2017年4月25日 星期二

Jane Jacobs;谷阿莫


蘋論:谷阿莫被告了

2017年04月26日


谷阿莫網路紅人谷阿莫被告違反《著作權法》,並不令人意外。網路上的創新與分享都是好事,谷阿莫卻以「他傻瓜,我聰明」的取巧方式衍生牟利,內容過度簡化、傳遞偏見更引發爭議,此次被告足堪其他相同手法網站與網紅引以為戒。

當初谷阿莫推出「X分鐘看完XX電影」系列影片時,幽默KUSO的說故事方式很對年輕人胃口,對於院線大片、知名影星的嘲諷也看似無傷大雅,不但一片叫好之聲,社群網站粉絲數更破千萬。儘管當時就有很多人對其涉及侵權不以為然,但與網路上到處可見的盜版販售相較,谷阿莫自稱「二次創作」在免費觀看的粉絲眼中仍屬可接受範圍。

無本生意豈稱創新

然而,隨著谷阿莫將「粉絲經濟」發揚光大,開始接案甚至訂出廣告、業配價碼,他所宣稱的「網路著作權合理使用」也愈來愈站不住腳,因為其中已經充滿了牟利動機及衍生獲利結果。「X分鐘看完XX電影」系列影片傳遞的價值觀,也變成「出大錢做內容的人都是傻瓜,巧妙重製內容做無本生意的人才聰明」,這種心態真的是值得鼓勵的網路創新精神嗎?
持平而論,谷阿莫是一個很會說故事的人,才能引發網路族群如此大的共鳴。但是,谷阿莫更大的爭議也在於此,因為他一路酸到底的用詞與風格,往往傳遞了更多歧視與偏見。不少人未必在乎谷阿莫侵犯著作權,卻對他的品味水準、鼓動歧視非常感冒。

去年谷阿莫以一貫嘲諷風格評論電影《丹麥女孩》,就引來許多網友抨擊,認為谷阿莫對性別無知及歧視弱勢者。儘管支持者為谷阿莫辯護認為只是開玩笑,但谷阿莫仍須面對「把玩笑建立在他人痛苦之上」的質疑聲浪。......







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http://www.npr.org/2017/04/21/525046934/city-planning-as-a-contact-sport-in-citizen-jane-battle-for-the-city
MOVIE REVIEWS

City Planning As A Contact Sport In 'Citizen Jane: Battle For The City'


NPR:

April 21, 20174:34 PM ET


Heard on All Things Considered





BOB MONDELLO






Jane Jacobs commandeering a city planning meeting.

Courtesy of IFC Films


Imagine city planning as a contact sport and you have the gist of Matt Tyrnauer's documentary, Citizen Jane: Battle for the City. The film chronicles the struggle between two mid-20th century worldviews: that of Robert Moses, who preached a cure for what ailed American cities that amounted to "bulldoze and replace," and the less destructive prescriptions of writer/activist Jane Jacobs, who challenged the whole notion of urban renewal in her game-changing book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities.


She was the David to his Goliath. As New York's unelected but powerful parks commissioner, transit czar and head of public works, Moses was intent on creating the city of tomorrow — a place of glistening, angular high-rises, soaring bridges, and superhighways. And in the 1950s and '60s, he had the muscle to make them happen. As he talks of cutting out the "cancer" of slums, the images on-screen are of whole blocks being demolished by wrecking ball and explosives.



Moses, foolishly, termed her just a mother with a baby carriage. He would soon learn not to underestimate mothers.




But it's a feature of such top-down approaches to city planning that when you take a view from the clouds, the city's inhabitants become mere specks on your architectural models.


"Today our greatest single problem is tenant removal," Moses intones matter-of-factly. "You have to move people out of the way of a slum clearance project, and a lot of them are not gonna like it." Grant the man a gift for understatement.


While he designed crisp city blocks from on high, Jane Jacobs was looking at New York from street level. To her a city wasn't about buildings — it was about people. Planners like Moses may have seen newsstands and folks sitting on front stoops as clutter, but Jacobs saw a vibrant streetscape.


They were natural antagonists, these two. And with archival footage and talking heads, the filmmakers lay out the differences in their outlooks, and then revisit their biggest battles. Over, say, the Moses plan to declare much of Greenwich Village a slum, so he could run traffic — think of his neighborhood-killing Cross Bronx Expressway — through the center of Washington Square.


Jacobs had just published her book Death and Life at that point, and she lived in Greenwich Village. Moses, foolishly, termed her just a mother with a baby carriage. He would soon learn not to underestimate mothers.


"There is nothing more inert than a planning office," Jacobs says in a voiceover. "It gets going in one direction and it is never going to change of its own accord." So she made it her business to "frustrate planners."


The film documents how she mobilized the neighborhood, and then the politicians, and proved that the people of Greenwich Village could fight city hall.


But the Moses doctrine of bulldoze-and-replace was making a lot of money for developers, and it was spreading. Cities everywhere followed his lead, ripping out run-down neighborhoods to construct soulless, low-income high-rises that no one wanted.


The film shows the result — Pruitt-Igoe in St. Louis, Cabrini-Green in Chicago — huge, sterile towers surrounded by ribbons of concrete and what sketches depicted as parkland but what were, in reality, the equivalent of empty lots. Jacobs predicted correctly that these walled-in green spaces would prove more dangerous than the busy streets they replaced because no one would ever be in them.


"This is not the re-building of cities" she wrote. "This is the sacking of cities."


It would be hard to watch Citizen Jane: Battle for the City without making connections to battles raging today: politicians who want to build things — walls, infrastructure — to clean up clutter and make people conform.


Jacobs argued that what looks to officialdom like disorder is actually what makes a crowded human landscape function — it's just a more complex order. This compelling documentary lets you see the beauty she found in that complexity.
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