2013年2月20日 星期三

Wong Kar-wai, 王家衛



電影

王家衛訪談:捍衛我們真正信仰的電影


柏林——今年柏林國際電影節(Berlin International Film Festival)的開場夜電影《一代宗師》是一段時間以來最花哨的影片之一,這部備受期待的新片是香港導演王家衛的大作。
該片是王家衛的第10部影片,也是他自2007年的美國公路片《藍莓之夜》後的首部新片,《一代宗師》主要是講功夫大師葉問的故事,他是李小龍的師父,因此而廣為人知。已經有好幾部講述這個故事的電影,最近還有過一系列通俗傳記體影片,由甄子丹主演。但是王家衛的風格是無可救藥的浪漫主義,他用自己的方式來講述這個故事,讓它在傷感的沉思與精心設計的動作大爆發之間轉換;一再展示那些反映舊時代的時刻,以及主演梁朝偉和章子怡的魅力。
此外王家衛還是本屆柏林電影節評委會的主席,評委會成員包括演員蒂姆·羅賓斯(Tim Robbins)、導演蘇珊娜·比爾(Susanne Bier)和阿錫娜·瑞秋·特桑阿里(Athina Rachel Tsangari),以及電影攝影師愛倫·庫拉斯(Ellen Kuras)和藝術家施林·奈沙(Shirin Neshat)。
這周早些時候,王家衛像往常一樣戴着墨鏡,在柏林麗思卡爾頓酒店房間的窗邊吸着煙,從忙碌的審片安排中抽出時間來和我們聊《一代宗師》,溫斯坦公司今年將在美國發行這部影片。對話節選如下:
:你有最喜歡的功夫片嗎?
:我覺得《精武門》很好,還有邵氏兄弟公司早期的一些影片。
:《一代宗師》在這裡上映的國際版和上個月在中國放映的版本有什麼不同?
:(國際版)有時間限制,所以短了10分鐘。我們調整了幾幕戲,特別是開頭和結尾,所以影片變得更加直接,更適合國際觀眾。中國的版本里有一段尾聲,在某種程度上更加開放一些。
:我覺得這部片子是你很早以前就想拍的。
:(1996年)我在阿根廷拍《春光乍泄》的時候,有一天我們在火車站拍張國榮和梁朝偉的一場戲。我在雜誌攤邊閑逛,驚喜地發現李小龍的照片出現在一本布宜諾斯艾利斯的雜誌封面上——也就是說,在他去世20年後,在這樣一個遙遠的世界裡,還有人視他為英雄。
但這還不是我拍這部影片的真正原因。大約在1999年,我看了一段葉問宗師的家庭錄像,這是他兒子在他去世前3天拍的,地點在他的起居室里。你可以 看到他年過70,身體虛弱,穿着睡衣,和孫子在一起,示範自己的武藝。他的兒子告訴我,那天早上葉問給他打電話說:“我希望你來錄一段這個。”葉問展示的 是詠春拳的核心108式。還沒到結束,他就把手放在了腹部——鏡頭沒有拍到他的臉,但你可以從他的背影看出他很痛苦。
他不是太虛弱就是病得太重,要不就是把功夫都忘了,對於我來說,那個時刻非常感人。這是中國式的傳遞火種——在影片中國版的結尾,我拍了一幕戲,是 發生在一個寺廟裡,一座有着1400年歷史的令人驚嘆的寺院,完全是用磚瓦蓋成的,保存得很好,有一個鏡頭裡,所有的光都亮了起來。
這就是我想拍這部片子的原因——它關乎慷慨、關乎傳遞火種的責任。所以我沒有給影片取名《葉問》而是取名《一代宗師》。它講的其實是一位宗師的道路與品行。
:你能說說為這部片子所做的研究工作嗎?
:我花了兩年時間做研究,看了很多書籍、雜誌、檔案和照片。影片不僅是關於一個人的,而是關於一種力量,一個 時期,那是現代武術史上的黃金時代。但我發現這還不夠,不和傳授武術的人交談,你就不可能了解那種思維方式。在《藍莓之夜》之後,我花了3年時間旅行。從 北京出發,一個一個城市地訪問了幾百位功夫大師。
在如今的中國,武術更多是被視為一種體育,它把所有門派融為一種形式,其中不再有師徒關係,而是更像教練與運動員。這其中有各種各樣的結構與哲學; 有些人覺得它和瑜伽差不多,是有益健康的東西。但是在傳統意義上,武術和體育的區別在於,武術是一種武器,可以用來保護自己,也可以成為殺人的技能。如果 你有機會見到那些武術師,你會發現,愈是功成名就的大師就愈謙卑,他們對於傳授這門技藝非常謹慎,因為他們知道這是一種能致人死命的武器。
:你覺得《一代宗師》是類型片嗎?
:我不會把它稱為功夫片——它更有《功夫往事》(套用電影《美國往事》的名字——譯註)的感覺。放映第一天晚 上,我介紹這部片子時對觀眾說:“如果你是功夫的鐵杆擁躉,這部片子適合你。但如果你是第一次看功夫片,那就更好了。”如果功夫片不是你喜歡的類型,那正 好借這個機會改變一下。這部片子拍的不僅是拳打腳踢,而是關於兩代武術師和他們不同的理念。其中有些是真實人物,他們在祖國最艱難的時刻堅守自己的原則。 我覺得這部片子可以向觀眾展現關於中國更多的東西,而不僅僅是武術。
:這是你第二次擔任大型電影節的評委會主席了。2006年,你曾經擔任過戛納電影節的評委會主席(那年肯·洛奇[Ken Loach]的《風吹麥浪》[Wind That Shakes the Barley]獲得了金棕櫚獎)——這次的感覺有什麼不一樣嗎?
:我一直都對評委會成員們說同樣的話——我們來這裡不是為了評判電影的,我們是來捍衛我們真正信仰的電影,這對於這個時代來說真的非常重要。
本文最初發表於2013年2月16日。
翻譯:董楠





Berlin Film Festival: Wong Kar-wai, Kung Fu Auteur

BERLIN - This year's Berlin International Film Festival had one of its flashiest opening-night films in some time with ''The Grandmaster,'' the eagerly anticipated new movie from the Hong Kong director Wong Kar-wai.
Mr. Wong's 10th feature and his first since the American road movie "My Blueberry Nights" (2007), "The Grandmaster" revolves around the ascendancy of Ip Man, the kung fu master best known as Bruce Lee's teacher. It's a story that has been told several times on screen, most recently in popular biopics starring Donnie Yen. But Mr. Wong, an incorrigible romantic stylist, tells it his own way, alternating between melancholic reverie and flurries of choroeographed action, lingering on moments out of time and the beauty of his stars, Tony Leung and Ziyi Zhang.
Mr. Wong is also the president of the Berlinale jury, which includes the actor Tim Robbins, the filmmakers Susanne Bier and Athina Rachel Tsangari, the cinematographer Ellen Kuras and the artist Shirin Neshat.
Earlier this week Mr. Wong, wearing his customary sunglasses and smoking out the window of a hotel room at the Ritz Carlton here, took time out from his busy viewing schedule to discuss "The Grandmaster," which the Weinstein Company will release in the United States this year. Here are edited excerpts:
Q.Do you have a favorite martial arts or kung fu film?
A.I think "Fists of Fury" is good and also some of the early Shaw Brothers films.
Q.What are the differences between the international version that was shown here and the one that was released in China last month?
A.We have a time limit [for the international version] so it's 10 minutes shorter. We rearranged a few scenes, especially in the beginning and the end, so the film could be more straightforward and more accessible for international audiences. In the Chinese version there's an epilogue, and it's more open in a way.
Q.I understand this is a film you've been wanting to make for a long time.
A.When I was shooting "Happy Together" in Argentina [in 1996], one day we were shooting a scene with Leslie [Cheung] and Tony [Leung] in the train station. I'd walk around to the magazine stands and I was amazed to see Bruce Lee on a cover of a magazine in Buenos Aires - meaning they considered him a hero 20 years after he passed away and in such a faraway world.
But that wasn't really the reason. Around 1999 I watched the home movies of the grandmaster Ip Man, shot, three days before he died by his son in his living room - you can see he's over 70, very weak, in his pajamas, with his grandchild, and he's doing a demonstration. His son told me that one morning he called up and said, "I want you to make a record of this." And he did a demonstration of the 108 combinations, the core of the Wing Chun technique. It wasn't until the end when he put his hand on his tummy - the camera doesn't catch his face but you can tell from his back that it's agonizing.
He's too weak or too sick or he's simply forgotten how, and to me that moment is very moving. There's a Chinese concept about carrying on the fire - at the end of the Chinese version I have one scene in a temple, an amazing 1,400-year-old temple, totally in clay and well preserved, and there's one shot where all the lights are lit.
That's the reason I wanted to make this film - it's about this generosity, the responsibility to pass on this fire. And that's why I don't call this film "Ip Man" but "The Grandmaster." It's really about the path of a grandmaster and the quality of a grandmaster.
Q.Could you say a bit about your research process for this film?
A.I spent two years on research, going through books, magazines, archives, photos. The film is not just about one person but about a force, a period, the golden time of modern martial arts history. But I realized it's more than that, you can't just know this way of thinking without meeting the people who teach it. After "My Blueberry Nights," I spent three years on the road. Starting from Beijing I went from town to town to interview hundreds of masters.
Today in China martial arts is considered more of a sport - they've combined all the schools into one form, and there's no teachers and students, but more like coaches and athletes. The structure is different and the philosophy is different; some people consider it like yoga, something good for health. But in the classic sense, the difference between martial arts and sport is that it's a weapon, something to defend yourself and a skill that can kill. When you have a chance to meet these martial artists, you realize that the more established the masters, the more humble they are - they're very cautious about passing on this skill because they know it's a lethal weapon.
Q.Do you see "The Grandmaster" as a genre film?
A.I wouldn't call this a kung fu film - it's more like "Once Upon a Time in Kung Fu." On the first night, when I introduced the film, I said to the audience, "If you are a hard-core kung fu fan, this is a film for you. But if this is your first kung fu film, even better." If the kung fu genre is not your cup of tea, then it's about time for you to change. This film is not about only kicks and punches, because it's about two generations of martial artists and their philosophies. Some of them are real figures, who stood up for their principles through the most difficult times of their country. I think it's a film that could show an audience more about China, as opposed to just martial arts.
Q.This is the second time you've been jury president at a major film festival. You headed the Cannes jury in 2006 [when Ken Loach's "Wind That Shakes the Barley" won the Palme d'Or] - is this experience any different?
A.I always tell the jury members the same thing, which is that we're not here to judge films. We're here to champion the films we really believe in, and that are really important for the time.

王家衛BBS(英文名:Wong Kar-Wai,1958年7月17日

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