2008年11月29日 星期六

Claude Lévi-Strauss turned 100

100th-Birthday Tributes Pour in for Lévi-Strauss

Published: November 28, 2008

PARIS — Claude Lévi-Strauss, who altered the way Westerners look at other civilizations, turned 100 on Friday, and France celebrated with films, lectures and free admission to the museum he inspired, the Musée du Quai Branly.

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Pascal Pavani/Agence France-Presse

The pioneering anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss in 2005.

Musée du Quai Branly

An early photograph of Claude Lévi-Strauss and his wife, Dina, in their tent while doing fieldwork in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

François Guillot/Agence France-Presse

Julia Kristeva, the Bulgarian-French author, speaking at ceremonies for Claude Lévi-Strauss’s 100th birthday on Friday at the Musée du Quai Branly in Paris.

Mr. Lévi-Strauss is cherished in France, and is an additional reminder of the nation’s cultural significance in the year when another Frenchman, Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Mr. Lévi-Strauss shot to prominence early, but with his 1955 book, “Tristes Tropiques,” a sort of anthropological meditation based on his travels in Brazil and elsewhere in the 1930s, he became a national treasure of a specially French kind. The jury of the Prix Goncourt, France’s most famous literary award, said that it would have given the prize to “Tristes Tropiques” had it been fiction.

Mr. Lévi-Strauss, a Brussels-born and Paris-bred Jew, fled France after its capitulation to the Nazis in 1940. He spent the next eight years based in the United States, where he taught at the New School for Social Research in New York and was influenced by noted anthropologists like Franz Boas, who taught at Columbia.

On Friday, the culmination of several days of celebration, there were no false notes. At the Quai Branly, 100 scholars and writers read from or lectured on the work of Mr. Lévi-Strauss, while documentaries about him were screened, and guided visits were provided to the collections, which include some of his own favorite artifacts.

Stéphane Martin, the president of the museum, said in an interview that Mr. Lévi-Strauss was himself a major collector, and as he first toured the new museum, in 2006, “he remembered various pieces and complained that he had to sell them to pay for a divorce.”

Mr. Martin, along with the French culture minister, Christine Albanel, and the minister of higher education and research, Valérie Pécresse, presided over the unveiling of a plaque outside the museum’s theater, which is already named for Mr. Lévi-Strauss, who did not attend the festivities. Ms. Pécresse announced a new annual 100,000 euro prize (about $127,000) in his name for a researcher in “human sciences” working in France. President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Mr. Lévi-Strauss on Friday evening at his home.

Roger-Pol Droit, a philosopher who read from “Tristes Tropiques,” said that he “would have loved a text from Lévi-Strauss today saying, ‘I hate birthdays and commemorations,’ just as he began ‘Tristes Tropiques’ saying, ‘I hate traveling and explorers.’ “

“This is all about the effort of making him into a myth,” Mr. Droit continued, “because that is what we do in our time.”

The museum was the grand project of former president Jacques Chirac, who loved anthropology and embraced the idea of a colloquy of civilizations, as opposed to the academic quality of the old Musée de l’Homme, which Philippe Descola, the chairman of the anthropology department at the Collège de France, described as “an empty shell — full of artifacts but dead to themselves.”

The new museum, which has 1.3 million visitors a year, was a sort of homage to Mr. Lévi-Strauss, who “blessed it from the beginning,” Mr. Descola said, and was an important voice of support for a much criticized and politicized idea.

In 1996, when asked his opinion of the project, Mr. Lévi-Strauss said in a handwritten letter to Mr. Chirac: “It takes into account the evolution of the world since the Musée de l’Homme was created. An ethnographic museum can no longer, as at that time, offer an authentic vision of life in these societies so different from ours. With perhaps a few exceptions that will not last, these societies are progressively integrated into world politics and economy. When I see the objects that I collected in the field between 1935 and 1938 again — and it’s also true of others — I know that their relevance has become either documentary or, mostly, aesthetic.”

The building is striking and controversial, imposing the ideas of the star architect Jean Nouvel on the organization of the spaces. But Mr. Martin says it is working well for the museum, whose marvelous objects — “fragile flowers of difference,” as Mr. Lévi-Strauss once called them — can be seen on varying levels of aesthetics and serious study. They are presented as artifacts of great beauty but also with defining context, telling visitors not only what they are, but also what they were meant to be when they were created.

On Thursday, from noon to midnight, ARTE, a French-German cultural television channel, showed nothing but Lévi-Strauss, with documentaries, films and interviews with him and with those inspired or influenced by his work, including the novelist Michel Tournier.

The French Academy, which governs the French language and elected Mr. Lévi-Strauss in 1973, honored him in what its permanent secretary, Hélène Carrère d’Encausse, called “a huge event and perhaps above all ‘a family celebration.’ “

On Tuesday there was a day-long colloquium at the Collège de France, where Mr. Lévi-Strauss once taught. Mr. Descola said that centenary celebrations were being held in at least 25 countries.

“People realize he is one of the great intellectual heroes of the 20th century,” he said in an interview. “His thought is among the most complex of the 20th century, and it’s hard to convey his prose and his thinking in English. But he gave a proper object to anthropology: not simply as a study of human nature, but a systematic study of how cultural practices vary, how cultural differences are systematically organized.”

Mr. Levi-Strauss took difference as the basis for his study, not the search for commonality, which defined 19th-century anthropology, Mr. Descola said. In other words, he took cultures on their own terms rather than try to relate everything to the West.

Mr. Descola, 59, said he was 17 when he read “Tristes Tropiques,” and “it left a lasting mark.”

“I can’t say I decided on the spot to become an anthropologist,” he said, “but rather to become a man like that.”

One of the most remarkable aspects of the Quai Branly is its landscaping, designed by Gilles Clément to reflect the questing spirit of Mr. Lévi-Strauss. Mr. Clément tried to create a “non-Western garden,” he said in an interview, “with more the spirit of the savannah,” where most of the animist civilizations live whose artifacts fill the museum itself.

He tried to think through the symbols of the cosmology of these civilizations, their systems of gods and beliefs, which also animate their agriculture and their gardens. The garden here uses the symbol of the tortoise, not reflected literally, “but in an oval form that recurs,” Mr. Clément said.

“We find the tortoise everywhere,” he continued. “It’s an animal that lives a long time, so it represents a sort of reassurance, or the eternal, perhaps.”

Mr. Lévi-Strauss “is very important to me,” Mr. Clément said, adding: “He represents an extremely subversive vision with his interest in populations that were disdained. He paid careful attention, not touristically but profoundly, to the human beings on the earth who think differently from us. It’s a respect for others, which is very strong and very moving. He knew that cultural diversity is necessary for cultural creativity, for the future.”

Basil Katz contributed reporting.

2008年11月25日 星期二


中国 | 2008.11.25


从长沙到深圳,3天又24小时的异地经历之后,上周五,当中国公民记者周曙光准备前往柏林参加德国之声举办的国际博客大赛评委会议时,在深圳罗湖和蛇口海 关被两次请进接待室。出境申请两次被拒之后,本周一周曙光从原籍长沙市公安局国保支队得到的答案是以“可能危害国家安全”为由禁止其出境。随后周曙光向德 国之声记者透露了事发的全过程。



进去后那个房间很大,有三四排椅子,我被安排坐 在最后一排。除了我之外,房间内的其他人都是穿警服的。我身边不远处被安排了左右两名警察守着我。前后有四名警察找我问话,还要去了我的护照、身份证和私 人电话号码。这期间有半个小时之久,等待的过程中我还被要求把手机从口袋中拿出要放在明显的地方。整个过程很融洽,但结果是不允许我出境,穿警服的人说如 果想要原因,得回我的户籍所在地长沙市公安局。








之前我很少和国保部门打交道,这是第二次。第一 次是在今年8月我要去北京报道奥运。我当时质问他们不让我去北京的法律依据是什么,他们说不出来。实际上,真正有一次受到人身自由限制是我要回距离我住所 40公里以外的老家看我母亲。结果,当天下午就来了四个人说是按照上级的指示,在没有任何原因的情况下要求我跟他们返回我住的小镇。





2008年11月24日 星期一

伊藤清 Kiyoshi Ito




跳轉到: 導航, 搜尋
日語原文 伊藤清
假名 いとう きよし
羅馬字 Itō Kiyoshi




1940年他發表了《論緊群上的機率分佈》(On the probability distribution on a compact group) 。在這門學科的發展中這是重要著作。








Kiyoshi Ito, 93, Mathematician Who Described Random Motion, Dies

Published: November 23, 2008

Kiyoshi Ito, a mathematician whose innovative models of random motion are used today in fields as diverse as finance and biology, died Nov. 17 at a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. He was 93.

His death was confirmed by his daughter, Junko Ito.

Mr. Ito is known for his contributions to probability theory, the study of randomness. His work, starting in the 1940s, built on the earlier breakthroughs of Albert Einstein and Norbert Wiener. Mr. Ito’s mathematical framework for describing the evolution of random phenomena came to be known as the Ito Calculus.

“People all over realized that what Ito had done explained things that were unexplainable before,” said Daniel Stroock, a professor of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Mr. Ito’s research was theoretical, but his models served as a tool kit for others, notably in finance. Robert C. Merton, a winner of the Nobel in economic science, said he found Mr. Ito’s model “a very useful tool” in his research on the evolution of stock prices in a portfolio and, later, in helping develop a theory for pricing stock options that is used on Wall Street today. Mr. Ito, he said, was “a very eminent mathematician.”

Starting in the 1950s, Mr. Ito spent lengthy stints outside Japan at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., Aarhus University in Denmark, Cornell and Stanford. Each of his three daughters was born in a different country — one in Japan, one in Denmark and one in the United States.

Japan is often said to have an inward-looking culture, Mr. Stroock noted. “But this was a man who was the opposite of insular,” said Mr. Stroock, who occasionally collaborated with Mr. Ito.

Kiyoshi Ito was born Sept. 7, 1915, in a farm town west of Nagoya, Japan. An excellent student, he was accepted to Japan’s elite Tokyo University. After graduating, he spent the war years mainly as a statistician in a government office, worked briefly as an assistant professor at Nagoya University and returned to Tokyo University for his doctorate in 1945.

Mr. Ito learned four foreign languages, Chinese, German, French and English. Yet he mastered them as written languages instead of conversationally. He liked to joke about how his spoken English was impenetrable to many Americans, notably on a car trip to Texas with his youngest daughter, Junko, who ended up doing all the talking with Texans.

Mr. Ito collected many professional honors and awards over the years. He was a foreign member of the national academies of science in the United States and France. He was awarded the Kyoto Prize, the Wolf Foundation Prize of Israel and the Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize of Germany.

Mr. Ito is survived by his three daughters, Keiko Kojima of Otsu, Japan; Kazuko Sorensen of London; and Junko of Santa Cruz, Calif. His wife of 61 years, Shizue, died in 2000.

Mr. Stroock of M.I.T. said Mr. Ito had an intense curiosity, whether focused on math theory or world affairs or shoeing horses. When Mr. Stroock taught at the University of Colorado in the 1970s, he recalled, Mr. Ito stayed with him while they worked on a writing project together. One day, Mr. Stroock told Mr. Ito that he could not work on their book because his horses were being shod that day.

Mr. Ito eagerly trailed along. “He drove the farrier crazy because every time the guy did anything, Ito asked a question,” Mr. Stroock said.

Louise Story contributed reporting.

2008年11月21日 星期五

John Leighton Stuart 司徒雷登

November 21, 2008, 12:17 pm

Remembering John Leighton Stuart

Stuart SpanPhoto: Fugh family

Two leading historians were asked to comment on the role John Leighton Stuart played in U.S.–China relations. They responded with these emails:

Stuart PlanePhoto: Fugh family
Stuart 4Photo: Fugh family

From NANCY BERNKOPF TUCKER, a professor of history at Georgetown University and an expert on U.S.–China relations:

Stuart was reasonably significant as the last US ambassador on the mainland. Having been president of Yenching University he knew some of the Chinese leadership from their school days. Most important of these was Huang Hua and he may have been sent to Nanjing specifically to make contact with the ambassador as the civil war was in its critical phase. Stuart wanted to travel to Beijing and was invited to go. He hoped to talk to Chinese leaders (it is unclear if he would have been able to do so), but the Truman administration would not allow him to travel north. He and Chiang Kai-shek had somewhat tense relations in the last years he was in China but the Korean War changed his mind and Stuart became more supportive of Chiang and the ROC. He was later denounced on the mainland in the “Resist America, Aid Korea” campaign as a spy and enemy of the people. I suppose it makes a difference what you mean by significant. Stuart was a symbol of what the US hoped to do, and thought it was doing, in China — helping to build a strong and prosperous country

Stuart 5Photo: Fugh family
Stuart 6Photo: Fugh family

From CHEN JIAN, the Michael J. Zak professor of history for U.S.– China relations at Cornell University:

In my own research on the making of the Chinese-American confrontation, I studied Stuart; as the last US ambassador to China before the 1949 Communist takeover and also as head of Yenching University in the 1930s, he played an extremely important role in US-China relation. In particular, his efforts to bridge the US and the Chinese Communists (which included his meetings with Huang Hua, one of his Yenching students and, in 1949, the person in charge of the Communist Communist foreign affairs in Nanjing, where Stuart stayed after the departure of the Nationalist Government) has been a topic of extensive dicussion about scholars on US-China relations. Shao Yuming has a book on him; and, in my own book, China’s Road to the Korean War, I devoted a section to the Stuart-Huang meetings (Hua later became the PRC’s foreign minister). After the US Statement published the “China White Paper” in August 1949, Mao wrote five essays to rebut it, and one was titled “Farewll, John Leighton Stuart.”


华盛顿和北京对司徒雷登一生有着特殊意 义。美国纽约时报在本周四的报道中写道:“美国传教士、前美国驻华大使司徒雷登逝世46年后骨灰在杭州安葬。他在去世前曾希望自己死后能和1926年去世 的妻子埋葬在一起。但由于当时的政治原因司导致了几十年间司徒先生的遗愿没能得以实现。”

1876年他出生在中国杭州,父亲也是早年到中 国从事基督教传教工作的神职人员。11岁那年他随父亲回到美国弗吉尼亚上学时,他的同学都取笑他是一个不会说话的怪物。司徒雷登的生命中有很多个第一,他 把西方的神学教育带到了中国,1919年他出任教会大学燕京大学的第一任校长。直到1949年在政权交替时被毛泽东勒令关闭学校,司徒雷登一行人在当年8 月返回美国太平洋舰队所在地珍珠港。燕京大学重新开放是在1996年。








John Leighton Stuart, China Expert, Is Buried There at Last

Published: November 19, 2008

SHANGHAI — On Aug. 2, 1949, with the Communists about to seize power in Beijing, the United States recalled its ambassador to China, John Leighton Stuart, a respected missionary, educator and diplomat.

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Eugene Hoshiko/Associated Press

A ceremony on Monday honored John Leighton Stuart,a missionary and educator whose ashes were laid to rest at a cemetery near the eastern city of Hangzhou, China.

Mao Zedong, the insurgent Communist leader who would take power two months later, quickly denounced Mr. Stuart as a symbol of failed American imperialism. Mr. Stuart’s departure effectively ended diplomatic ties between the United States and China for a quarter century.

Mr. Stuart died in Washington in 1962. He had written in his will that he hoped his remains would someday be buried in China, where he had been born the son of Christian missionaries in 1876 and had helped found a prominent university, but where he was no longer welcome.

For decades, the answer from Beijing seemed to be no.

But on Monday, 46 years after his death and after years of negotiations about the political implications of such a burial, Mr. Stuart’s ashes were laid to rest at a cemetery near the eastern city of Hangzhou, about two hours south of Shanghai.

A small ceremony honoring Mr. Stuart on Monday was attended by Chinese and American officials, including the vice mayor of Hangzhou and the United States ambassador, Clark Randt Jr., as well as alumni of Yenching University in Beijing, the institution Mr. Stuart helped found.

“We tried for years to get this done,” said Maj. Gen. John Fugh, 74, who has retired from the military and whose father was a close aide to Mr. Stuart in China. “Now, after nearly a half century, his wish has finally been carried out.”

China granted the longstanding request after General Fugh, who now leads the Committee of 100, a Chinese-American advocacy group, appealed to several top officials, including Xi Jinping, a new member of the Politburo Standing Committee. Mr. Xi, whom experts on party affairs expect to succeed President Hu Jintao as China’s top leader in 2012, had been the party boss in Shanghai and neighboring Zhejiang Province, where Hangzhou is located.

It took decades to resolve the matter, in part, because of an essay Mao wrote on Aug. 18, 1949, titled “Farewell, Leighton Stuart!” In it, Mao called Mr. Stuart “a symbol of the complete defeat of the U.S. policy of aggression” and chided the United States for its support of the Nationalists, who fought the Communists in a civil war before fleeing to Taiwan in 1949 with their leader, Chiang Kai-shek.

The essay was reprinted in Chinese textbooks and is recited by children all over China to this day.

In spite of President Nixon’s opening to China in the 1970s, the restoration of diplomatic relations between the United States and China and trillions of dollars in trade between the countries, even senior Communist Party officials hesitated to take a clear stand on a matter on which Mao had made such a memorable pronouncement. While many of Mao’s policies have long since been discarded, the ruling party still promotes him as the father of the modern Chinese nation.

Mr. Stuart’s own history is a window into the shifting sands of United States-China relations from the later years of the Qing dynasty to the rise of Communism.

He was born in Hangzhou and grew up speaking fluent Chinese. He moved to the United States with his parents at the age of 11, eventually earned a degree from Union Theological Seminary and returned to China in 1904.

For the next 45 years, he worked as a missionary and educator in Hangzhou, Beijing and Nanjing. He raised money from wealthy Americans, including Henry Luce, the founder of Time and Life magazines, and in 1919 founded and was president of Yenching University, a Christian institution whose idyllic campus now is the site of Peking University.

Historians say Mr. Stuart pushed for reforms in China and led protests against the Japanese occupation of northern and then eastern China. Because of his stance, he was jailed in Beijing by the Japanese after Pearl Harbor. He was released in 1945.

A year later, he was named ambassador to China at a time when Washington was supporting the Nationalists, who were waging a civil war with the Communists.

Mr. Stuart was the last American ambassador to China before the Communists seized power. It was not until 1973, after Nixon pushed to re-establish relations, that the United States opened a diplomatic liaison office in Beijing.

Mr. Stuart returned to Washington in 1949 and suffered a stroke. His wife, who had died in 1926, was buried near Yenching University; his parents were buried in Hangzhou.

General Fugh said Mr. Stuart lived the last decade of his life in Washington, under the care of General Fugh’s father, Philip Fugh. Mr. Fugh was Mr. Stuart’s longtime assistant.

The effort to have Mr. Stuart buried in China goes back to the 1960s. Mr. Stuart’s children tried but failed to persuade Beijing to allow his remains to be buried there. They died and left no heirs. And in 1988, Philip Fugh died after unsuccessfully pressing for a burial in China. General Fugh has led the efforts since.

Last year, after meeting Mr. Xi, General Fugh said he got word that a burial in Hangzhou had been approved.

Mr. Stuart’s ashes were brought to Shanghai through American diplomatic channels. And on Monday, they were slipped into the ground in Hangzhou. The Yenching alumni played “The Star-Spangled Banner” and “Amazing Grace.”

“This is a promise that has been fulfilled after half a century,” General Fugh said Wednesday. “Now, Ambassador Stuart and my father can rest in peace.”

施舟人 ( K. M. Schipper)

中國文化基因庫,作者:施舟人, 本書內容包括:文化基因庫、老台南的土地公會、滑稽神、仙人唐公房等.
香港道教联合会积极推动道教文化,去年启建罗天大醮,而是项展览是罗天大醮的活动系列之一,期望藉著展览,以观照作为中国本土宗教的道教与中国文化互动发展、相辅相成的历史文化面貌,令观赏者认识文物中的道教,道教文物中的中国文化。 是次展览将于二月二十三日至五月十一日在中文大学文物馆展厅I举行。此外,二月二十三日下午二时三十分至四时三十分,将举行公开学术演讲,由施舟人教授主讲「道教与中国艺术」,地点为香港艺术馆地库演讲厅。施舟人现任福州大学国际汉学研究院院长、福州大学西观藏书楼主任、荷兰莱顿大学荣誉退职教授。施舟人主要从事中国宗教历史研究,其以法文撰写的《道体论》被译成英文、荷兰文、意大利文、日文,中文译本也即将面世。他主撰的《道藏通考》三卷本,由芝加哥大学出版社出版,另有学术著作十多种、论文八十多篇。讲座公开

施 舟 人 的 道 教 研 究 : 施 舟 人 ( 又 譯 施 博 爾 , Kristofer M . Schipper , 1 9 3 4 ─ ) 是 康 德 謨 和 石 泰 安 的 弟 子 。 施 舟 人 , 原 籍 荷 蘭 , 1 9 5 3 年 到 法 國 學 習 , 自 1 9 5 8 年 起 專 事 道 教 研 究 。 1 9 6 2 年 , 以 法 國 遠 東 學 院 的 研 究 員 身 份 , 到 台 灣 作 關 於 道 教 的 田 野 調 查 工 作 。 施 舟 人 以 台 南 著 名 正 一 派 道 士 曾 賜 、 陳 聬 和 陳 榮 盛 為 師 , 研 究 台 灣 南 部 靈 寶 清 微 宗 科 儀 、 制 度 , 歷 時 七 年 。 1 9 7 0 年 回 法 國 時 , 搜 羅 了 許 多 台 南 世 家 道 士 祖 傳 的 科 儀 秘 典 以 及 民 間 流 傳 的 戲 曲 唱 本 。 1 9 7 0 年 起 , 任 法 國 高 等 研 究 院 教 授 。 1 9 7 3 年 , 創 立 道 教 研 究 及 資 料 中 心 。 1 9 7 5 年 曾 任 歐 洲 研 究 中 國 協 會 的 秘 書 長 , 并 且 主 持 了 國 際 規 模 的 《 道 藏 索 引 和 提 要 》 的 編 製 工 作 。 參 加 這 一 系 統 審 核 《 道 藏 》 中 各 種 經 籍 的 作 者 、 流 派 、 年 代 和 內 容 以 及 編 製 索 引 工 作 的 專 家 有 法 國 、 意 大 利 、 丹 麥 、 荷 蘭 、 瑞 士 、 德 國 和 美 國 的 漢 學 家 。 1 9 7 9 年 , 作 為 主 辦 單 位 之 一 , 施 舟 人 主 持 了 在 瑞 士 蘇 黎 世 召 開 的 " 第 三 次 國 際 道 教 研 究 會 議 " 。 自 1 9 8 1 年 起 , 施 舟 人 多 次 訪 問 中 國 大 陸 , 一 次 次 調 查 研 究 大 陸 道 教 的 歷 史 和 現 狀 。 1 9 8 9 年 , 施 舟 人 就 任 法 蘭 西 學 院 漢 學 研 究 所 所 長 。 不 久 , 就 因 研 究 工 作 繁 忙 而 離 任 。 大 約 在 九 十 年 代 初 , 又 應 邀 擔 任 荷 蘭 萊 頓 大 學 教 授 , 奔 忙 於 荷 蘭 和 法 國 之 間 。 施 舟 人 對 道 教 研 究 的 貢 獻 有 四 個 方 面 :

一 是 編 製 了 道 教 研 究 的 工 具 書 。 例 如 : 《 黃 庭 經 索 引 》 、 《 抱 朴 子 內 篇 索 引 》 、 《 抱 朴 子 外 篇 索 引 》 、 《 雲 笈 七 籤 索 引 》 、 《 道 藏 通 檢 》 等 。 其 中 《 道 藏 通 檢 》 是 一 字 檢 索 型 的 工 具 書 。 任 何 人 只 要 記 住 經 名 中 一 個 字 , 就 可 以 查 找 全 名 和 《 道 藏 》 所 在 卷 冊 。 該 工 具 書 經 台 灣 配 編 於 新 版 《 正 統 道 藏 》 一 起 發 行 , 流 傳 廣 泛 。 1 9 9 6 年 , 上 海 書 店 出 版 了 由 施 舟 人 原 編 、 陳 耀 庭 改 編 的 《 道 藏 索 引 ─ ─ 五 種 版 本 道 藏 通 檢 》 , 作 為 新 版 三 家 本 《 道 藏 》 的 工 具 書 。 國 際 學 術 界 有 人 認 為 , 正 是 由 於 施 舟 人 編 製 的 大 量 工 具 書 問 世 , 才 促 進 了 七 八 十 年 代 國 際 範 圍 出 現 了 道 教 研 究 的 高 潮 。

二 是 關 於 道 教 儀 式 的 研 究 。 施 舟 人 重 視 道 教 儀 式 的 內 容 、 形 式 和 歷 史 演 進 的 諸 多 方 面 。 1 9 7 5 年 施 舟 人 以 大 英 博 物 館 藏 《 金 籙 分 燈 卷 簾 科 儀 全 集 》 為 底 本 , 以 台 南 道 士 曾 賜 家 藏 本 、 陳 聬 家 藏 本 、 湖 街 道 士 王 龍 飛 家 藏 本 和 《 道 藏 》 本 相 對 照 , 匯 校 整 理 了 一 份 《 金 籙 分 燈 卷 簾 科 儀 》 的 較 為 完 整 的 經 本 。 在 著 作 中 , 施 舟 人 還 注 重 當 代 道 士 舉 行 該 儀 式 的 實 態 , 以 1 9 6 7 年 3 月 6 日 台 灣 蘇 厝 的 鄉 村 金 籙 祈 安 禳 災 醮 為 例 , 詳 細 描 述 了 分 燈 科 儀 的 壇 場 設 置 、 神 位 安 排 、 行 儀 道 士 的 分 工 職 務 幾 職 責 、 行 儀 程 序 以 及 演 唱 的 曲 譜 等 等 。 此 外 , 施 舟 人 還 發 表 了 《 道 教 的 古 典 的 和 地 方 的 儀 式 》 、 《 「 步 虛 」 研 究 》 、 《 關 於 中 國 之 替 身 儀 禮 》 等 。

三 是 關 於 道 教 史 和 道 教 實 體 的 研 究 。 施 舟 人 的 第 一 部 道 教 研 究 著 作 是 1 9 6 5 年 出 版 的 《 〈 漢 武 帝 內 傳 〉 研 究 》 。 《 不 列 顛 百 科 全 書 》 稱 《 漢 武 帝 內 傳 研 究 》 是 「 對 於 道 教 徒 傳 記 小 說 的 翻 譯 以 及 對 茅 山 派 宗 教 儀 式 背 景 的 研 究 」 。 其 後 , 施 舟 人 的 道 教 史 研 究 大 多 與 道 教 儀 式 史 有 關 。 例 如 : 《 對 於 都 功 職 務 功 能 的 幾 點 考 察 》 、 《 關 於 敦 煌 文 書 中 所 見 道 士 的 法 位 》 、 《 唐 代 的 道 教 儀 禮 和 地 方 崇 拜 》 、 《 趙 宜 真 和 道 教 清 微 派 》 等 。

四 是 對 於 道 教 綜 合 研 究 。 1 9 8 2 年 , 施 舟 人 在 巴 黎 出 版 了 《 道 教 之 體 》 , 1 9 9 3 年 , 美 國 的 加 裡 福 尼 亞 大 學 出 版 了 該 書 的 英 文 翻 譯 本 。 《 道 教 之 體 》 是 一 本 綜 合 研 究 道 教 的 著 作 。 施 舟 人 在 英 文 本 〈 序 言 〉 中 稱 , 「 道 教 仍 然 生 存 著 , 雖 然 它 面 對 許 多 不 利 的 處 境 。 它 部 分 地 殘 存 在 中 國 人 每 天 的 生 活 之 中 , 然 而 沒 有 清 晰 而 明 確 的 輪 廓 。 為 了 考 察 它 們 , 我 們 必 須 深 入 說 明 道 教 各 個 組 成 部 分 , 那 些 涉 及 到 物 化 的 體 , 還 有 有 關 社 會 的 體 。 也 就 是 說 , 我 們 不 僅 應 該 考 慮 到 養 生 的 技 術 和 長 生 之 道 , 而 且 應 該 注 意 到 道 教 的 禮 拜 儀 式 、 神 話 和 神 秘 的 道 教 法 術 。 所 有 這 些 方 面 , 有 時 讓 我 們 看 來 有 不 一 致 的 地 方 , 但 是 它 們 在 道 教 之 中 卻 是 緊 密 相 連 的 」 。 這 本 著 作 還 認 為 「 普 通 人 的 社 會 、 地 區 和 地 方 的 文 化 、 寺 廟 和 社 會 網 絡 系 統 。 中 國 的 這 一 方 面 ─ ─ 反 映 著 民 眾 的 絕 大 多 數 ─ ─ 并 不 是 像 宣 傳 要 我 們 相 信 的 那 樣 , 『 愚 昧 和 迷 信 的 人 群 』 。 普 通 人 的 社 會 深 深 扎 根 於 他 們 信 仰 和 崇 拜 儀 式 的 傳 統 之 中 。 這 個 傳 統 是 強 大 而 旺 盛 的 , 足 以 使 道 教 在 經 受 最 嚴 厲 的 迫 害 之 下 仍 能 生 存 下 來 。 民 眾 的 道 教 仍 保 持 著 它 的 宗 教 名 山 、 它 的 節 慶 日 子 和 它 的 祭 祀 壇 場 。 首 先 它 的 掌 管 文 獻 寶 庫 , 即 《 道 藏 》 , 是 最 重 要 的 例 子 。 可 以 這 樣 認 為 , 中 國 民 眾 的 宗 教 是 中 國 的 官 方 文 化 和 官 方 意 識 形 態 的 平 衡 物 」 。 施 舟 人 的 《 道 教 之 體 》 , 充 分 反 映 了 當 代 法 國 道 教 研 究 家 們 的 胸 懷 、 視 野 和 新 的 研 究 方 法 及 其 特 點 。 施 舟 人 的 這 本 著 作 不 僅 有 文 獻 研 究 的 成 果 , 更 有 許 多 調 查 研 究 的 材 料 , 體 現 了 用 結 構 觀 點 觀 察 社 會 和 道 教 的 方 法 , 在 傳 統 研 究 的 基 礎 上 , 增 添 了 注 意 道 教 實 態 的 社 會 學 和 人 類 學 研 究 的 內 容 , 豐 富 了 一 個 世 紀 以 來 的 法 國 的 道 教 研 究 的 傳 統 。 施 舟 人 在 《 道 教 之 體 》 的 第 一 章 總 論 中 , 認 為 道 教 是 不 能 以 西 方 習 慣 對 宗 教 的 看 法 加 以 觀 察 的 , 「 它 是 中 國 民 眾 宗 教 的 最 高 的 表 現 , 它 擁 有 豐 富 而 博 大 的 文 獻 , 其 數 量 超 過 一 千 種 , 并 且 蘊 涵 著 中 國 傳 統 民 間 信 仰 的 所 有 方 面 」 。 正 因 為 如 此 , 日 本 學 者 福 井 文 雅 曾 經 評 價 施 舟 人 「 不 僅 是 法 國 , 也 是 歐 洲 站 在 世 界 道 教 研 究 第 一 線 上 的 人 物 」 。


  古朴的中式家具,戎裝的關羽挂像,高鼻梁、藍眼睛的主人正坐在八仙桌旁,用青花瓷茶具沏著中國功夫茶。10月22日,記者在福州大學拜訪了這位特殊主 人──荷蘭皇家科學院院士、法國高等研究院教授KristoferSchipper。他有個頗具寓意的中文名字:施舟人。 





  畢業后在盧浮宮博物館工作期間,施先生發現館中中國南北朝時期的繪畫作品,技藝精湛,藝朮價值不可估量。這更堅定了他研究中國文化藝朮的信念。隨后, 他在巴黎大學和法蘭西學院攻讀中國思想史,獲得人文學博士學位,1962年,作為法國遠東研究院的研究員,被派往台灣作“訪問學者”。 



  此間,施先生由于在泉州有個研究項目,常往返于福建、荷蘭。有一回,福州大學一位校領導向他表示了特聘誠意,2001年9月,施先生攜夫人及活潑可愛 的小女兒瑪婭,千里赴閩。“以前一直想退休后到中國教書,如今如愿以償了。我太太是閩東人,我對閩南很熟悉,這里離白瓷故鄉德化也很近。”施先生說。








  施先生說,“這個樓建起來后,人們可以從這里獲取世界上重要的文化資源。” (戴艷梅 李閩 阮虹)

2008年11月17日 星期一

Yahoo!’s Jerry Yang to quit

Jerry Yang to quit as Yahoo boss

Maggie Shiels
Technology reporter, BBC News, Silicon Valley

Jerry Yang
Mr Yang made the decision to quit as CEO last month, the BBC was told

Jerry Yang, the co-founder of Yahoo, is to stand down as the internet portal's chief executive officer.

His departure follows lengthy criticism of his stewardship of the company, which has seen its share price collapse to about $10.

Earlier in the year he fought off a hostile takeover bid from Microsoft which offered $33 a share.

Mr Yang also told the workforce that he would be participating in the search for his successor.

"I will always do what is right for this great company," Mr Yang wrote in an e-mail to employees.

The BBC was told that Mr Yang made the decision to leave as chief executive officer last month. No names were given as to who will succeed him.

The company, based in Sunnyvale, California, said it is interviewing candidates inside and outside Yahoo in a search led by chairman Roy Bostock.

"Jerry and the board have had an ongoing dialogue about succession timing, and we all agree that now is the right time to make the transition to a new CEO who can take the company to the next level," said Mr Bostock.

low shares

Earlier this month at the recent Web 2.0 Summit in San Francisco, Mr Yang surprised the industry when he told conference attendees that Microsoft should still buy the company.

"I don't think it's a bad idea at all, at the right price whatever that price is. We're willing to sell the company," he told a packed audience.

The declaration came hours after Google had pulled out of an internet advertising deal with Yahoo amid increasing scrutiny from the Department of Justice.

Mr Yang said he was "disappointed" Google had pulled out of the partnership.

Mr Yang's e-mail to employees ended with the words: "All of you know that I have always and will always bleed purple" - in reference to the predominant colour on the company's logo.

Yahoo's shares closed on Monday at $10.63, giving the company a valuation of only $14.7bn.

Face value

Portal of doom

Nov 13th 2008
From The Economist print edition

Yahoo!’s Jerry Yang, a nice person and a pioneer of the web, must go


NOBODY would have been surprised if he had pulled out. Hours before Jerry Yang of Yahoo!, one of the world’s largest internet companies, was due to appear on the stage at an industry conference in San Francisco on November 5th, a big part of his firm’s strategy disintegrated. But Mr Yang gamely turned up at the Web 2.0 Summit nevertheless, and in his gentle and polite way tried to explain how it had all gone so wrong. This has been a “pretty amazing year”, he said with understatement. But he couldn’t quite bring himself to admit that he had made a mistake in June 2007 by taking over as chief executive of the firm that he and his friend David Filo had founded in 1994, at which they had since held only the tongue-in-cheek titles of “chief Yahoos”. Yet a mistake it clearly was, and it is time for Mr Yang and Yahoo!’s shareholders to say so.

At the time Mr Yang thought that he could, through sheer passion for his creation, revive the ailing company. He had been one of those who, during the dotcom depression, invited a Hollywood mogul, Terry Semel, to run Yahoo! and turn it into a media company. Both Mr Semel and Mr Yang, however, missed the significance of a new rival, Google, even though Messrs Yang and Filo had helped Google’s two founders—all four had been graduate students at Stanford—to get started only a few years earlier.

Whereas Yahoo! saw itself as a “portal”, or gateway, to media content on the web, Google gave web surfers a simple search box as their starting point. Whereas Yahoo! still thought of advertising as the equivalent of neon signs flashing on a web page, Google placed tiny text snippets in the margins of its search results, targeted precisely at the keywords of the search and charging advertisers only when people clicked. In time, Yahoo! understood that Google’s way was the future and tried to catch up—first by hiring Google to supply search, then by firing Google and buying and building its own equivalent. But it was too late to catch up.

Mr Yang, who by nature is a non-confrontational sort of person, loyally supported Mr Semel until the very last moment, telling The Economist in May 2007 that he and the rest of the board were “in lockstep” behind their leader. One month later Mr Semel was out and, to some surprise, Mr Yang took his place. But things then began to go even more wrong.

The man whose big and lovable smile had once greeted millions of newcomers to the internet with “Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web” soon found himself testifying before Congress, with a grieving Chinese mother sitting behind him, about exactly what information Yahoo! had shared that had led to the jailing of two dissidents in China. Back at the office, Mr Yang had to deal with warring fiefs and bitter personal rivalries. Executives kept leaving, engineers were demoralised and innovative projects were put on hold.

Then, in February this year, Microsoft offered to buy Yahoo! for $33 a share. This could have put Mr Yang out of his misery. Microsoft, which owns a portal similar to Yahoo!’s and a search engine even further behind Google’s, wanted to combine forces to put up a better fight. Mr Yang said no. Several big shareholders revolted, but Mr Yang insisted that the price was too low. In the end, Microsoft gave up in frustration. “A lot of people have replayed that in their minds; I’m no exception,” Mr Yang said ruefully at the conference. With Yahoo!’s share price now at $12, he is eager to prove that he negotiated in good faith. At the right price, “we were willing to sell the company,” he said at the conference, but “they walked away.” He said that “I don’t have an ego about remaining independent” and that “both sides are to blame.” Perhaps.

But Mr Yang never offered a clear alternative to Microsoft’s proposal. He went back to his friends at Google, who obliged by offering an advertising alliance that might have given Yahoo! some extra cashflow to tide it over a restructuring. The drawback was that the deal would have had Google, already the dominant power in search advertising, placing its ads next to Yahoo!’s searches in America. Trustbusters were suspicious, even when Google offered to make concessions. That is why Google, thinking of its long-term antitrust strategy, abandoned the deal on November 5th, shortly before Mr Yang took to the stage. With a sad shrug, Mr Yang admitted that he was “disappointed”.

Now what? For years, there has been talk that Yahoo! and AOL, a portal owned by Time Warner, a media giant, should merge. They are similar, but it is hard to see how combining two long-in-the-tooth portals could somehow create an innovative Google killer. Both rely heavily on branded “display” advertising, which is suffering far more in the recession than the more precise search-related ads that are Google’s mainstay.

Annus horribilis

Mr Yang does not deserve the blame for all of this year’s woe. Bad things can happen to nice people. But he has never even given a convincing answer to the question of what Yahoo!’s strategy should be in an ideal world. To be a “starting point” for half a billion web surfers, Mr Yang likes to say. But how is that different from the old “portal” idea which stopped working long ago, or the search box that Google in effect controls?

Mr Yang told the conference audience that he wants Yahoo! to become a “platform company”, suggesting that outside developers should build applications to make Yahoo!’s services more useful. But Microsoft, Google, Facebook, Amazon, Salesforce.com and all other self-respecting technology firms nowadays want to become platforms, too. Why should Yahoo!, which has been less innovative, be the one to succeed? This argument is the one that pains Mr Yang the most. There is a “perception that we’re following,” he admitted, but “we do believe we’re innovating.” The audience of web entrepreneurs, many of them once inspired by Mr Yang’s example, let the matter drop. It is a bit sad to tell this old web hero to go. He must decide to do so himself.

2008年11月16日 星期日

Mieczyslaw Rakowski, 李錫銘

Mieczyslaw Rakowski, Poland’s Last Communist Premier, Dies at 81

Published: November 11, 2008

Mieczyslaw Rakowski, the last leader of the Polish Communist Party and the last Communist prime minister of Poland, who deftly — inscrutably, some said — juggled his reputation as a reformist with what became open antipathy toward the Solidarity movement, died Friday in Warsaw. He was 81.

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Piotr Rybarczyk, 2002

Mieczyslaw Rakowski

Polish Radio said the cause was cancer.

Mr. Rakowski (his full name is pronounced MY-cheh-slav Rah-KOF-skee) was for decades the editor of an influential weekly newspaper and was known for his carefully calibrated criticism of the Communist government.

Early on, he urged the government to recognize Solidarity, which started as a labor union and grew into a democratic political force and ultimately Poland’s government.

After becoming deputy prime minister in January 1981, Mr. Rakowski pushed for liberalizing reforms, telling a party congress in July that the alternative, in the face of mounting dissent, was a bloodbath.

The next month, he tried to strike a deal with Solidarity to give labor unions a formal role in Polish society, but the talks collapsed in acrimony.

On news broadcasts, Poles saw an angry Mr. Rakowski shaking his finger in the face of Lech Walesa, the Solidarity leader.

Less than a year later, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, the de facto head of government, imposed martial law to crush Solidarity. Thousands were arrested without charge and more than 100 were killed.

Mr. Rakowski defended the “state of war,” which lasted until July 1983, as necessary to forestall the Soviets from invading to re-establish order.

Mr. Rakowski became prime minister in September 1988 and held the post until August 1989. In July 1989 he was appointed first secretary of the Polish Communist Party, succeeding General Jaruzelski, who stayed on as president.

In his leadership posts, Mr. Rakowski presided over “round-table” negotiations that led to the legalization of Solidarity, the dissolution of the Communist Party and Poland’s becoming a pluralist democracy.

For many years, Mr. Rakowski, with his superb connections, his facility in languages (German, Russian and English) and a flair for sartorial style then unusual in Eastern Europe, was a magnet for visiting foreigners, particularly politicians and journalists, who liked his candor. He steadfastly defended Communist governance as necessary to avoid a Russian invasion.

Mr. Walesa — whom Mr. Rakowski used to call “Doctor,” a sarcastic reference to his lack of formal education — said in an interview with The Washington Post last year that he had understood Mr. Rakowski’s view. Polish Communists, he said, thought that the Russians “had directed missiles at every Polish city.”

“I do not punish people for faith, and they believed in that,” Mr. Walesa added. “I’m leaving the judgments to God.”

Mieczyslaw Franciszek Rakowski was born on Dec. 1, 1926, in the western Polish village of Kowalewko. His father, a farmer, was shot by a Nazi firing squad.

The younger Mr. Rakowski worked in a railway repair shop and then earned a doctorate in history. He joined the Communist Party in 1946 and was assigned in 1949 to the Central Committee to write party documents and propaganda.

In 1956, Wladyslaw Gomulka became party leader and pushed for a relaxation of some of the more repressive policies of Stalin. In this new atmosphere of de-Stalinization, Mr. Rakowski helped found Polityka, a weekly. He was editor in chief from 1958 to 1982 and developed a talent for criticizing officials in metaphors.

In the mid-1960s, as repression returned, Mr. Rakowski refused to follow others in attacking the Roman Catholic Church and Jews. He ignored orders to fire Jews.

“If I am prepared to give up one tooth, I’ll have to give up all of them,” he said of his refusal to compromise on such issues, The Wall Street Journal reported in 1982.

Mr. Rakowski’s first marriage was to Wanda Wilkomirska, a gifted Polish violinist. She was Jewish, was active in dissident groups and helped shape his liberalism by introducing him to artists and intellectuals who resisted Communism. They divorced in 1977. His second wife was Elzbieta Kepinska, an actress who was barred from performing by the theatrical establishment in protest of her husband’s association with martial law. After the first multiparty elections in 1989, she was able to resume her career.

Mr. Rakowski is survived by Ms. Kepinska and two sons.

In 1987, Mr. Rakowski was appointed the Central Committee’s secretary for propaganda, one of several party jobs he held between being deputy prime minister and prime minister.

As chief propagandist, he controlled the same press censorship he had fought for a quarter-century.

After the Polish Communist Party dissolved itself in January 1990, The Washington Post sent a reporter to the office of the party’s last leader. Mr. Rakowski sat facing an empty wall. He had taken down the portrait of Lenin that had hung there for years.

“The Communist Party should be relegated to history,” he said.


Li Ximing, Supporter of Tiananmen Crackdown, Dies at 82

Published: November 11, 2008

BEIJING (AP) — Li Ximing, Beijing’s Communist Party boss during the bloody 1989 crackdown on pro-democracy protests, died Saturday in Beijing, Chinese state media reported Tuesday. He was 82.

No cause was given in the announcement by the official Xinhua News Agency.

Mr. Li had been a leading member of the group of conservative veteran cadres who supported the military assault on the student-led protests in the capital’s central Tiananmen Square on the night of June 3-4, 1989. Hundreds, possibly thousands, were killed in the action, most of them ordinary citizens seeking to block the troops’ advance.

The defiance and bloodshed marked the last serious challenge to the party’s authority.

Although Mr. Li did not play a particularly prominent role in the assault on pro-democracy protests, he was credited with advocating it, alongside Beijing’s mayor, Chen Xitong, in a compilation purporting to be internal documents on the crackdown published overseas.

According to “The Tiananmen Papers,” published in 2001, the two men endorsed a document labeling the protests as an “anti-party and anti-Socialist political struggle,” all but eliminating the possibility of dialogue.

Mr. Li was removed from his post as part of efforts by the paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, to revive free market economic reforms in the years after the crackdown and given the largely ceremonial post of vice chairman of China’s rubber stamp legislature. He had earlier been a longtime bureaucrat in the power and water conservancy fields. He retired from public life in 1998.

Mr. Chen, who replaced Mr. Li as Beijing party chief, was later sentenced to 16 years in prison for corruption as part of a purge of political opponents by Jiang Zemin, Deng’s successor as top leader.

2008年11月14日 星期五


一家大型公司的品管之發展,也是很複雜的,所以我們現在讀下書的簡述,應當記住這只是HP公司當時二百位總經理之中比較有特色的一位 黃河明「黃河明的惠普經驗」,台北:天下文化,2000年,頁101-22"品管第一,顧客至上"。

PDCA, Bill 說戴明故事,「擦り合わせ」透明化 Motorola HP

悅智全球顧問公司董事長 黃河明


政治大學 IMBA教授

惠普泰國分公司(HP Thailand)第一任總經理(1989)



中華民國開放系統協會理事長 (1991-1994)
亞太產經研究會理事長 (1998-1999)
台北市消費者電子商務協會理事長 (1999-2000;2003-2005)
中華民國管理科學學會理事 (1995迄今)
國家發展會議委員 (1996)
經濟發展會議委員 (2001)
總統府科技諮詢委員會委員 (2001迄今)


台北訊 2000/06/19 16:54:00 惠普台灣區營運總部今天(19)表示,該公司董事長黃河明已於日前辭職,並將在七月一日正式離去,除了將專心修好其台大商學研究所博士論文之外,也將於七月五日發表新出「黃河明的惠普經驗」。


針對此項人事新佈局,惠普科技亞太區總裁Dick Warmington特別讚許黃河明過去在惠普台灣的表現,他表示,黃河明不僅讓惠普在台灣成為最受推崇的資訊領導廠商,並獲得惠普亞太區最佳整體表現 獎,並三度獲得惠普內部最高榮譽的總裁品質獎,使得菲奧麗納(惠普總裁)願意在來台期間為台灣國家精品獎錄影,推崇「Made in Taiwan」的台灣產品形象於全球。對於黃河明在未來專心攻讀博士論文的決心,必須致上我最大的敬意與祝福。


2008年11月11日 星期二

Czeslaw Milosz Ketman

發現我還沒在此建Czeslaw Milosz檔

leviathan, Leviathan By Czeslaw Milosz


So Little

I said so little.
Days were short.

Short days.
Short nights.
Short years.

I said so little.
I couldn't keep up.

My heart grew weary
From joy,

The jaws of Leviathan
Were closing upon me.

Naked, I lay on the shores
Of desert islands.

The white whale of the world
Hauled me down to its pit.

And now I don't know
What in all that was real.

Berkeley, 1969

By Czeslaw Milosz from "The Collected Poems 1931-1987", 1988
Translated by Czeslaw Milosz and Lillian Vallee



波蘭詩人Czeslaw Milosz ( 發音pronounced ( CHESS-wahf MEE-wosh),1911-2004)辭世。

他是諾貝爾文學獎得主(1980;他對於同事得諾貝爾經濟學獎感到不解,因為它認為這不是科學,而是預測之藝術)。他在文字上他多才多藝,作品很多,我 還沒全集書名冊。(An artist of extraordinary intellectual energy, Mr. Milosz was also an essayist, literary translator and scholar of the first rank. )。

我們可進入看/聽(10分鐘英文諾貝爾受獎演說前幾段):("who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts")http://www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/1980/

Czeslaw Milosz大陸統一稱為「米沃什」( CHESS-wahf MEE-wosh);台灣有數種稱呼:米洛斯、米瓦希、米沃什。米沃什可以稱為「大翻譯家,他在柏克萊大學授課,他們集體翻譯戰後波蘭師選等作品via a growing team of translators…

我今天讀《米沃什詞典》( Milosz's ABC's),這是一本稱為 abcedary(Ogilvy's List of Favorite Word) 的啟蒙書-入門作品,以字母排列之,主題(Milosz 相關的人、事、思想、地方…..),又可稱為「Milosz關鍵辭-回憶錄」(他認為,所有的傳記或多或少是虛構,只能了解傳主時代氛圍)。


我大略讀一下,發現這本應該加進目錄和索引和詳注才行,因為作者認識和談到的古今、世界、人物實在特別多。譬如說,他談他喜歡的佛教方式和「正意」「正心」(mindfulness,我猜是八正道,翻譯者沒掌握這 原翻譯為"用深心" )、鈴木大拙禪與詩(近兩頁,其實他又大談Suzuki翻譯的瑞典神秘學家斯威登堡---此人在許多條目都提到 因為Milosz雖說他的書有催眠效果 不過19- 20世紀初太多文人受到他影響.....)……

Simon University 的讀者,很快就會找到翻譯的小小缺失:ADAMITE在A. S. Byatt《迷情書蹤》的翻譯討論出現過:

In his day, works on Evolution had been catalogued under Pre-Adamite Man.


《米沃什詞典》將 adamite翻譯成「亞當天體信徒」(譯注:原意為模仿亞當人)



-ite為某某後裔, 某某一族, 某某路線人, 某處之民等等, 諸如此類...
因此Adamite即亞當一族的人, 而根據創造論(也就是在進化論出現之前西方唯一的宇宙起源論), 所有人類都源自亞當, 亞當是第一人, 亞當之前沒有人.
進化論出現, 這理論裡面自然沒有亞當的地位.
所以pre-Adamite Man 其實是一個很矛盾的名詞
相信創造, 相信亞當, 亞當之前就沒有人
不相信創造, 不相信亞當, 就不能用亞當作為人類和類人的分水嶺
這個oxymoron, 既不合創造論, 又不合進化論. 正反映那個時代新舊相交又對立, 傳統與現代雜處接壤, 科學與宗教糾結又論戰的轉型期氛圍, 新的學說還是免不了用舊的label, 才有"亞當之前的人類"這種怪組合來收納進化論類的著作.

不過聖經一派的學者, 也有人主張亞當之外與之前, 還有別系人類 (來源說法不一). 他們主張上帝造世界的"天上"一日, 其實是"地上"萬萬年. 這類說法也採用了 pre-Adamite man/men這個名詞. 就屬於創造論或神學裡的"亞當之前的人類"了.

至於pre-Adamite man的現代用法, 亞當也者, 大概只是概括修飾, 意指在人類出現的各式各期原始人類吧. 小讀者對進化論一竅不通, 只是common reader的隨想而已.

下面的第二義 大概有天體"主義"的意趣在其中...
1. A descendant of Adam; a human being.

2. (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect of visionaries, who, professing to imitate the state of Adam, discarded the use of dress in their assemblies.


這個譯註是不通的。不是模仿"亞當人",而是模仿"亞當(作風)"的人, 直譯或可作"亞當派"。


1. Native or resident of: New Jerseyite.
2. a. Descendant of: Levite. b. Adherent or follower of: Luddite.
3. A part of an organ, body, or bodily part: somite.
4. a. Rock; mineral: graphite. b. Fossil: trilobite.
5. a. Product: metabolite. b. A commercial product: ebonite.

(The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition Copyright © 1992 )
hc感謝小讀者對adamite的解釋,我受益大,因為《米沃什詞典》談adamite 時,有其特別的個人經驗之上下文,是「宗教信徒」和「塵世」的「色情幻想」交織的。所以誠如「……下面的第二義 大概有天體"主義"的意趣在其中...」

在 American Visa 條有一錯誤
Ketman 翻譯為波斯皇帝" (p.29)
這在 Wikipedia: Ketman有解釋為將之轉化(喻)為 "共產黨統治下說謊者"--出自其名著 The Captive Mind--此書有林以亮先生翻譯為"攻心記" 其翻譯待查

2008年11月3日 星期一

Jacques Piccard,Deep sea submarine pioneer dies

Deep sea submarine pioneer dies

Jacques Piccard
Jacques Piccard was still taking dives into his seventies

Swiss-based marine explorer and inventor Jacques Piccard, who was part of the deepest submarine dive in history, has died at his home aged 86.

In 1960, Piccard and US co-pilot Don Walsh took a submersible developed by his father to the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific.

They went 11km (seven miles) beneath the surface of the sea.

Their discovery of living organisms at that depth led to a ban on the dumping of nuclear waste in ocean trenches.

"By far the most interesting find was the fish that came floating by our porthole," Piccard said afterwards.

"We were astounded to find higher marine life forms down there at all."

'Relishing the unknown'

News of Piccard's death was announced in a message carried by the website of his son, the balloonist Bertrand Piccard.

"One of the last great explorers of the 20th Century, a true Captain Nemo who went deeper than any other man, Jacques Piccard passed away on Saturday... at his home on the edge of his beloved Lake Geneva," it said, referring to the hero created by French writer Jules Verne in his novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea.

Bertrand Piccard added:

"He passed on to me a sense of curiosity, a desire to mistrust dogmas and common assumptions, a belief in free will and confidence in the face of the unknown."

Jacques Piccard was born in Brussels, son of balloonist Auguste Piccard. He studied in Switzerland, where he settled.

After the Mariana Trench dive, he worked for the US space agency Nasa, exploring deep seas, and built four mid-depth submarines, including the first tourist submarine which he used to take passengers into the depths of Lake Geneva.