2011年1月27日 星期四

Bishop Samuel Ruiz García, Defender of Mexico’s Mayans, Dies at 86

catechist, diocese, lay brothers, a doer and a pra...

Bishop Samuel Ruiz García, Defender of Mexico’s Mayans, Dies at 86

Bishop Samuel Ruiz García, an impassioned defender of the Mayans in southern Mexico and a mediator in peace talks between Indian rebels and the government, died on Monday in Mexico City. He was 86.

Pascual Gorriz/Associated Press

Bishop Samuel Ruiz García on his way to Mass in late 1997.

The cause was respiratory failure and complications of high blood pressure and diabetes, said Bishop Felipe Arizmendi Esquivel, Bishop Ruiz’s successor.

During his 40 years of presiding over a Roman Catholic diocese in Chiapas State, Bishop Ruiz cast light on abuses suffered by the Indians and sought to bring them into the church as equals with other Mexicans, challenging the rigidly stratified social order.

His advocacy and egalitarian views, which were tinged with socialism, brought him into conflict with the Mexican government, which accused him of fomenting a violent uprising in Chiapas in 1994. He also rankled the Vatican, which said he had strayed from ecclesiastical principles to create a politicized ethnic church, and in 1993 publicly invited him to step down. Mexican clerics rallied to his defense, however, and he remained as bishop until he retired in 2000.

Bishop Ruiz attracted a fervent following among Indians in Chiapas, who called him “Tatic,” which means “father” in a Mayan language. On Tuesday, Indian parishioners filled the cathedral in San Cristóbal de las Casas, a colonial town in the Chiapas highlands, for a memorial Mass that also commemorated the 51st anniversary of Bishop Ruiz’s ordination there.

Samuel Ruiz was born on Nov. 3, 1924, in Irapuato, in Guanajuato State in central Mexico, the conservative Catholic heart of the country. He is survived by a brother, José Ruiz García.

The federal government waged bloody anticlerical battles against Catholics as he was growing up. When he arrived in Chiapas in 1960, his beliefs were staunchly traditional.

But Bishop Ruiz was influenced by the Second Vatican Council, which in the 1960s called for bringing the Catholic faith to people in a way that reflected their own cultures.

“He became a representative of the poor and aggrieved in his diocese and also a protector of priests and nuns and lay brothers and sisters who were working with the poor,” said John Womack, a professor emeritus of Mexican history at Harvard. “He wasn’t a theologian. He was a doer and a practitioner.”

Starting in 1970, Bishop Ruiz ordered translations of the Bible and other religious texts in the indigenous languages of Chiapas. He trained Indian catechists, or instructors, to organize village assemblies throughout the mountains and jungles of the diocese. By the end of his tenure, there were more than 20,000 Indian catechists in Chiapas, said Pablo Romo, a former Dominican priest who worked with the bishop.

“He made the word of God accessible to the people,” Mr. Romo said.

San Cristóbal is named for Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, a 16th-century Dominican missionary from Spain who was one of the first bishops of Chiapas and an early protector of the Indians. Bishop Ruiz said he knew he was following that legacy.

As economic changes in the 1980s deepened the poverty and isolation of the Indians, many Catholics joined an uprising that erupted when the Zapatista National Liberation Army, a group of armed Indian rebels, occupied several Chiapas towns in January 1994.

Bishop Ruiz openly supported the Zapatistas’ goal of fighting injustice, but he did not endorse their violent tactics.

For four years, beginning in 1994, Bishop Ruiz mediated peace talks between the government and the Zapatistas. Accords were signed in February 1995 in the Chiapas village of San Andrés Larráinzar.

But he clashed during the talks with President Ernesto Zedillo, who accused him of favoring the rebels and preaching a “theology of violence.”

Bishop Ruiz’s Zapatista sympathies also earned him enemies among the landed class in Chiapas and the Indians who opposed the rebels. In November 1997, he was ambushed by gunmen on a mountain road but escaped without injury.

Obeying Vatican rules, Bishop Ruiz retired, reluctantly, when he turned 75. In 2002, the Vatican ordered a halt to a program he had initiated that had ordained more than 300 married Indian deacons.

“In the last decades,” Mr. Womack said, “he was always and very bravely on the defensive within the church.”

2011年1月26日 星期三

Vladimir Nabokov

尼古拉·果戈理 --纳博科夫
The Portable Nabokov

Nonfiction: Nabokov Theory on Butterfly Evolution Is Vindicated

Roger Vila

A male Acmon blue butterfly (Icaricia acmon). Vladimir Nabokov described the Icaricia genus in 1944. More Photos »

Vladimir Nabokov may be known to most people as the author of classic novels like “Lolita” and “Pale Fire.” But even as he was writing those books, Nabokov had a parallel existence as a self-taught expert on butterflies.

He was the curator of lepidoptera at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, and collected the insects across the United States. He published detailed descriptions of hundreds of species. And in a speculative moment in 1945, he came up with a sweeping hypothesis for the evolution of the butterflies he studied, a group known as the Polyommatus blues. He envisioned them coming to the New World from Asia over millions of years in a series of waves.

Few professional lepidopterists took these ideas seriously during Nabokov’s lifetime. But in the years since his death in 1977, his scientific reputation has grown. And over the past 10 years, a team of scientists has been applying gene-sequencing technology to his hypothesis about how Polyommatus blues evolved. On Tuesday in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, they reported that Nabokov was absolutely right.

“It’s really quite a marvel,” said Naomi Pierce of Harvard, a co-author of the paper.

Nabokov inherited his passion for butterflies from his parents. When his father was imprisoned by the Russian authorities for his political activities, the 8-year-old Vladimir brought a butterfly to his cell as a gift. As a teenager, Nabokov went on butterfly-hunting expeditions and carefully described the specimens he caught, imitating the scientific journals he read in his spare time. Had it not been for the Russian Revolution, which forced his family into exile in 1919, Nabokov said that he might have become a full-time lepidopterist.

In his European exile, Nabokov visited butterfly collections in museums. He used the proceeds of his second novel, “King, Queen, Knave,” to finance an expedition to the Pyrenees, where he and his wife, Vera, netted over a hundred species. The rise of the Nazis drove Nabokov into exile once more in 1940, this time to the United States. It was there that Nabokov found his greatest fame as a novelist. It was also there that he delved deepest into the science of butterflies.

Nabokov spent much of the 1940s dissecting a confusing group of species called Polyommatus blues. He developed forward-thinking ways to classify the butterflies based on differences in their genitalia. He argued that what were thought to be closely related species were actually only distantly related.

At the end of a 1945 paper on the group, he mused on how they had evolved. He speculated that they originated in Asia, moved over the Bering Strait, and moved south all the way to Chile.

Allowing himself a few literary flourishes, Nabokov invited his readers to imagine “a modern taxonomist straddling a Wellsian time machine.” Going back millions of years, he would end up at a time when only Asian forms of the butterflies existed. Then, moving forward again, the taxonomist would see five waves of butterflies arriving in the New World.

Nabokov conceded that the thought of butterflies making a trip from Siberia to Alaska and then all the way down into South America might sound far-fetched. But it made more sense to him than an unknown land bridge spanning the Pacific. “I find it easier to give a friendly little push to some of the forms and hang my distributional horseshoes on the nail of Nome rather than postulate transoceanic land-bridges in other parts of the world,” he wrote.

When “Lolita” made Nabokov a star in 1958, journalists were delighted to discover his hidden life as a butterfly expert. A famous photograph of Nabokov that appeared in The Saturday Evening Post when he was 66 is from a butterfly’s perspective. The looming Russian author swings a net with rapt concentration. But despite the fact that he was the best-known butterfly expert of his day and a Harvard museum curator, other lepidopterists considered Nabokov a dutiful but undistinguished researcher. He could describe details well, they granted, but did not produce scientifically important ideas.

Only in the 1990s did a team of scientists systematically review his work and recognize the strength of his classifications. Dr. Pierce, who became a Harvard biology professor and curator of lepidoptera in 1990, began looking closely at Nabokov’s work while preparing an exhibit to celebrate his 100th birthday in 1999. She was captivated by his idea of butterflies coming from Asia. “It was an amazing, bold hypothesis,” she said. “And I thought, ‘Oh, my God, we could test this.’ ”

To do so, she would need to reconstruct the evolutionary tree of blues, and estimate when the branches split. It would have been impossible for Nabokov to do such a study on the anatomy of butterflies alone. Dr. Pierce would need their DNA, which could provide more detail about their evolutionary history.

Working with American and European lepidopterists, Dr. Pierce organized four separate expeditions into the Andes in search of blues. Back at her lab at Harvard, she and her colleagues sequenced the genes of the butterflies and used a computer to calculate the most likely relationships between them. They also compared the number of mutations each species had acquired to determine how long ago they had diverged from one another.

There were several plausible hypotheses for how the butterflies might have evolved. They might have evolved in the Amazon, with the rising Andes fragmenting their populations. If that were true, the species would be closely related to one another.

But that is not what Dr. Pierce found. Instead, she and her colleagues found that the New World species shared a common ancestor that lived about 10 million years ago. But many New World species were more closely related to Old World butterflies than to their neighbors. Dr. Pierce and her colleagues concluded that five waves of butterflies came from Asia to the New World — just as Nabokov had speculated.

“By God, he got every one right,” Dr. Pierce said. “I couldn’t get over it — I was blown away.”

Dr. Pierce and her colleagues also investigated Nabokov’s idea that the butterflies had come over the Bering Strait. The land surrounding the strait was relatively warm 10 million years ago, and has been chilling steadily ever since. Dr. Pierce and her colleagues found that the first lineage of Polyommatus blues that made the journey could survive a temperature range that matched the Bering climate of 10 million years ago. The lineages that came later are more cold-hardy, each with a temperature range matching the falling temperatures.

Nabokov’s taxonomic horseshoes turn out to belong in Nome after all.

"What a great paper," said James Mallet, an expert on butterfly evolution at University College London. "It's a fitting tribute to the great man to see that the most modern methods that technology can deliver now largely support his systematic arrangement."

Dr. Pierce says she believes Nabokov would have been greatly pleased to be so vindicated, and points to one of his most famous poems, “On Discovering a Butterfly.” The 1943 poem begins:

I found it and I named it, being versed

in taxonomic Latin; thus became

godfather to an insect and its first

describer — and I want no other fame.

“He felt that his scientific work was standing for all time, and that he was just a player in a much bigger enterprise,” said Dr. Pierce. “He was not known as a scientist, but this certainly indicates to me that he knew what it’s all about.”

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: January 26, 2011

An earlier version of this article misstated the year Vladimir Nabokov immigrated to the United States. It was 1940, not 1941.

2011年1月19日 星期三



  ▲北美館展出畫家奚淞近40年的創作歷程《心與手三部曲-奚淞畫展》,按年代分三段主題白描觀音、《大樹之歌》佛傳油畫系列以及《光陰》靜物畫系列,約 90組件油畫、版畫、水墨等作品,畫家奚淞在開幕記者會中親自解說創作理念,圖為無憂.菩提.沙羅─佛傳三聯作。(黃國書攝)





 這次個展,從近作《菩提》與《朝露》揭開序幕。《菩提》三幅畫作表現一株小菩提的成長。奚淞說,去年友人送給他這株從印度菩提迦耶的聖樹分枝出來的纖弱小幼苗。 當時他心想:「能活嗎?」並把它種在畫室窗邊,沒想小樹很認真的活下來了。



 「大樹之歌」展出十四幅一九九五年以來的佛傳油畫,描述佛陀自出生至涅槃的故事。 靜物畫也是奚淞長久的主題,一杯清水、一只印度壺、一缽春天的茶花,從簡樸中體驗到豐足。


2011年1月18日 星期二








過一些時候才見到天文。烏油油兩條大麻花辮,臉如滿月,眉目間有貴氣,笑時抿著唇,總是善意。不知怎麼想起桃花江畔,荊扉柴門一女子,捧著衣服到溪岸洗, 洗洗有一朵小黃花的溜溜從指間滑過,並不回顧,倒是花比人羞。女子忽然愛美起來,伸手往水裡一拈,把花別在鬢邊,臨水輕倩一笑,溫柔似水呵佳期如夢。

而我是要用嬌豔欲滴來形容天衣的。道地的山東大姊樣兒,高峻的顴骨,豐滿的面頰,深黑的眼眉斜飛入鬢,蘊著英氣。紅唇像石榴花汁濃得要滴要滴的,蘸一下未 始不會染指成丹。她的笑容最見於形,可掬可撈,毫不含糊,嬌憨得青春鮮烈。一天清早群狗(十一隻)打架,吠聲震天,不巧阿姨回外婆家了,我縮在一旁無力干 涉,天衣的房門「刷」一聲開了,她一件帶帽晨褸裹著高䠷的身材,光著一雙白皙小腿大腳丫,一掉頭抄起拐杖就朝狗打,邊輕吼道:「你敢再吵!毛毛都是你帶 頭,還不給我滾……」這時雲髮未弄,撩到耳後披瀉下來,半遮桃腮,那種狼狽的年輕,彷彿荳蔻梢頭開一枝滿花,春意熱鬧,教人眼前一亮,不禁心中猜疑:是個 什麼女子潑辣又惺忪?

那 天晚上山田請吃飯,有一道菜像是螺肉,裡面大大小小都是紫白的螺蓋,我和阿丁收集了一堆圖案,不料一個疏忽讓侍應生撿走了,倒是第二天馬三哥抹乾淨了送我 兩顆,到此覺得他是少有的細膩有情趣的人。第一天晚上便和他聊到半夜三點,四周黑風苦雨,我哆嗦著打抖,望望窗外,回頭燈下是西窗剪燭及巴山夜雨的場景。 他看看我腳上的凍瘡,握握我的手,說很纖瘦,抽沒菸味的菸,吃幾粒巧克力……那夜真是教人牽情。

朱家的日子端的是閒散寫意,不必組織卻有內涵,不似我家豆腐方塊一樣的規律化,然而一大捆日子似乎什麼都沒有。那裡隨時有歌聲傳來,材俊的「渭城朝雨浥輕 塵,客舍青青柳色新……」,有洛陽古思,聽聽便魂飛關山。天衣亦是愛唱,嬝嬝歌聲直要穿破屋頂雲遊去,卻反而不離開了,就在那兒繞呀繞的。廚房裡阿姨做飯 的器皿也敲出家常一幅好圖畫。還有阿姨、天衣的哄狗聲。偶爾急風掠過,後山嘩啦啦一陣沙沙葉響,我會以為是下雨,驚詫不已,待它又靜下來,仍舊有歌聲飄飄 繞繞。


坐公路局車,我靠窗,窗外是稻野綠綠茫茫的漫開去沒個止境,綴著小徑茅房,好田園的一種感覺。有時候有山,有時候沒有,有也多半是綠岫青峰,沒有水也教人 想起山明水秀。我喜歡那油菜花田,一畦一畦疏落得不像話,嫩黃嫩黃的霸道不羈,萬綠中硬是招搖,約是屬於陽光的東西。屬於月亮的也有,比如修竹小橋。芭蕉 則是雨的。一程一程都過去了,那田田陰綠還是不斷湮上來湮上來,直是不留情了,不讓我離開了;而我是不要離開的,我的思念都在那裡面,我要在那阡陌上跑個 千年萬年,就住在那茅草房裡。那是隆中,我們在裡頭定下天下大計。

到了屏東,天心他們童心大起,買了兩支轉輪槍,在夜街上叭叭叭的打將起來。如果美國有一樣東西是我喜歡的,那就是古老的西部牛仔。常是日落黃昏,一片野漠 山區映成金黃,馬蹄得得踢起流浪小調,鞍上人的半生都是訴不完的傳奇。走在阿丁爸爸的糖廠裡,夾道是樹,天心指給我看哪棵是菩提,黑黑糊糊的也看不分明, 要聯想釋迦亦不可能。日光燈織成一流兜頭淋下,一地透明像展開的一軸白絹,四個人四條人影忽前忽後的晃動,彷彿行在霧中的魑魅魍魎。阿丁跟材俊玩死亡遊 戲,《獵鹿者》裡那種,對準太陽穴閉眼一發。人家材俊只中一槍,阿丁好倒楣,連中十三槍,持槍的架式像執一根火柴,十足一隻瘸腳貓。

因 為這般好夜色,天心喊我吹笛子。卻是沒風,陽台門又開不了,只好乘他們不在試吹一陣,誰知一起頭便不對勁,讓什麼卡住了似的,不比往常的順溜。隔壁房的動 靜倏地沉寂下來,示意他們在聽。我急得心裡發燙,死吹強吹的硬逼,搞得冒汗,更犯大忌。一氣之下,拚死撩它一撩。門口有聲響,飛快偷瞄一眼,是材俊,他們 都陸續進來了,急得只是發慌,後來簡直不曉得自己在胡吹個什麼勁兒,撮個風門吹空氣。偷生賴活的掙扎半晌,明知時機已過,再吹也無用,笛子一丟,淚也落 了。真的我根本不是他們世界裡的人,不知打哪兒跑來附庸風雅的,恨不得立刻收拾行裝回家做俗人去。可是他們在想什麼呢?

第二天材俊非常討厭我,也不睬我,也不爭著提東西,站在麵包樹下拍照,頭髮鬆鬆的蓋掉半邊額,滿樹巴掌大的猩紅葉子落得好奢侈,不知像哪一門子的麵包。兩 人面對面坐著也悄靜無話,我吃著極不好吃的酸梅冰棒。記得初見材俊覺得不大適應。他的鼻子大一號,有稜有角,乍看上去只見鼻子不見眼睛。除下眼鏡像印度王 子,會吹喇叭舞蛇。第一個跟我長談的是他,那時天心在一旁練毛筆字。他兩手置在膝蓋上端坐,很有道理似的笑著,眼睛沒有了,燈光從鏡片上反射出來閃閃濛 濛。講話一個拍子,帶著鄉音,嘴唇抿成一線,老像汪著口涎,頭便很有道理似的一諾一諾。講我們中國《禮記》:為什麼中國人飲酒前要有那許多禮節?那是因了 要知道節制。禮節一多,就算成日喝酒也不可能喝得怎樣。飲酒亦是要知道節制才是好的。

在台南會合了林端、呂愛華,便一塊兒啟程到台東。呂愛華有少見的白淨臉,笑時唇角塌掛下來。卿從韓國來,終有韓國味,是韓國採高麗參的女郎,晝夜不分的戴 頂寬邊草帽,東碰西碰的受人排擠,好不可憐!呂愛華亦是不智,盡讓草帽喧賓奪主,我們找她都先找草帽。車子沿著東海岸走,綠田外即是太平洋,汪洋大海都只 是一線,卻真是有一份壯麗等著我們瞧。海風越過莊稼撲面吹來真是香,天心一蹬一蹬的不安分了,連聲叫好,那喜悅能夠傳染得全車都沸沸揚揚,我看著好高興, 卻是作聲不得了,只管自己心裡翻得要疼,面對好景,就是作聲不得!



那時風真好,好想吹笛子,卻不敢斗膽了。夜街上偶爾有單車一溜過去,吱呀一唱,是台東市的陳舊寒傖在車輪上痕印深深,總有燈光輕柔的鋪上霜白,照著夜歸人 的路。和阿丁談三毛,談得好心酸。記得那個冷冷的晚上到三毛家,她一開門大喊我一聲,回身一退,斜著大眼笑著瞧我。我一驚,才真算在三毛家落了實腳,笑著 也沒什麼說的,單單翻眼覷她,不知已認識多久,那種態勢真是一發不可收拾了。

我因為怕冷,三毛給我席地弄了一窩被,我便蜷在裡頭一張張揭她和荷西的照片,聽她們講一些鬼氣森森的話;照片卻是明亮的沙漠,光潔的天空,健康的荷西…… 我想三毛縱然傷心,也還是沒有委屈的,她該是永遠與委屈連不上關係的,像江河的一發不可收拾,這是她的本色。而阿丁自有思量,他說像他和材俊這般要好法 兒,也還是各人有各人的井然世界,兩人處在一淘照樣好得不得了。人情本來就是如此大方無限。如三毛與荷西,到了後期互相只有對方,幾乎與外界隔絕,把人世 該有的廣闊敞亮變狹隘了,深情一旦到了不拔的地步便非常危險,那是連天也不容的。

阿丁還是用那種快速度的口型動作跟我講話,他是那種正經起來就教人不習慣的男孩。海風鹹鹹澀澀的撲撲吹,台東市是熟睡了,想三毛也已熟睡了……她穿一襲及 地長袍在沙漠上散步,頭髮很盛,披在肩上肩更薄削……荷西把腦袋瓜塞在雪白的枕頭裡說恨不得這也是一隻餃子……不知西班牙今夜夜色如何……唉唉!阿丁!我 睏了,我不懂!和衣睡吧!反正百種千般,懶得從頭道。

這來去兩程把我累得不得了,老是落單,都阿丁陪著,跟材俊好遠好遠,根本沒講過一句話。真的我亂怕別人不喜歡我,就算有也不可讓我知道。等公車時他們擠到 小店外抽獎,材俊運氣好,抽到紅豆丸子。天心給我一顆,不怎麼樣。後來材俊捧來一把,叫我拿。我取一顆,「再拿!」我再取一顆,「再拿!」我又取一顆,這 樣他才罷休。吃吃竟是異樣好吃,暗怪自己敏感,人家都沒什麼,倒自個兒生出這許多是非,其實怎麼會!大除夕材俊還給我紅封包,還給我《史記》,還告訴我他 家鄉宜蘭,總是小雨不斷。

走的那一天特別心神不定,有什麼牽絆似的。東整整,西弄弄,到底沒有可忘的了。牛肉乾豬肉乾都袋好,洛神花擱在上頭,隨身行李就僅這些,相機揹著,皮包也 是,完全沒問題了。怎麼都沒問題呢?和阿丁電話道別:嘻嘻,再見啊,暑假回來啊,好呀,嘻嘻……天文抱胸站在那兒,戴著金絲眼鏡,長髮挽在耳後,似笑非笑 的不知想些什麼。她說過要跟我三生三世的呀!怎麼不像呢?他們家總是訪客盈門,總有人慕名而至,該不會對我特別的了!而此刻的天文,如此端莊俏淑,我就這 樣走過,豈非辜負!不行呢!我一個轉身說「天文再見」,她很大姊的哈哈笑開來,拍拍我的手,好好,再見……


Rudolf Elmer,Former Swiss banker poised to give account details to WikiLeaks

Finance | 16.01.2011

Former Swiss banker poised to give account details to WikiLeaks

A former Swiss banker plans on providing secret account information to WikiLeaks on Monday. Rudolf Elmer was one of the first people to give controversial data to the website, releasing internal bank documents in 2007.

A former Swiss private banker says he is planning to give account information on around 2,000 clients to the whistleblowing website WikiLeaks.

Rudolf Elmer, who was fired from Julius Bär, a leading Swiss private banking group, in 2002 and who faces trial in Switzerland on Wednesday for an earlier breach of bank secrecy laws, told Switzerland's Der Sonntag newspaper that he intends to hand over two CDs of data to the controversial Internet platform.

Elmer told the newspaper that the CDs include names, balances and transfer information of some 2,000 people who may be guilty of using offshore bank accounts to duck their tax obligations.

"The documents show that they are hiding behind banking secrecy laws, possibly to evade taxes," Elmer told Der Sonntag, adding that the data came from "at least three financial institutions."

Elmer will officially give WikiLeaks the information at a Monday press conference in London, which the site's founder, Julian Assange, is also expected to attend. However, the information will go through a vetting procedure before appearing on the WikiLeaks homepage.

"WikiLeaks will go through the data, and if they really deal with tax evasion, they will be published later," Elmer said.

History repeating

A computer screen with the WikiLeaks siteBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Elmer has worked with WikiLeaks before

Elmer said that the data involved multimillionaires, international companies and hedge funds from several countries including the US, Britain and Germany. Roughly 40 politicians were among the individuals featured in the information, along with prominent business people and artists, he said.

Elmer, who was formerly Julius Bär's chief operating officer in the Cayman Islands, was among the first people to provide high profile information to WikiLeaks, releasing client data to the website in 2007. He faces a trial in Switzerland on Wednesday in connection with this earlier leak. The information he released led to tax evasion prosecutions in several countries.

Elmer said the data to be handed over on Monday, much of which was passed on to him by fellow whistleblowers, concerns bank activity between 1990 and 2009.

The government in Berne has come under growing pressure in recent years to relax its strict banking secrecy laws and do more to help other governments identify people using Swiss bank accounts to dodge taxes at home.

Switzerland has made some concessions on this issue, most notably releasing details of around 4,450 clients of banking giant UBS to the US government last year, after Washington agreed to drop a lawsuit against the financial institution.

Author: Mark Hallam (AFP, Reuters)
Editor: Kyle James

2011年1月17日 星期一

Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir 使中国陷入两难境地



"北京与苏丹的关系过去一直被视为中国在非洲活动的可怕先例。西方认为,其特点是毫无顾忌地获取原料、与独裁政权合作。多年来,中国保护苏 丹政权、反对制裁,也许还向喀土穆提供武器。直到因达尔富尔冲突形成的国际压力越来越大以后,中国才与喀土穆拉开距离,同意实施一项大型和平使命。

"北京长期以来主张苏丹国家统一,这一立场建立在中国不干涉他国内政和原则上反对民族独立运动的外交信条之上。但最近几年和几个月,这一原则有了少 许松动。目前中国对苏丹公投采取等着瞧的中立态度,反对结果公布前就谈论南部分离问题,但中国近年来与苏丹南部政治代表加强接触一事表明,中国已做了苏丹 分裂的准备。"



"南部苏丹地方政府主席和未来独立国家的总统萨尔瓦·基尔在北京会晤了中国国家元首胡锦涛,南部的其他代表也前往中国。此后,数名中国代表、包括一 名政治局委员访问了南部苏丹。2008年中国甚至在南部苏丹首府朱巴设立了总领事馆。今年一月,中国驻苏丹大使李成文通过新闻界表示,中国将向南部苏丹提 供援助。

"尽管中国实行'三边外交',但中国对公投仍持保留态度。中国不允许别国干涉自己内政,所以不干涉内政一直是中国外交政策的信条。北京政府从来没有 支持过某一国家的分离运动,北京不想提供一个西藏和台湾'分裂主义分子'可以引以为据的先例。正因为如此,中国不可能完全支持公投。


"所以,象科索沃问题一样,中国领导人决心在苏丹问题上原则上不反对南部苏丹独立,并与南方寻求接触。但专家们认为,为了防止新冲突爆发,中国的这一态度还过于被动。 为了保护自己的投资,中国人也希望保持稳定,担心新冲突造成整个地区的不安定。 "





陸以正專欄-蘇丹公投 南北分家

  • 2011-01-17
  • 中國時報
  • 【本報訊】





 公元前八世紀,庫什王Napata把影響力伸入了埃及。他的兒子Kashta佔領了「上埃及(Upper Egypt)」,長達十年。到了近代,蘇丹的命運和埃及幾乎無法分開。拿破崙先征服埃及,維也納和會(Congress of Vienna)後,英國修築蘇伊士運河,將埃及變成保護國(British Protectorate)。從此上埃及也好,埃及本國也好,都喪失了獨立自主權。


 二次大戰結束後,蘇丹遲至一九五六年,才擺脫埃及的控制,獲得獨立自主。早期國內軍閥林立,從獨立前一年開始,第一次內戰持續達十七年之 久。主要因為蘇丹北部居民,都是阿拉伯裔和奴比亞裔,信奉伊斯蘭;而南部人如非改信天主教,就是民智未開的尼羅河土著(Nilotes),生活習慣與現代 社會相差太遠,格格不入之故。

 一九八三年,蘇丹又發生第二次內戰。老百姓實在看不下去,一九八九年,陸軍的巴歇爾上校(Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir)發動不流血政變,自任總統,才得安定。這位軍人與其它國家奪得政權的軍閥不大一樣。雖然仍以獨裁治國,多少有點愛國心和現代知識。二 十幾年來致力普及教育,發展經濟,總算把蘇丹帶進了二十世紀。









 那個因巴歇爾才得誕生的新國家,該叫什麼名字呢?這幾天蘇丹上下正在熱烈討論。有人主張以「庫什」為國名。更有人認為蘇丹也應該更改國 名,免得新國家如果叫做「下蘇丹」或「新蘇丹」,混淆不清。美國前總統卡特也來湊熱鬧,與《紐約時報》專欄作家Nicholas Kristof在網路上對話討論蘇丹問題,問答全文長達十七頁,我讀了兩遍,仍不懂他主張什麼,只能說狗拿耗子,多管閒事。


2011年1月15日 星期六

Eiko Ishioka (石岡 瑛子)

Eiko Ishioka (石岡 瑛子 Ishioka Eiko?, born July 12, 1939, Tokyo) is an Oscar-winning costume designer, known for her work in stage, screen, advertising, and print media. She won a 1992 Academy Award for costume design for Bram Stoker's Dracula.

Ishioka’s long list of credits includes the 1985 Cannes Film Festival Award for Artistic Contribution for her production design of Paul Schrader’s film Mishima, a Tony Award nomination for the stage and costume design of the Broadway play "M. Butterfly," and a Grammy Award for the art work for Miles Davis’ "Tutu" album, to name just a few. Most recently, she brought her creative sensibilities to bear on the conservative opera world with her costume design for Richard Wagner’s "Ring Cycle," at the Netherlands National Opera. Also recently, she joined the creative team of a musical adaptation of the Spider-Man comics.

Eiko Ishioka graduated from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. Her work is included in the permanent collection of museums throughout the world, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In 1992 she was selected to be a member of the New York Art Directors Club Hall of Fame.

One of Eiko's famous works is in Cirque du Soleil: Varekai.

She also directed the music video for Björk's Cocoon in 2002.

Ishioka became the costume designer for the Beijing-2008 Olympics.

Eiko was discovered by Tsuji Masuda who created Parco Ikebukuro from the ailing Marubutsu Department Store. When Parco did well and expanded to a Shibuya location in 1973, Eiko designed Parco Shibuya's first 15 second commercial for the grand opening with "a tall, thin black woman, dressed in a black bikini, dancing with a very small man in a Santa Claus outfit." She became deeply involved in Parco's image. Her last Parco campaign involved Faye Dunaway as "face of Parco" wearing black, on a black chair against a black wall, and peeling and eating an egg in one minute as "a film for Parco."

source: "The Brothers" by Leslie Downer pp 239–240.

[edit] Filmography

[edit] External links

石岡瑛子(いしおか えいこ、1939年7月12日 -)は、東京都出身のアートディレクターデザイナー東京芸術大学美術学部卒。1980年代以降はニューヨークを拠点に活動しており、日本国内よりも海外において著名である。



略歴 [編集]




作品 [編集]

グラフィックデザイン [編集]

映画 [編集]

舞台 [編集]

その他 [編集]

著書 [編集]

脚注 [編集]

参考文献 [編集]

藝術化商品: 石岡瑛子Eiko Ishioka ~令人佩服的服裝藝術大師- yam天空部落

2007年3月15日 ... 石岡瑛子Eiko Ishioka ~生於1939年東京~她是奧斯卡服裝設計得主~她真是一個多材多藝的創作者~她的作品有舞台~銀幕~廣告~和平面傳媒 ...


石岡瑛子讓人傳誦的廣告,是集英社文庫為了文學書而在報紙、雜誌、電視以及電車車廂的系列。石岡瑛子大膽地採取批判、攻擊女性的策略,推出「關上電視,闔 上周刊雜誌」的訴求標題,並且以「女性啊,覺醒起來吧!」為前提,讓集英社的文學書從電視、周刊雜誌氾濫的視野裡突破出來。她以一位穿著黑色洋裝的長髮女 子為模特兒,放在頭上的雙手拿著書的形象,在電視影片、平面廣告中成為焦點,是一則成功的廣告,具有文化和社會意義。

對於服裝有理念的她,為當時日本PARCO這家新潮服飾百貨所做的廣告,在台灣也被「巴而可」引用,許多人應該還記得海報中女性手拿美國芹菜咬齧的影像。 對於流行現象有自覺的她,曾經批評女性盲從髮型的流行意識。她認為原創性的服飾意識應該像在沙漠中,女性穿著強烈色彩的衣飾,塗抹口紅,以便在廣漠的空間 呈顯存在感;否則,女性的服飾流行只是跟蹤性的流行,以為有個性,其實被商品團塊化了。

像石岡瑛子這樣的廣告人,才是真正的有文化意識、有社會意識的廣告人。正常、進步的國家,廣告人應該具有這樣的信念和視野,賦予職場工作的價值。廣告撰文 人員之所以被稱為廣告作家,應該是這種信念和視野的實踐。但在台灣,我們的廣告界在為產品、勞務作嫁時,是否也具有這樣的省思呢?

廣告的意義並不是鼓勵物質主義、消費主義,而是需要倫理與責任的。廣告的意義如果有文化性,是因為倫理與美的兼顧。如果只沉溺在「有費的傳播」這種自我、 本位意識裡,局限在「為人作嫁」的格局裡,是不會讓人尊敬的。石岡瑛子作為廣告人,作為服裝設計師,在美國的書店櫥窗被看中,不是沒有理由的。因為文化, 她被看中。

2011年1月10日 星期一

"明智 周"

2011/1/8 明智 周參加我們的讀書會
我與他認識 近2年了

周智民是我的本名,明智 周是我的日文名字,也是筆名,因為“明智”是一個日本姓。
by 明智

譯人 黃文範


作者:黃文範, 出版社:大孚出版社 , 出版日期:1993-01-01/1973?

珠璣語 台北:雅爾 1976

本書收錄作者從事翻譯工作五十多年以來譯作及論述之自序,包括翻譯理論類序3篇、文學類譯序21篇、傳記類譯序13篇、歷史類譯序19篇、勵志類譯序8 篇、著作類序5篇,翻譯作品在文學類部分除小婦人與小王子外,餘為俄國與德國作家作品,傳記與歷史類則較偏重美國,各序文皆備述譯書、動機、感想、翻譯技 巧、實驗等內容。

陸 軍官校十九期砲科,陸軍參謀大學十六期,美國砲校尉官班四十一期,美國防學校高級班四期畢業。曾任排、連、營長、教官、亞洲航空公司技術出版組課長,中央 日報編譯編撰,中央日報副刊組副組長,中文版美國新聞與世界報導副總編輯,警政署《現代民防》主編,太平洋文化基金會主任秘書,曾獲國軍文藝競賽散文獎 (四十五年)、中國文藝協會二十七屆文學翻譯獎(七十五年)、台灣省文藝作家協會中興散文獎(八十年)。

五十餘年中,先以譯述專科學術書籍,後即專心英譯 中之翻譯,取材以歷史、文學及傳記三大類,自四十一年起至九十二年,已譯書八十餘種,字數達二千三百萬字,堪稱中國翻譯史上之最高紀錄。

* 黃文範
湖南長沙人,1925年生。陸軍官校、陸軍參 大、美國砲校、美國防校畢業。歷任《中央日報》編譯、編撰、副刊組組長,《現代民防》主編,《美國新聞與世界報導》中文版副總編輯,太平洋文化基金會主任 秘書。曾獲國軍文藝競賽散文獎、台灣省文藝作家協會中興文藝散文獎。著有《領養一株雲衫》等書;

黃文範擅長譯書,作品有七十多本,包括:《古拉格群島》、 《戰爭與和平》、《西線無戰事》、《里斯本之夜》、《小王子》、《巴頓將軍傳》……等等,內容涵蓋了小說、散文、歷史、傳記。曾獲中國文藝協會文學翻譯 獎,為留下多年心血結晶,著有《翻譯新語》及《翻譯偶語》,為後進晚輩指點翻譯之路。

Matthew Bunker Ridgway 李奇威將軍

Matthew Bunker Ridgway 李奇威將軍

2011年1月8日 星期六

Apple's Jobs

ding and dent

QualityTaiwan發行的Quality Times:「幾年前章詒和《往事並不如煙》聞名全球,
她並以其作為自己的預定「墓碣」(比較:美國Apple公司的:"I want to put
a ding in the universe." — Steve Jobs)。上月,她還受邀到新加坡談新作《伶人往事》(見「亞洲周刊」)。維基百科有她的詞條。」

之後David 有一留言,今天查字典才知道它們同義:

"I want to put a ding in the universe." 另一個說法是We're here to put a
dent in the universe.; 我覺得後者更像 Steve Jobs 的口氣! -- DHSU (2007-01-21
 ding 和dent 是同義詞slang -- @id:demingtw2 (2007-01-31 05:30:05)

━━ v. じゃんじゃん鳴る[鳴らす]; やいやい[くどく]言う.
━━ n. (鐘などの)ごーん[じゃーん]という音.
ding-a-ling 〔米俗〕 愚か者.
ding・bat 〔米俗〕 頭のおかしい奴; 〔米話〕 【コンピュータ】飾り活字 ((段落の始めの星印など)).
ding-dong ━━ n., ad., a. じゃんじゃん, からんからん ((鐘の音)); 激論; どしどし, じゃんじゃん;
(競争などが)しのぎを削る, 接戦の.

leave one's mark 永久に足跡(そくせき)を残す ((on)).
ding1 v., dinged, ding•ing, dings.
1. To ring; clang.
2. To speak persistently and repetitiously.
1. To cause to clang, as by striking.
2. To instill with constant repetition: dinged advice into my head.
A ringing sound.
[Partly imitative and partly alteration of DIN.]

ding2 n. Informal.
A small dent or nick, as in the body of a car.
tr.v., dinged, ding•ing, dings.
1. To dent or nick.
2. To hit or strike: was dinged on the head by a ball.
3. Slang. To shoot, especially with a gun.
[From ding, to strike, beat on, pound (from Middle English dingen;
akin to Old Norse dengja) and from DING1.]

rl 留言:
re: The Commencement address by Steve Jobs 【hc案:這篇應該翻譯廣為流傳】

我特地循線【hc 留言:
rl 談些日常生活道理。我錄S Jobs 在他孩子的大學畢業典禮說法送他與大家:
"Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish" Steve Jobs'' 2005 Stanford Commencement Speech】

見Homepage連結位址: http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/june15/jobs-061505.html),

JANUARY 8, 2011
Apple's Jobs Grows Richer Despite $1 Salary

Apple Inc. chief Steve Jobs again took an annual salary of $1 in 2010, representing his total compensation for the year, the technology giant said Friday in a regulatory filing.

The Cupertino, Calif.-based company under Mr. Jobs's leadership has built itself into a profit machine through a string of hit consumer-electronics products, starting with the iPod digital media player, followed by the iPhone, plus the iPad early last year. In May, Apple became the world's most-valuable technology company based on market capitalization.

Mr. Jobs is widely known for taking the $1 salary, which has been his practice since rejoining the ...

2011年1月4日 星期二


王曉民女士這些年來偶爾會有報導 是台灣生活的一部分


  47年前,正值花樣年華的17歲少女,就讀當時北二女(現中山 女高)的樂儀隊指揮王曉民,因一場車禍,成了植物人,一躺47年,生命停格在17歲,全家人的生活跟著走樣。在長期細心照顧王曉民的雙親先後去世後,王曉 民去年3月也悄悄地闔眼,過世時已是64歲婦人,靠著家人無盡的愛與社會慈善機構的長期支援,可能成為台灣活得最久的植物人。






  家人無盡的愛,還有社會慈善機構的長期支援,都是王曉民得以存活將近半個世紀的原因 !

2011年1月2日 星期日


鍾叔河主編的 走向世界叢書收入李圭的《環游地球新錄》

錢鍾書先生說他是位名作者 另外《思痛錄》為胡適和周作人都稱讚過…. (胡適先生認為他記太平天國的慘烈殺戮人民等都是難得的史料 與他家鄉的記憶相同 胡適希望校讀他的著作之後出書)





李圭(1842-1903年),字小池,江苏江宁(今南京)人,系中国近代邮政倡导者之一。1876年,赫德委派他前往美国费城参加美国建国100周年博 览会,李圭回国后将其在美期间的考察、见闻写出《环游地球新录》一书,书中对美国邮政作了详尽的记述,并建议开办中国邮政。他的见解得到了李鸿章的赞许。 1896年,中国正式开办邮政,责成费拉尔设计邮资明信片。是年8月,他在《呈海关总税务司备忘录(一)》的补遗中,将“POSTCARD”称为“书信 片”。


把“post card”译为“明信片”的第一人
  1. 简介
  2. 事件经过
  3. 贡献

把“post card”译为“明信片”的第一人


  人李圭(1842-1903年),字小池,江苏江宁(今南京)人,23岁受聘任宁波海关副税务司霍搏逊的文牍(现时的秘书),系中国近代邮政倡导者之一。1876年,赫德委派他前往美国费城参加美国建国100周年博览会,李圭回国后将其在美期间的考察、见闻写出《环游地球新录》 一书,书中对美国邮政作了详尽的记述,并建议开办中国邮政。他的见解得到了李鸿章的赞许。1885年,在葛显礼主持下,李圭将英文的《香港邮政指南》译成 汉语,同时又拟写了《译拟邮政局寄信条规》(以下简称《条规》)。《条规》对十几种邮件的规格、特征、资费等做了详细的规定。值得我们注意的是,该书对明信片概念的认识。


  在《明信片》一节中,李圭对明信片阐述如下:“邮政局有印就厚纸片,其信资图记也印于片上,由局出售,以便商民凡寄无关紧要之信,可就片面写姓名住址,片   写信,不用封套,价更便宜。各国信馆皆有此片,谓之明信片。”汉语的“明信片”一词,即首见于此。   该《条规》送呈葛显礼、李鸿章、总理衙门等高级官员与部门,正因如此,“明信片”一词当时未能 流传。《条规》的附件中有1枚示意的“明信片”,此片借用香港1880年发行的维多利亚肖像图邮资片,李圭将该片中上部的英文香港及徽志刮掉,手写了“大 清国CHINA”几个字;另在英文“万国邮政联盟”一行文字上面手写“邮政局明信片”6个字,还用1枚大龙邮票将维多利亚邮资图完全覆盖,以示此处可印中 国邮政的邮资图。   李圭将其加工的“明信片”作附件,本意就是让上层官员产生目见实物的效果。这枚“明信片”是中国邮政明信片的雏形,“明信片”3个字首次出现在设计理念中的样片上,其历史意义怎样评价都不过分。   《译拟邮政局寄信条规》有数件版本,均为李圭手书,其恭笔齐整,足见汉字功底之扎实。无论从历 史还是现实的角度看,我们都应该庆幸中国邮政历史上出现了李圭,只有像李圭这样的中西文化素养渊深的清末知识分子,才能将“POSTCARD”(邮政卡) 的实际特征与涵义准确表述,从而历史性地创译出了“明信片”这个至今仍旧无可替代的概念。


   1896年,中国正式开办邮政,责成费拉尔设计邮资明信片。是年8月,他在《呈海关总税务司备忘录(一)》的补遗中,将“POSTCARD”称为“书信 片”。但在“备忘录(二)”那些汉、英文夹杂的行文中,费拉尔建议把汉语的“书信片”改为“邮政明信片”,然而这是在李圭的《条规》上呈11年以后的事 了。   1897年10月1日,大清邮政首枚邮资明信片发行,邮资图下印着“邮政明信片”5个字,从此“明信片”一词开始出现在中国各个时期的明信片上,并在国人的口语中得到广泛的应用。

2011年1月1日 星期六

Denis Dutton, Philosopher, Dies at 66

Denis Dutton, Founder of ‘Arts & Letters Daily,’ Dies

December 28, 2010, 11:14 am

Denis Dutton, founder and editor of Arts & Letters Daily and a professor of philosophy at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand, has died. Born in California, Mr. Dutton received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of California at Santa Barbara. He created Arts & Letters Daily in 1998. The Chronicle of Higher Education purchased the widely praised site in 2002.

“Denis was the creative force behind Arts & Letters Daily and wrote all the items on the page himself, even when he was on vacation,” said Phil Semas, president and editor in chief of The Chronicle. “He is nearly irreplaceable. Even so, we intend to continue Arts & Letters Daily in the spirit in which Denis created and nurtured it.”

Evan Goldstein of The Chronicle and Mr. Dutton’s longtime collaborator, Tran Huu Dung, a professor of economics at Wright State University, will continue to produce the site.

Denis Dutton, Philosopher, Dies at 66

Denis Dutton, a distinguished philosopher, writer and digital-media guru who founded Arts & Letters Daily, one of the first Web sites to exploit the Internet as a vehicle for meaningful intellectual exchange, died on Tuesday in Christchurch, New Zealand, where he lived. He was 66.
Martin Woodhall/Christchurch Star, via Associated Press

Denis Dutton in 2002 in Christchurch, New Zealand.



The latest on the arts, coverage of live events, critical reviews, multimedia extravaganzas and much more. Join the discussion.

The cause was prostate cancer, his son, Ben, said.

An impassioned polymath, genial contrarian and native Californian, Professor Dutton was at his death a professor of philosophy at the University of Canterbury, in Christchurch, where he had taught since 1984.

Although philosophy has a mania for classification, Professor Dutton was demonstrably beyond category. His portfolio ranged over aesthetics (his major field of inquiry was the philosophy of art); evolution (his book “The Art Instinct,” a Darwinian exploration published in 2009, commanded international attention); editing (he founded and edited the journal Philosophy and Literature); obfuscatory prose (he was a publicly sworn foe of same, and ran a competition to honor the worst offenders); plagiarism (as a cultural phenomenon; he was not himself a practitioner); and sitar playing (this he did practice).

He wrote widely in the mainstream press, and his opinions were solicited by the news media on subjects from moles’ noses (“No one would find the star-nosed mole ugly if its star were iridescent blue,” he told The New York Times in August) to the essential difference between plagiarism and forgery (in the first, one passes off another’s work as one’s own; in the second, vice versa).

Professor Dutton was perhaps best known to the public for Arts & Letters Daily, which he founded in 1998. The site is a Web aggregator, linking to a spate of online articles about literature, art, science, politics and much else, for which he wrote engaging teasers. (“Can dogs talk? Kind of, says the latest scientific research. But they tend to have very poor pronunciation,” read his lead-in to a 2009 Scientific American article.)

Long before aggregators were commonplace, Arts & Letters Daily had developed an ardent following. A vast, labyrinthine funnel, the site revels in profusion, diversion, digression and, ultimately, the interconnectedness of human endeavor of nearly every sort, a “Tristram Shandy” for the digital age.

As one of the first people to recognize the power of the Web to facilitate intellectual discourse, Professor Dutton was hailed as being among “the most influential media personalities in the world,” as Time magazine described him in 2005.

Arts & Letters Daily, which was acquired by The Chronicle of Higher Education in 2002, currently receives about three million page views a month. The site is expected to continue publishing, Phil Semas, The Chronicle’s president and editor in chief, said in a statement on Tuesday.

Professor Dutton also attracted wide notice with the publication of “The Art Instinct: Beauty, Pleasure, and Human Evolution” (Bloomsbury Press). In it, he examined the arts through the lens of evolutionary psychology, asking, What are the cognitive reasons that painting or music or literature takes the form it does? (Or, to put the question more bluntly, Why, even if we don’t know a lot about art, do we instinctively know what we like?)

In sum, the book was an accounting for taste — and taste, Professor Dutton argued, could be accounted for by looking at the inborn faculties that aided our distant forebears in the arduous prehistoric business of survival.

Our reflexive love of landscape painting, for example, might hark back to early man’s life on the savannah. Likewise, Professor Dutton wrote, just as a peacock unfurls its tail to impress a prospective mate, our drive to make glorious visual art may be rooted in a similar biological imperative.

While some reviewers criticized Professor Dutton for indulging in unverifiable speculation, others praised the book for its intellectual reach, nuance and daring. Reviewing “The Art Instinct” in The Philadelphia Inquirer, Carlin Romano wrote that Professor Dutton “may be the best-equipped thinker in the world to explain” man’s universal need to create.

Denis Laurence Dutton was born in Los Angeles on Feb. 9, 1944. His parents were booksellers who founded what became Dutton’s, a nationally known chain of independent bookstores there; for many years, until the last store closed not long ago, the chain was run by his brothers, Dave and Doug.

After earning a bachelor’s degree in philosophy from the University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1966, Denis Dutton spent two years in India with the Peace Corps; he later earned a Ph.D. in philosophy from Santa Barbara. Before taking up his post in New Zealand, he taught at the University of Michigan, Dearborn.

Prolonged exposure to academic prose drove Professor Dutton to create the Bad Writing Contest, which he ran, under the aegis of Philosophy and Literature, for several years in the 1990s.

The contest rules, as he explained them in an essay in The Wall Street Journal, were these:

“Entries should be a sentence or two from an actual published scholarly book or journal article. No translations into English allowed, and the entries had to be nonironic: We could hardly admit parodies in a field where unintentional self-parody was so rampant.”

Scholars rushed to submit writing — though never their own — which was judged by Professor Dutton and his Philosophy and Literature colleagues. Entries did not have to be long to be obscure, as attested by the 1997 third-place winner, from “Making Monstrous: Frankenstein, Criticism, Theory,” by Fred Botting:

“The lure of imaginary totality is momentarily frozen before the dialectic of desire hastens on within symbolic chains.”

Professor Dutton ended the contest after the annual turgid torrent threatened to overwhelm all concerned.

Besides his son, Ben, and his brothers, Dave and Doug, Professor Dutton is survived his wife, the former Margit Stoll; a daughter, Sonia Dutton; and a sister, Dory Dutton.

His other books include “The Forger’s Art: Forgery and the Philosophy of Art” (University of California, 1983), an essay collection he edited.

Though Professor Dutton delighted in the tangential, the parenthetical and the weaving of seemingly diverse strands of human enterprise into a seamless whole, there were a few byproducts of the human condition over which he declined to cast the expansive net of Arts & Letters Daily.

“We will never have horoscopes,” he told The Times in a 1998 interview. “If people want horoscopes, they will have to go elsewhere.”

Roger Milliken, Conservative Tycoon, Dies at 95

約1998年 宏遠訪織公司的葉總經理讓我更深入了解Roger Milliken先生


Roger Milliken, Conservative Tycoon, Dies at 95

Roger Milliken, a South Carolina textile magnate who supported conservative causes and was instrumental in building the state into a bastion of the Republican Party, died Thursday in Spartanburg, S.C. He was 95.

United Press International

Roger Milliken in 1964.

Mr. Milliken, a billionaire whose Milliken & Company was based in Spartanburg and was one of the largest textile and chemical firms in the nation, manufactured materials used in products as varied as flame-resistant gear for firefighters and the balloons in the annual Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade. One of his products gives Jell-O pudding its smooth creaminess.

He was a generous supporter of conservative Republicans and an early backer of Barry Goldwater’s 1964 run for president.

Beginning in the 1960s, Mr. Milliken provided the financial and intellectual muscle that helped the Republican Party come to dominate politics in South Carolina, which had been a Democratic Party preserve since Reconstruction.

He maintained close ties with a generation of conservative Republican senators who for decades dominated Southern politics, including Jesse Helms of North Carolina and South Carolina’s Strom Thurmond, whom Mr. Milliken is sometimes credited with helping to persuade to switch from the Democratic to the Republican Party in 1964.

Mr. Milliken was a Republican delegate to eight national conventions, most recently in 1984. In 2008, he supported Duncan L. Hunter, a California congressman, for the Republican presidential nomination.

Mr. Milliken, who was born in New York City on Oct. 24, 1915, took over the family’s textile business in 1947 after the death of his father, Gerrish. The company was co-founded by his grandfather Seth Milliken in 1865.

Mr. Milliken studied French history at Yale University and was known for quoting economic theorists like Adam Smith and Friedrich List, and for warning about what he regarded as the link between nations that allowed their manufacturing bases to decline and the demise of those nations.

Mr. Milliken, who was a vocal opponent of the North American Free Trade Agreement, was seen toward the end of his life as an almost quixotic figure as he sought to protect South Carolina’s textile industry from lower-priced foreign competitors.

While other American textile mills have succumbed to international competition during the past 25 years or so, the focus of Mr. Milliken’s company on innovation helped it prosper. The company has produced more than 2,000 patents and developed the largest textile research center in the world, according to the company’s Web site.

One of the ways Mr. Milliken kept costs down was by aggressively fighting efforts to unionize his workers.

In 1956, he closed a textile mill in Darlington, S.C., after workers there voted to form a union. He was sued by the employees, and after a lengthy court battle he was ordered to pay a $5 million settlement.

Mr. Milliken pushed for racial integration at Wofford College in Spartanburg in the 1960s, volunteering to support the college financially if its acceptance of black students drove other financial backers away. The college eventually integrated voluntarily.

He was also a supporter of the arts and became well known in Spartanburg for his love of trees, friends said. In 1999, he established the Noble Tree Foundation to encourage the planting of trees in the area, particularly in rundown neighborhoods.

Mr. Milliken also gave millions of dollars to local educational institutions, including Wofford College and Converse College, also in Spartanburg.

Mr. Milliken’s wife of 55 years, Justine Van Rensselaer Hooper, died in 2003. He is survived by two daughters, Justine Russell and Nancy Milliken; three sons, Roger Jr., David and Weston; and nine grandchildren.