2014年1月25日 星期六

東海大學的人與書(xxv) : 陳敏,劉全生 ,Anne Cochran, Louise Crawford


. Miss Louise Crawford, who has been assistant professor of English at Tunghai University, Taichung,. Taiwan ...她接Anne Cochran的主任  之前是圖書館館長
2010-08-04 : Farewell to 東海外文系教師Louise Crawford


緬懷東海大學外文系創系主任 Prof. Anne Cochran 柯安思教授,與您分享 《東海名人錄系列 東海英語教學奠基者-柯安思教授 感念 Prof. Anne Cochran文集》

Cochran, Anne. Modern Methods of Teaching English as a Foreign Language: A Guide to Modern Materials with Particular Reference to the Far East. 1952. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: Educational Services, 1958.

This kind of perspective is also found in other writings by other Tunghai people, such as Anne ("Nancy") Cochran, first chair of the Foreign Language department. In her book Modern Methods of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Cochran argued that in East Asia, most students study English in order to learn about and translate Western scientific discoveries and technical information. She placed expression pretty low on the scale of what such students wanted or needed from their language training. She made a distinction between students who wanted to learn English in order to become part of an English-speaking society and those who wanted to learn enough to be able to share Western knowledge with their compatriots:

A good many students ... are not interested in producing English themselves, either in the spoken or written forms. But even such students realize that in technical fields a reading knowledge of English is very useful and sometimes almost a necessity. ... A few scholars also might conceivably wish to be able not only to read English but also to write it so as to be able to communicate with Western scholars. ... Still others wish only to translate. This emphasis has become very strong in the Far East, and may also be growing in other countries. ... (3)
This belief, to some degree, influenced Cochran's work with the teaching of English to non-English majors at Tunghai. While students were given opportunities to express themselves, Cochran also appeared to emphasize correctness of pronunciation and grammar over (but not to the exclusion of) training in the production of more extended discourse.

Remembering Anne Cochran
前外文系教師姜斐德女士(Mrs. Freda Johnson Murck)
To think of Anne Cochran is to think of an ebullient spirit. When I knew her at Tunhgai in the 1960's, her many admirable qualities included dedication to her mission as a teacher, intelligence, generosity in dealing with people, and an enthusiasm for communicating. Although Anne Cochran had a strong personality, in my recollection she was never domineering. She did not so much inspire awe as affection, admiration, and cooperation. Her seriousness of purpose was tempered by a wonderfully warm sense of humor. Her contagious laugh was typically accompanied by a  broad smile and twinkling eyes.
Anne Cochran thoroughly delighted in her pupils' linguistic accomplishments and in the progress of her novice teachers. For at Tunghai she was not only teaching undergraduates the English language, she was also teaching recent college graduates how to become good teachers. She directed high spirits and raw enthusiasm towards the goal of inculcating proficient English. She was continually looking for ways to encourage learning. Dialogues were written and rewritten to try to make them relevant to student lives. Attention was paid to teaching reticent and less-accomplished students as well as to stimulating star pupils. Friendly competitions between classes were designed to engage interest. Tests were carefully crafted to reinforce vocabulary, points of grammar, and sentence patterns. Her devotion to the task was infectious.
When I taught English under Miss Cochran's tutelage in 1966 and 1967, she was already in her sixties. She was, however, in robust good health and could out walk most of the young teachers. One day on a long walk through sugarcane fields, she told us about growing up in Beijing, about taking long walks atop the Beijing city wall ,and visiting the sites of Beijing on foot. As a young woman she once offered to take a visiting scholar on an outing to the Western Hills. To the visitor's dismay, they walked to the Western Hills, walked to various monasteries, and walked back into the city, a distance Miss Cochran casually calculated (with eyes at twinkle) as under seventeen miles.
On her ninety-fifth birthday, although she cannot possibly know how many lives she touched, nor how many young people she inspired, I hope her eyes will twinkle again knowing that she is affectionately remembered by her many Tunghai friends.

東海大學的人與書(124) 陳敏


  三十餘年來,沈浸跨國性雷射、核熔合、電漿物理學域研究,劉教授始終以一貫之信念-"知識分子當視研究為求取學問之基本方法" 自勉勉人。予中外後學啟迪頗深。
  「東海當年名師群集,諸如:曾約農、吳德耀校長、全台六位最優秀物理學者之一一物理系的王碩輔教授,以及中文系徐復觀教授、牟宗三教授、政治系張佛泉 教授...等多位學界名師,在科學、文學、政治學及通才教育中知識領域傳授,均賦予學子相當豐富的啟蒙,加上勞作教育、榮譽精神之開創亦為東海樹立良好學 風。這次回到母校來,和許多闊別多年的師友重逢,特別高興;見到學校校園風景悠美,樹木成蔭,並且規模宏大,是所見台灣之大學中最美的校園。這些要歸功創 校者的眼光與設計和近年梅校長的領導及在校老師和留校服務校友的努力。更覺,我們要繼績保持並恢復這些優良傳統。」
  一九七○年,他前往聖地牙哥〝通用原子公司〞( General Atomic co. ),從事核熔合物理研究;兩年後,應請入普林斯頓大學高等研究所 ( Institute for Advanced study, Princeton ),繼續為時四年之核熔合研究,並專注於〝雷射與核熔合〞領域探索。 一九七五年起,則轉赴馬里蘭大學物理系擔任教授迄今。
  一九八一年,劉校友兩度回到聖地牙哥通用原子公司主持理論科學部,專事核熔合研究,隨後於一九八五年應聘擔任馬里蘭大學物理及天文系主任。該系目前仍 為全美最大物理系之一,擁有一百餘位教授、二百六十餘位博士研究生,經費亦相當充裕。一九九○年,因研究迭具創見,普受國際學界肯定,劉校友膺選為美國物 理學會電漿分會副會長,他肯定地指出:「在自己工作崗位上,將繼續致力於教學、研究與服務,同時也非常希望將所學貢獻於國內。國際和國內大環境乃至東海, 目前均處於關鍵性轉變之際,如何運用智慧與知識,共同設想一個合理的世界新秩序、更好的社會和生活環境,以及優越的東海大學,是知識分子應盡之責任。」
  至於重要之研究取向,劉校友主要專事〝雷射、核熔合、電漿物理學研究〞。「由於核能發電係以分裂原子來產生電能,雖為各國普遍運用,但仍有其安全性、 污染及核廢料...等顧慮。以核熔合與電漿所產生之電能做為新的能源,前述顧慮將可減至最低。目前〝核熔合反應研究〞正處於關鍵性時刻 ,因為今年底明年初,歐洲與美國都將進行點火試驗;美、蘇、日本及歐洲共同體並已達成協議,將共同規劃下一步世界性研究合作計劃一製造「國際熔合實驗反應 器」,希望能在本世紀末下世紀初完成,成為國際間科學家與工程師共同研究核熔合之中心。這項攸關全人類福祉的研究,希望下個世紀獲得突破、實現。」
  旅美多年,劉校友對基礎科學紮根於國內、物理系整體未來走向及母校發展前景,俱顯現其高度關懷,「科學紮根工作不能急功近利,需首重培養社會整體對開 創科技研究風氣之認知,吸取外來經驗之際必須顧及本身環境,同時,更需改變傳統教學方式,以〝研究〞取代〝灌輸〞。此外,國內科技研究學域間,亦亟需成立 細密的網路,彼此合作無間。物理系現正處於轉型期,教授們於此刻似可儘量向國科會爭取申請研究。系主任林進家近期提出之科技整合計劃應多予鼓勵,尤其建館 計劃更需全力支持。」
  由於今夏回校擔任客座教授,係應國科會聘任,他進一步指陳:「八○年代以前,東海概以教學為主,缺乏研究經費與環境,教師們課程很重無暇從事研究,但 這幾年已略見開展。目前,可透過國科會對私立大學教授的研究資助,充實基本研究設備(如電腦)。並經由對研究工作的鼓勵與支持、行政單位配合,以及社會對 學術研究之資助...:等主、客觀條件密切配合,便能使研究蔚為風氣,系際之間亦需有機會廣泛交流。研究是求取學問的正確方法。只有真正從事研究的學者, 才能將學術之前沿,以發現的、創造的精神,傳授予學子。此可以改革我國長久以來,以灌輸、填鴨式的教學積弊。」
  「八月返校,可說是完成廿餘年來的宿願。眼見東海已逐漸成長演變為擁有一萬餘名學生的大學校,樹本成林,是我所見環境最好的學府,內心深感興奮。深 覺,除應珍惜這塊淨土,更應感激曾經為創造這優美環境而付出心力、精神的校長、老師、以及歷屆校友。東海現今面臨的是,如何在這優美環境裡建造第一流學術 重鎮。充分發揮『愛校精神』是重要課題。 因為這份精神涵蓋了『教育』之崇高理念;畢竟,大學是一所培育人才、陶冶人品最重要環境。展望未來,我們是應該樂觀的!」
From 東海校友月刊 1991-11-15