2014年1月31日 星期五

詩人 W.D. Snodgrass, 臨終受訪的感想

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W.D. Snodgrass, Pulitzer-winning poet, at Emory University in Atlanta in April 2008. Erik S. Lesser for The New York Times
Somber news comes with the territory I patrol as obituaries editor for this newspaper, and it was in that capacity I learned that W.D. Snodgrass was dying.
A colleague had been reading email one morning in the fall of 2008 when he called up a message that had been sent overnight. It was from a woman, he said, who wanted to advise the obit desk that her husband, a poet, was losing his fight with cancer. Knowing that The Times, for practical reasons, will often prepare an obit while the subject is still alive, she said, she wanted to give us a heads-up about his condition.
What was the poet’s name, I asked.
“W.D. Snodgrass,” my colleague said.
It brought me up short.
In the winter of 1976, I was a graduate student at Syracuse University, and Snodgrass, a Pulitzer Prize winner, was a literary celebrity on campus. Our paths had no reason to cross in the classroom; he was teaching poetry, I was being schooled in journalism. But I had an assignment — to write a profile of a person of my own choosing — and I suppose it was the residual English major in me that drew me to someone in the literary trades. So I called him and he agreed to an interview, inviting me to his house.
It was a wet, cold and gray March morning when I drove deep into the frozen farmland of central New York. Snodgrass’s house sat back from the road on a snow-covered slope that beyond the backyard steepened into a wooded hill. He greeted me at the door. Tall, bearded and robust at 50, he had the merry eyes of a man perpetually amused by the world.
We talked about poetry and his life for probably an hour. I went home and wrote the article, received a satisfying grade and peddled the piece to an alternative weekly newspaper in Syracuse. Happily it was accepted — my first professional byline — earning me enough to buy dinner (at a diner).
I didn’t hear from Snodgrass afterward, but no matter: The world spun on, and as it did, the half-dozen copies I’d saved were scattered to who knows where, until the pile had dwindled to one, left to yellow in a box under similar memorabilia.
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The author's first article as a professional journalist. 
But now, as he lay dying, I had a fleeting thought: What if I went to see him again, to talk about his life, literature and perhaps, with his so near, death? I contacted his wife, Kathy Snodgrass, a critic and translator of literary works. She talked it over with De, as his friends and family called him, and soon got back to me.
“When I asked De his thoughts on an interview,” she wrote in an email, “he pretty much said no, not for what I’m guessing is the most frequent response, that someone isn’t prepared to admit the end is near, but rather that he thinks dying persons’ opinions on life and art are suspect.”
It had been 32 years, and though the words came filtered through his wife, his tone and manner suddenly returned to me: direct, impatient with high-flown sentiment and a bit disarming, not unlike his poetry. I feared I had left a misimpression, however. I did not want to speak to him for his obituary, I assured Ms. Snodgrass. This would be an article that he might, if he held on, actually read.
Two days later she wrote back: “De says yes, he’d be happy for you to come interview him.”
So on a brisk fall morning, I again drove deep into central New York, now heading north from New York City on a trip that began in sunshine and a wildfire of foliage but soon, predictably, cooled and clouded over.
William DeWitt Snodgrass spent a half-century or more writing poetry, most of it vigorous and plain-spoken. In the 1960s, the poet and critic Gavin Ewart was unequivocal in calling him “one of the six best American poets today.” (“Who the other five are would be arguable,” Ewart added.) Some critics placed Snodgrass in the confessional school, which by his lights was a wrongheaded and too-easy label, as if his poems were nothing more than a coming clean about his transgressions. His verse was a one-man soul-baring operation — honest, sometimes piercingly frank, often wry and witty — that might uncover universal truths along the way.
He could mock himself (“Your name’s absurd,” he wrote in an early poem); proclaim his presence (“Snodgrass is walking through the universe”); and mine his anguish, as he did in “Heart’s Needle,” probably his best-known poem, about the loss of a child through divorce. He wrote:
Winter again and it is snowing;
Although you are still three,
You are already growing
Strange to me.
His was an inward-turning art that appealed to a generation younger than his — one torn between communitarian ideals and a self-involved thirst for emotional and professional fulfillment.
He published more than 30 books of poetry, criticism and translations. He taught generations of young writers and read his work in public often and avidly with a theatrical flair, a product of his formal voice training as a younger man and an ear for music he said he had been born with. He won a fair share of acclaim, most notably in the form of the Pulitzer in 1960, for the volume “Heart’s Needle.” His friend and mentor Robert Lowell found inspiration in that collection, Snodgrass would recall proudly.
I found him in a spare room at the top of a narrow staircase sitting up in bed, a tube in his nose. I pulled up a chair, and so did Ms. Snodgrass.
The poet did not remember our interview from 32 years earlier, and when I heard this I blinked a couple of times and looked down at my notebook, humbled. I suppose we delude ourselves to think that whatever impression we leave with others will be lasting.
Despite his illness, Snodgrass was in fine spirits, and for the next hour or more he talked to me again about his poetry and life: the failed ambitions to be a musician, a timpanist; his war experience in the Navy in the Pacific; his joining a writing workshop at the University of Iowa, switching from playwriting to poetry and finding himself learning from the likes of Lowell, John Crowe Ransom, Karl Shapiro and John Berryman; the suicide of a young friend with whom he had exchanged poems in the mail and then discussed them over the phone.
He told of growing up in Beaver Falls, Pa., where he played the violin well and tennis badly. He spoke of his conflicted feelings about his parents: the obstinate mother he blamed for his sister’s death from asthma at 24, the competitive father, an accountant, who believed that his son’s winning the Pulitzer “unhinged his position” of authority in the family, or so the son said.
But, as his wife had intimated, Snodgrass would not speak of illness or death. (“Everybody has said everything that can be said about it,” he declared.) Nor would he discuss more vaporous matters like the source of his creative impulse. “That’s a critic’s question,” he would say.
Still, I had enough material and drove away with every intention of writing about him and our meeting again after so many years.
We all know about good intentions. Soon came a pileup of holidays, end-of-year workplace responsibilities and my own habits of procrastination, and it was January before I started.
Then, on the morning of Jan. 14, I logged on to my computer to find an item by The Associated Press. W.D. Snodgrass, it said, had “died at his upstate New York home after a four-month battle with inoperable lung cancer.”
I let loose an expletive and sagged in my chair. I who had been taught on the job about the unpredictability of death had not learned my lessons well enough. Whatever I might write now he would never read. Still, I couldn’t let it end there. I contacted Ms. Snodgrass, expressed my condolences and assured her that, yes, we would publish an obituary.
I had edited obituaries for several years but had never assigned myself to write one; we have an able staff of reporters. But it was clear to me that I would have to write it – not because I knew the material, which I fairly did, but because I felt compelled to finish what I had begun that fall morning as I’d headed back into central New York to knock once again on the poet’s door.
I’m not entirely sure what lesson to draw from this. Writing the obit and seeing it published oddly put me in a mournful mood, one I had never felt in a job that demands detachment. I suppose that with Snodgrass’s death, I was forced to acknowledge what else had passed away, my youth. But I also felt a quiet satisfaction. On a country road I had retraced some steps, and a path taken long ago had somehow, fittingly, come full circle.

Isabella Rossellini, David Attenborough, Jean-Claude Carrière,

Isabella Rossellini: Shrimp foreplay and anchovy orgies

(Jody Shapiro)
(Jody Shapiro)
The Italian model and actor brings her Green Porno web series to the stage with a one-woman show.
David Attenborough has an unexpected rival: Isabella Rossellini is bringing her Green Porno short films to the stage.
Commissioned by the Sundance Channel in 2008, the 40-part web series features the star of Blue Velvet and Wild at Heart dressed as creatures including an earthworm, a squid and a spider to explain the mating rituals of the animal kingdom.
Rossellini is embarking on a global tour with a one-woman show adapted by French screenwriter Jean-Claude Carrière, who collaborated with Luis Buñuel on films like Belle de Jour and The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie. The octogenarian helped Rossellini turn her animal sex videos into a theatrical take on a scientific lecture with fluorescent costumes and paper puppets.
From the masturbation of dolphins and the wild orgies of anchovies to snail sadomasochism and shrimp foreplay, Rossellini showcases her knowledge of natural history; the actor enrolled in a degree in animal studies at New York University five years ago.
After a successful run in New York, Green Porno is travelling to Londonand Adelaide in February and March.

2014年1月30日 星期四


花王的臉 偷偷在改變



《老牌子到台灣 陳柔縉》 http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/forum/20140130/35612051/%

張超英口述 陳柔缙執筆《宮前町九十番地》台北:時報出版,2006

宮前町九十番地 台湾をもっと知ってほしい日本の友へ / 張超英 陳柔縉


書名 「勿忘臺灣」落花夢
作者 張秀哲
編者 陳柔縉審定
出版社 衛城出版
出版日期 2013-02-27


張炎憲、李筱峰、曹長青 專文推薦


只有在《「勿忘臺灣」落花夢》裡,張秀哲是一個不同的父親,是個活躍的革命家。這本書裡,他如夢一樣地回憶了自己在一九二○、三○年代的年輕歲 月,以熱情與豪氣在中國宣傳臺灣解放,反對殖民統治,即使入獄也未曾後悔。他交遊廣闊,在廣州組織「臺灣革命青年團」,與魯迅、郭沫若、戴季陶、甘乃光往 來,自費印行小冊《勿忘臺灣》與雜誌《臺灣先鋒》,革命是他的事業。
《「勿忘臺灣」落花夢》重新出版,彷彿是皆已離世的父子兩人,透過出版繼續在時空對話,其中更有許多珍貴的一手文獻,可以窺見當時日治時期臺灣知 識份子的心靈世界,以及對日本、中國的觀察。張秀哲自己在書中緒言提道,這本書是「臺灣解放運動的一頁史實速寫」,「在已往數十年來,是不能在臺灣自由公 開赤裸裸的寫出來!況且先前在帝國主義者蠻行統治的時代,極端壓制之下,都是沒有機會公開發表的,而同志們都星散了,也沒人肯用功寫出來的。」如今,就是 它再度現身的時刻,也是張超英心中真正父親的復活。

我 的好友張寬敏醫師曾提供「勿忘臺灣落花夢」珍藏舊本,重新製版再刊發行,除讓張秀哲半生念茲在茲救台愛國精神不至灰滅,且與身為人子的被其家教過之張超 英,因此可以減輕遺憾 ,為台灣留下至為寶貴的見證...張寬敏醫師不幸於日前高齡辭世,訂今(25)日上午10點在台北市首座天主教堂,台北市民生西路245號天主堂(聖母無 原罪主教座堂),舉行追思出殯儀式,回顧他生前常常公開慨歎「台灣人迄今還是奴隸」,如今斯人安息主懷,還是希望在天之靈能庇佑台灣故土~

2014年1月29日 星期三

台灣的新佛教徒Meeting Taiwan's new-age Buddhists By Cindy Sui


Meeting Taiwan's new-age Buddhists

Volunteers serve food at a Tzu Chi event on 18 January 2014Taiwan's Buddhist organisations are increasingly looking to help out those in need
Sorting through a large pile of used clothes and household items, Hsiao Hsiu-chu is the picture of a new-age Buddhist.
The 63-year-old retiree used to practice her religion by praying at temples, but now she volunteers seven days a week at a recycling centre to raise funds for Taiwan's Buddhist association Tzu Chi.
"I have no time to go to temples. Praying is not important. Coming here every day is like praying," said Ms Hsiao.
This is not how most people practice Buddhism in Chinese-speaking or even non-Chinese Buddhist societies. Their faith is usually self-focused: praying for protection in their current life and to be born into a better life after they die.
But Taiwan is leading a quiet, yet powerful movement that has turned traditional Buddhism on its head, converting many Buddhists such as Ms Hsiao into doers, not just believers.
Hsiao Hsiu-chuFor Hsiao Hsiu-chu, Buddhism means taking action rather than praying
Burning paper money and incense is discouraged - it's bad for the environment. Going to temples is low priority. Even praying too much is frowned upon.
The focus now is on what the Taiwanese call "humanistic Buddhism" - caring for others and for society. It returns Buddhists to the core principles of Buddhism - speaking good words, thinking good thoughts and doing good deeds.
"According to Buddhism, it's not enough to have benefits for oneself only, you must also have benefits for others. We should try to help as many people as we can to be relieved of suffering," said Head Abbot Hsin Bao of another major Taiwanese Buddhist association, Fo Guang Shan.
The practice has helped Taiwan's leading Buddhist organisations expand in unprecedented ways.
Statues of the Buddha at the Fo Guang Shan temple in southern TaiwanThere are thought to be between half and one billion Buddhists around the world
Tzu Chi Foundation - which is at the vanguard of the movement - has seven million followers, including two million overseas.
Its 100,000 volunteers in Taiwan are seen everywhere in their trademark blue shirts and white trousers. They recycle plastic bottles to raise charity funds, check on elderly people living alone, provide support to poor and at-risk families, tutor children and help respond to natural disasters.
Another influential Taiwanese Buddhist group, Dharma Drum Mountain, regularly holds "Buddhism 101" classes to teach people how to apply the philosophy to their lives.
In one recent class for about 200 people, a psychologist used Buddhism's teachings to advise students on how to recognise and work on their own negative emotions, and how to deal with troubled family relations.
"Buddhism's teachings can be used everyday and where's the best place to use them? In your family," Yang Pei told the class.
Fo Guang Shan, meanwhile, holds youth camps for children.
"These organisations are very different from traditional Buddhism," said Kuo Cheng-tian, a professor at National Chengchi University. "They emphasise lay believers running temples and Buddhist organisations, not just monks. And they use ordinary believers to lead charity missions."

Buddha statue at the Fo Guang Shan temple in KaohsiungAnnual cleaning is a big event at the Fo Guang Shan temple in Kaohsiung, in southern Taiwan.
It is unclear how many Buddhists there are in the world. Buddhism is not an institutionalised religion and many Buddhists also believe in other faiths. But some estimates suggest there are half a billion to one billion Buddhists globally, making it the world's fourth largest religion.
What makes Taiwanese Buddhism unique is its strong emphasis on helping society. Tzu Chi, for example, has provided post-disaster relief in more than 84 countries, including in the Philippines, where it recently paid 50,000 households to rebuild homes destroyed by Typhoon Haiyan.

Buddhism in China

With growing pressure in their rapidly changing society, people in China are increasingly turning to Buddhism. But while a lot of money has been poured into rebuilding temples destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, and the temples have collected a vast amount in entrance fees or donations, they don't have the practice of giving back to society, said Fu Xinyi, a Nanjing University academic who specialises in Buddhism.
"They build temples for tourism, for money, but they don't know how to spread Buddhism's ideology," Mr Fu said. "This is regrettable. Society has so many problems, Buddhism should play its role in helping people and giving them spiritual guidance."
Mainland China can learn from Taiwan, he said, but the government's suspicion of religions will limit Taiwanese Buddhists' ability to spread humanistic Buddhism there.
"They can spread the ideology, but the actions can't be as big as in Taiwan because the government will feel threatened," Mr Fu said.
Still, China's people and even leaders are becoming more familiar with Taiwan's Buddhism.
Tzu Chi is the first foreign non-governmental religious organisation to be allowed to set up a branch in China. Chinese President Xi Jinping also recently met with Fo Guang Shan's Master Hsing Yun, who is popular in the mainland.
Chinese leaders may be realizing Buddhism can be a stabilising force in society.
And although Buddhist groups have traditionally been less active, compared to Christian counterparts, in spreading their religion, that is changing.
Taiwan's major Buddhist associations have their own TV channels, publishing houses, and news agencies, as well as hospitals and universities. They send volunteers to schools to teach children about good behaviour, through storytelling.
But they say they are not trying to convert non-believers.
"We see no need for you to be converted; we're not aiming to proselytise," said Chien Tung-yuan, a Tzu Chi spokesman. "From the beginning, Shakyamuni (Buddha) taught people to help those who are suffering, without conditions, and not to want anything in return."
Changing the way Buddhism is practiced has not only led to a revival of the religion in Taiwan, but its expansion overseas.
Fo Guang Shan, for example, has 200 temples worldwide, including 20 in Europe and 24 in the US, not just for overseas Taiwanese but local people.
Dharma Drum Mountain, meanwhile, has 125 chapters worldwide, while Tzu Chi boasts many branches in 48 countries. In Malaysia, its members jumped from 100,000 to one million last year.
"We want to use Taiwan as a base to spread Buddhism to mainland China and the rest of the world," said Fo Guang Shan's Head Abbot Hsin Bao.
A mass wedding at Dharma Drum Mountain in northern TaiwanA mass Buddhist wedding in northern Taiwan: Part of a trend to make the religion an integral part of daily life
Taiwan is also helping mainland China rediscover the religion. Although Buddhism has nearly 2,000 years of history in China, it had diminished in importance in recent centuries because of wars, political turmoil and suppression, and a focus on modernisation.
Millions of Chinese listen to Taiwanese masters' teachings on DVDs or MP3s. They download material from websites and spread them online.
With improved relations between the two sides in recent years, many Chinese Buddhists leaders and adherents are now able to travel freely to Taiwan. Taiwan's Buddhists also can more easily spread their message in the mainland, even if it is in low-key ways such as repairing a temple or promoting "reading clubs" - similar to Bible study.
A volunteer cuts a man's hair at a Tzu Chi event on 18 January 2014Affluence means Taiwanese Buddhists have more time to help out, like at this hair-cutting session
Scholars believe Taiwan is playing a key role because many charismatic Buddhist leaders fled to the island after the Communists took over the mainland in 1949. Influenced by the respected late Buddhist leader Taixu's calls for contributing to society to gain enlightenment, the masters and their disciples made the idea a reality.
Taiwan's groups were also influenced by Christianity, adopting practices such as doing charity work.
At the same time, growing wealth here meant Taiwan's middle class, especially elderly people, have more money and time to help others, as they seek meaning in life.
Back at the Taipei recycling centre, more bags of used clothes arrive for Ms Hsiao to sort.
She said putting Buddhism's teachings to practice has given her the strength to cope with her mother's sudden death and helped her improve relations with her children.
'It's opened the knot in my heart,' Ms Hsiao said. Her advice to other Buddhists: "Don't just believe in Buddhism, do something to help others."

徐旭東 (遠東集團) / eTag,榊原定徵 (東麗/ 經團連)




       日本東麗公司會長榊原定徵將就任日本經濟界最大團體「日本經濟團體連合會」(簡稱:經團連)的下任會長。榊原將在6月份的大會上接過現任會長住友化學會長 米倉弘昌的接力棒。日本最具實力的經濟團體的會長連續2任都來自材料行業。由於被視為最有力候選人的人才請辭,曾擔任經團連副會長的榊原被破例召回。有聲 音擔心榊原作為經濟界人士知名度低、東麗的業務規模小,但是如果觀察榊原和東麗的背景會發現,榊原擁有解決如今經團連2大管道堵塞問題的潛能。


      第一個問題是經團連與現任政權的管道堵塞。不僅現任會長米倉,從上任會長御手洗富士夫(佳能會長兼社長)時代開始,經團連會長就很難與執政黨的首相碰面。 經團連迫切希望實現政經的關係緊密化。榊原擔任日本政府産業競爭力會議的民間議員,在産業競爭力會議上積極主張「應該增加科學技術振興費」。據悉在政府內 部,稱其為雄辯家的評價迅速傳播。

      從外部來看,榊原因將先進材料碳素纖維培育成東麗的主打業務而廣為熟知,被評價為精通技術研發。但是,榊原真正的本事並不在於此。在公司內部,很多人會列 舉榊原在美國等國實施併購以及1990年代泡沫崩潰後,其作為經營企劃負責人實施重組的「戰績」。一位東麗老人説:「榊原是一位時而曉之以理、時而動之以情的談判專家。如果期待加強與政府的意見溝通,那麼榊原再適合不過了」。


      即使當前在安倍經濟學的帶動下,日本迎來了經濟復甦的東風,但是從中長期來看,受人口減少和少子老齡化所帶來的勞動力減少等問題影響,日本的內需難以擴 大。擴大海外業務,尤其是擴大亞洲的業務成為日本企業的共同課題。經團連需要做的是進一步激活民間經濟交流,至少要使民間經濟交流恢復到「政冷經熱」的狀 態。


      另外,東麗是踐行「政冷經熱」的少數企業的代表。東麗常年在中韓開展纖維、面向電子設備的薄膜以及功能性樹脂等業務。榊原不顧政治關係緊張,積極擴大業務,不僅去年9月決定在韓國斥資約400億日元收購水處理膜企業,還于去年12月在中國四川舉行了樹脂化合物新工廠的開業慶典。據相關人士透露,當地非但 沒有受到反日情緒高漲的影響,反而歡迎東麗。


      雖然擁有歷時40多年培育的信賴關係和品牌實力作為基礎,但是中韓不斷向東麗暗送秋波的最大原因在於其卓越的技術實力。例如,東麗的逆滲透膜(RO膜)的 海水淡化技術水平全球最高。膜的表面佈滿直徑以納米為單位的小孔,過濾海水時,鹽分和雜質無法通過,而淡水則可以通過。除了用於生産飲料用水和工業用水外,還可以用於去除污水和工業排水的有害物質。水污染問題嚴重的中國地方城市紛紛積極邀請東麗在當地建廠。

      在韓國,榊原享受著VIP的待遇。東麗積極在韓國開展技術交流和業務受到好評, 2010年4月,時任東麗社長的榊原獲得了韓國政府授予的「産業勳章」,而且是金銀銅鐵石5個等級中的「金塔」,為最高等級的商界人士勳章。


   本文作者為日本經濟新聞(中文版:日經中文網)電子報導部 石塚史人

在80-90年代初, IBM還是超級公司的時候,我就注意到徐旭東是台灣IBM公司的董事.....



主筆室 2014年01月26日 11:58




不過,交通部一直由中華電信研發測試,直到政黨輪替之後的2002年,交通部招標箭在弦上,利益團體遊說力道加大,朝野立委在國會大打紅外線與微波 兩個系統的代理人戰爭,還彼此互控介入弊案,不過,不論是紅外線派或微波派,共同目標就是先阻絕中華電信公家承攬的機會,果然,立法院一紙決議,電子收費 就從公辦轉而為民營。

當年,曾有交通部官員直言,這個決定和方向從沒在他們的計畫和研究之內,完全是「從上到下」交代的。2005年ETC上路前果然爆發弊案,官司打了 六年,前交通部長林陵三機要宋乃午判刑11年定讞,行賄的業界白手套早就落跑海外,再無其他官員捲入,而所有傳言中可能牽連在內的朝野立委全部安全下莊, 甚至繼續當名嘴大談「那些年我們一起玩過的弊案」。


然而,這九年來既罰不到遠通,更逮不到更大的弊案,因收受美金茶葉罐的前交通部長郭瑤琪當年就想和遠通解約,由政府收回接管,最後是副院長蔡英文和 政務委員林錫耀(時任行政院長蘇貞昌的親信左右手)連袂疏通,理由是避免政府要付出巨額賠償金,最後與立法院達成的共識是:若有行賄弊案,政府就接管。待 宋乃午判刑定讞,扁政府已經下台三年了。


全文網址: 風評:那些年,他們一起搞過的弊案-風傳媒





網路名人朱學恒諷刺徐老闆:「徐旭東太霸道,乾脆把國道改名為徐旭東紀念公路算了。」並質疑eTag為何只能在遠傳門市申辦?龐大金流為何只能經 過遠東銀行?消基會董事長點出消費者不滿並非eTag出包,而是那「不然要怎樣」的傲慢態度,還擺出一副「財團吃定政府」的嘴臉。


眾所矚目的SOGO天母店、三鐵共構的板橋遠東百貨,明年將一一開幕。而先替這些喜事暖場的,是遠傳電信將在明年春節前夕贊助太陽劇團,藉機努力提升手機 用戶數。亞泥在大陸今年也增加了兩條生產線,未來兩年將以「一年多兩條」的增速,在江西、湖北、四川陸續開新窯,至2010年的水泥年產量,預計將達到 2000萬噸。
與上下游垂直整合的台塑集團相比,遠東集團事業遍及百貨、紡織、水泥、化纖、航運、電信、金融,比較偏向多元化水平整合,兩者大異其趣。也因此一張快樂購(HAPPY GO)卡,可以從遠百、SOGO、愛買集點集到遠企、遠東商銀和遠傳。
管理作風開明 充分授權
出生於上海的徐旭東,15歲就到美國接受教育,擁有美國聖母大學企管碩士學位及哥倫比亞大學經濟碩士學位,個性洋派,英文比中文還要好。受 西式教育的他,興趣廣泛,熱愛運動,早年玩橄欖球、拳擊,現在以跑步為主,拜運動所賜,至今67歲了,身邊老臣透露,「他還沒有老花眼,白頭髮也很少,」 令人覺得神奇。
1960年,麻省理工學院教授麥格里哥(Douglas Mcgregor)提出兩種截然不同的管理方式,X理論和Y理論。採用X理論的管理者,對人性抱持悲觀,認為員工不喜愛工作,必須運用強迫、威脅、處罰等手段才能達成組織目標。
以身作則公私分明 待人寬厚
客戶群大 綜效發揮大
答:有,尤其是零售企業的綜效是最大的。百貨系統有遠百、太百和愛買,行動電話有遠傳,再加上旅館、醫院、銀行和證券,這些都是以顧客為主,所以我們的客戶群很大,跨的行業很多,其中發揮綜效最好的例子是HAPPY GO集點卡。當然,一個集團的綜效是走不完的。
水泥》沒漲價 實現社會責任
誠勤樸慎 遠東人的精神