wife’s discomfort in the next room, he said, he calms himself with 20 minutes of meditation, reciting a mantra he was taught by a Christian friend: “Ma-Ra-Na-Tha.”

The phrase, which is Aramaic, comes at the end of St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians, and can be translated in several ways. Mr. Lee said that he was told it means “Come to me, O Lord Jesus,” and that although he is not a believer, he finds the sounds soothing.

“The problem is to keep the monkey mind from running off into all kinds of thoughts,” he said. “A certain tranquillity settles over you. The day’s pressures and worries are pushed out. Then there’s less problem sleeping.”

He brushed aside the words of a prominent Singaporean writer and social critic, Catherine Lim, who described him as having “an authoritarian, no-nonsense manner that has little use for sentiment.”

“She’s a novelist!” he cried. “Therefore, she simplifies a person’s character,” making what he called a “graphic caricature of me.” “But is anybody that simple or simplistic?”

The stress of his wife’s illness is constant, he said, harder on him than stresses he faced for years in the political arena. But repeatedly, in looking back over his life, he returns to his moment of greatest anguish, the expulsion of Singapore from Malaysia in 1965, when he wept in public.

That trauma presented him with the challenge that has defined his life, the creation and development of a stable and prosperous nation, always on guard against conflict within its mixed population of Chinese, Malays and Indians.

“We don’t have the ingredients of a nation, the elementary factors,” he said three years ago in an interview with the International Herald Tribune, “a homogeneous population, common language, common culture and common destiny.”

Younger people worry him, with their demands for more political openness and a free exchange of ideas, secure in their well-being in modern Singapore. “They have come to believe that this is a natural state of affairs, and they can take liberties with it,” he said. “They think you can put it on auto-pilot. I know that is never so.”

The kind of open political combat they demand would inevitably open the door to race-based politics, he said, and “our society will be ripped apart.”

A political street fighter, by his own account, he has often taken on his opponents through ruinous libel suits.

He defended the suits as necessary to protect his good name, and he dismissed criticisms by Western reporters who “hop in and hop out” of Singapore as “absolute rubbish.”

In any case, it is not these reporters or the obituaries they may write that will offer the final verdict on his actions, he said, but future scholars who will study them in the context of their day.

“I’m not saying that everything I did was right,” he said, “but everything I did was for an honorable purpose. I had to do some nasty things, locking fellows up without trial.”

And although the leaves are already falling from the tree, he said, the Lee Kuan Yew story may not be over yet.

He quoted a Chinese proverb: Do not judge a man until his coffin is closed.

“Close the coffin, then decide,” he said. “Then you assess him. I may still do something foolish before the lid is closed on me.”

"Never Say I Assume!"Tan Chin Nam陳振南《永远不要随意假设》

"Never Say I Assume!"Tan Chin Nam陳振南《永远不要随意假设》


内容简介

《永远不要随意假设》讲述的是一个马来西亚人的生平故事。他是一个企业家,同时还足一个运动员、作家。他擅长讲故事,他希望,如果自己“能起到什么作用的话”,那就是帮助读者“取得我所取得的成功,避免我所犯下的过错”。
但是,事实上,他起到的作用远远不止这些。他栩栩如生地再现了老马来亚的风貌,勾画了那个世界里的自己。他描绘了20世纪30年代的大萧条,以及他的家族“从巨富到赤贫”的历程,生动地再现了二战日本占领期间的历史,并细腻地勾画了他所熟知的一些伟人。
陈振南由一个华人商贩发展成为马来西亚现代企业家的经过,从他的人格和成就角度说,象征着马来西亚在过去的80年里,从一个封建殖民社会发展成为如今的多民族现代化国家的成功历程。

编辑推荐

《永远不要随意假设》是由中央编译出版社出版的。


Dato' Tan Chin Nam (born c. 1926) is an entrepreneur and developer in Malaysia and an owner of Australian-based Thoroughbred racehorses. His family is the majority shareholder of IGB Corporation Berhad.[1]

Tan is reportedly one of the richest men in Malaysia and has several companies and businesses.[2][3] He is famous as a property developer and was involved in various projects such as Shangri-La Hotel in Malaysia, shopping centres in Singapore and Malaysia (including one of the largest shopping malls in the world, Mid Valley Megamall in Malaysia), the renovation of Queen Victoria Building (QVB) and Capitol Theatre in Sydney. His biography released in 2006 is called "Never Say I Assume!", published by MPH, Malaysia.

[edit] Thoroughbred horse racing

The principal owner for one of Australia's most successful horse trainers, Bart Cummings, Tan has had a successful working relationship with Cummings for more than thirty years.

He owns at least a share in most of Cummings's well known horses including Think Big, winner of back-to-back Melbourne Cups in 1974 and 1975, as well as the multiple Group One winner, Saintly.[4]

Tan owns a stud farm located along the Wingecarribee River at Burradoo, New South Wales that he named Think Big Stud.

The Dato Tan Chin Nam Stakes at Moonee Valley Racecourse in Melbourne is named in his honor.

Tan is retired, leaving his multi-billion business to a new generation. He is the owner of the 2008 Melbourne Cup winner Viewed[5] (now deceased) and 2009 Crown Oaks winner, Faint Perfume.

[edit] References

2010年9月10日 星期五

王美麗

〔記者林相美/台北報導〕台北市建國中學化學老師王美麗,兩年前許願為癌症過世的姊姊於建中設立獎學金,後來得知自己也罹癌後,更決心捐出財產,去年九月王美麗不幸因卵巢癌過世,親友在逝世週年前夕,先將她現有遺產中的五百四十萬元捐給建中,昨天成立建中清寒學生獎學金。

「美麗化學」是學生給王美麗的封號,一年多前她罹癌消息傳出後,許多學生不捨,紛紛寫卡片鼓勵她,影音網站也流傳學生自製影片,分享王美麗的點滴,學生形容她是「在人間體驗苦難的天使」。

任教18年 時間全奉獻給學生

校方表示,王美麗於建中任教了十八年,教學認真,但是王美麗的身體狀況並不好,曾因意外造成腿部開放性骨折,十餘年前因英格爾氏症候群造成吞嚥困難,開刀治療卻又損及腦神經,造成顏面神經失調、左眼近乎失明。

不過,王美麗不因病魔折磨而屈服,反將全部心力投注於教學,教室黑板總是密密麻麻寫滿教材,不斷找時間幫學生加課,自製內容精湛的化學講義,即使因腦部手術造成高度視差必須戴眼罩上課,也從未澆熄她教學的熱情。

王美麗的好友、建中老師白玫瑰回憶,王美麗總把時間留給有需要的學生,即使中午休息、下課後,也耐心回答學生問題,有朋友拜託她教小孩,她也是免費上課。

過世前立遺囑 親友完成遺願

白 玫瑰透露,兩年前和王美麗一同旅行時,她曾提及手邊兩三筆定存今年六月到期後,將以姊姊的名義於建中成立獎學金,沒想到當年底她發現自己罹患卵巢癌且已擴 散到腹腔,單身一人的她當下決定不只捐出定存,也捐出三分之二的財產給建中及身障、病兒團體(另外三分之一則是留給家人),過世前立下遺囑,希望親友代她 完成心願。

白玫瑰說,五百四十萬元獎學金已匯入學校帳戶,目前親友仍在處理她於和平西路、新店的兩棟房產、黃金、珠寶、外幣及股票,售出後的款項也要依三分之二的比例捐做公益救助,亦即提供建中清寒獎學金及身障、病兒團體。

2010年9月8日 星期三

Paul Hogarth





約1890年有David Hogarth和Mary Hogarth畫希臘


中國在30年前複製過他的希臘速寫等作品

Paul Hogarth, OBE (christened Arthur Paul Hoggarth) (October 4, 1917 – 27 December 2001) was an English artist and illustrator. He is best known to a wider audience for the series of cover drawings that he prepared in the 1980s for the Penguin edition of Graham Greene's books.

Born Arthur Paul Hoggarth in Kendal, Cumbria, he and his family moved to Manchester in 1923 where he attended the Manchester School Of Art from 1934 to 1936 where he became involved in the Artists' International Association and the Communist Party of Great Britain. After 1936 he attended St Martins College, London and fought in the Spanish Civil War in the International Brigade.

Paul Hogarth, who died in December 2001, was one of the most distinguished painters of our times with a unique talent for illustration and reportage which was allied to his love of travel. This led him to produce drawings and watercolours recording events and places all over the world. As an illustrator he studied under James Boswell (artist) and worked with a number of eminent authors including Robert Graves, Graham Greene, Brendan Behan, Lawrence Durrell, and William Golding. His work can be seen on the cover of John Wyndham's 'The Midwich Cuckoos' (1964, Penguin [1] ). He was elected an associate member of the Royal Academy in 1974, a full member in 1984 and was awarded the OBE in 1989. His work is held in collections worldwide, he exhibited regularly in the Francis Kyle Gallery in London and his lithographs are available from Contemporary Art Holdings, Cirencester.

At the time of his death, Paul Hogarth had been married to actress Diana Hogarth (stage name Diana Robson) for 12 years.

Bibliography

  • Hogarth, Paul. Drawing on Life: The Autobiography of Paul Hogarth (Royal Academy of Arts, 2002).

External links

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