2018年2月21日 星期三

Billy Graham葛理翰牧師 (1918-2018)




"I will be a friend to men of both parties, but I would never say that I was, even indicated that I was, for one or the other. I am for God. I don't think there's any hope for the world except in God."
Billy Graham was often called upon to sooth the nation in stressful times.
USATODAY.COM





葛理翰牧師英語:William Franklin Graham 或 Billy Graham,直譯作比利·(富蘭克林)·葛拉罕,1918年11月7日-2018年2月21日),生於美國北卡羅萊那州夏洛特,美國基督教福音派布道家,被按立為美南浸信會牧師,是第二次世界大戰以後福音派教會的代表人物之一。葛理翰從1949年開始在中產階級以及適當保守的新教徒中享有聲譽。他在各地開始舉行大型的戶內和戶外的宗教集會,並且他的講道也在廣播和電視台上播放, 其中有些講道到今天還在重播[2]。在他常達60年的電視布道生涯中,葛理翰主要通過主持每年的「葛理翰布道大會」而被人們知曉。他從1947年開始舉行這種布道大會,直到2005年終止並從電視布道節目退休。與此同時,從1950年到1954,葛理翰也在主持他非常流行的廣播節目抉擇時刻。 葛理翰反對種族隔離政策,並且他在踐行自己的宗教宗旨的同時,也幫助改變了基督教基要派和福音派的觀念,教導他們以一種理解的姿態去看待聖經和當代世俗觀念上的同異。
葛理翰經常擔任多位美國總統的顧問,並且他個人和多位美國總統德懷特·艾森豪以及理察·尼克森[3]關係甚為親密。從1953年開始,葛理翰堅持要把他主持的復興大會和布道大會融合起來。在他1957年在紐約市舉行的復興大會上,他邀請了當時非裔美國人民權運動領袖馬丁·路德·金前來布道。隨後在1960年,當馬丁·路德·金在一次示威集會被逮捕時,葛理翰還幫助他從監獄裡保釋出來。除此之外,葛理翰和另外一位電視布道家羅伯特·舒樂也是一生的至交。當時還是葛理翰說動羅伯特·舒樂開始做他自己的電視布道事工。
據葛理翰的同工表述,有超過三百二十萬人在葛理翰的布道大會上回應他的邀請,並 「接受主耶穌基督作他們生命中的救主」。據估計,到2008年為止,有多達二十二億的人通過廣播和電視節目的渠道聽過葛理翰的布道。葛理翰通過他的布道大會將福音傳給大量的聽眾,這些人的數目比基督教歷史上任何人親身傳授福音的數目都要多。
葛理翰曾多次登上蓋洛普名人列表,並在其20世紀名人列表中排名第7。葛理翰從1955年開始有55次登上該名人列表,超過世界上任何人登上該列表的次數[4]。美國宗教歷史學家Grant Wacker曾評價說截至1960年中,葛理翰已經成為「The Great Legitimator」。


William Franklin Graham Jr. KBE (November 7, 1918 – February 21, 2018) was an American evangelical Christianevangelist and an ordained Southern Baptist minister who became well known internationally after 1949. He has been called one of the most influential preachers of the 20th century.[2] He held large indoor and outdoor rallies with sermons which were broadcast on radio and television, some still being re-broadcast into the 21st century.[3] In his six decades of television, Graham hosted annual Billy Graham Crusades, which ran from 1947 until his retirement in 2005. He also hosted the popular radio show Hour of Decision from 1950 to 1954. He repudiated segregation and, in addition to his religious aims, helped shape the worldview of a huge number of people coming from different backgrounds leading them to find a relationship between the Bible and contemporary secular viewpoints. Graham preached to live audiences of nearly 215 million people in more than 185 countries and territories through various meetings, including BMS World Mission and Global Mission. He also reached hundreds of millions more through television, video, film, and webcasts.[4]
Graham was a spiritual adviser to American presidents and provided spiritual counsel for every president from Harry Truman to Barack Obama.[5] He was particularly close to Dwight D. EisenhowerLyndon B. Johnson (one of Graham's closest friends),[6] and Richard Nixon.[7] He insisted on racial integration for his revivals and crusades in 1953 and invited Martin Luther King Jr. to preach jointly at a revival in New York City in 1957. Graham bailed King out of jail in the 1960s when King was arrested in demonstrations. He was also lifelong friends with another televangelist, the founding pastor of the Crystal CathedralRobert H. Schuller, whom Graham talked into doing his own television ministry.[8]
Graham operated a variety of media and publishing outlets.[9]According to his staff, more than 3.2 million people have responded to the invitation at Billy Graham Crusades to "accept Jesus Christ as their personal savior". As of 2008, Graham's estimated lifetime audience, including radio and television broadcasts, topped 2.2 billion. Because of his crusades, Graham preached the gospel to more people in person than anyone in the history of Christianity.[9]
Graham was repeatedly on Gallup's list of most admired men and women. He appeared on the list 60 times since 1955, more than any other individual in the world.[10] Grant Wacker reports that by the mid-1960s, he had become the "Great Legitimator".[11]
The most important member of a consequential movement* died on February 21st at the age of 99* 指Civil rights movement Civil rights movement



Billy Graham was the most important American evangelical of the past century
Mr Graham held his first integrated religious rally in 1953
ECONOMIST.COM

2018年2月18日 星期日

數字台灣


翻33年前的經濟書,真是另外的世界:

蔣碩傑《台灣經濟發展的啟示—穩定中的成長》台北:天下,1985,p.134
1981年,韓國的每人GDP,只是台灣的2/3不到

同上書,p.338: 日本的經濟成就/成功,主要歸因於日本政府深知如何順應市場機能而發揮國家經濟潛力。其主要實力為 (一)日本政府除積極發展基層結構外,盡量避免興辦公營事業.....; 以國家銀行為後盾,支持民間金融與產業結合......;普及教育,興辦世界公認之第一流大學及技術學校......

*****
Blue的朋友說:"超久沒搭公車都忘了要怎麼搭"
我想起約1990年,台灣杜邦公司的主管,包一節火車車廂往高雄園山飯店開會時,某位同事說了類似的話。(公司租了近百輛車給主管和業務開。)
2003年,我當彰化鹿港某公司顧問。有一次從彰化搭客運到鹿港。車站和客運車類似我童年時的,而中國許多新興城市都已近代化了。當時,悲從心來。

****

The Economist
Which country publishes the most books?

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