2012年5月5日 星期六

Victor Hugo


周末可大神游: 此文真能讓人了解15年的環境:    Hugo's Guernsey

他花了六年裝置的屋子真的是法國味十足
雨果傳/ Victor Hugo: A Biography ( Graham Robb)







Victor Hugo.
Victor Hugo Statue.

Timeline of Victor Hugo

A literary and political genius and the most famous person to ever live in Guernsey.

1802
February 26th: Hugo is born in Besancon, France.
1815 - 1818
Attends the Lycée Louis-Le Grand in Paris.
1817
Honoured by the French Academy for a poem he wrote. Wins first place in a National poetry competition. Hugo was an excellent student who excelled in mathematics, physics and philosophy.
1821
Hugo's mother dies.
1822
His first book, "Odes et Poésies Diverses (Miscellaneous Odes and Verses) is published.
Wins a pension of 1,000 Francs a year from Louis XVIII.
Marries Adele Foucher who becomes the mother of his children; Leopold-Victor, Charles- Victor, Francois-Victor, Adele and Leopoldine.
1823
His first novel, "Han d'Islande (Han of Iceland) is published.
1824
"Bug-Jargal" is published.
1826
 "Odes et Ballades" (Odes and Ballads) is published.
1827
"Cromwell", Hugo's play is published and in the foreword, he wrote about gaining freedom from the classical restrictions. This started the debate between French Classicism and Romanticism.
1830
Hugo became one of the leaders of a group of Romantic rebels who were trying to loosen the hold of classical literature in France.
His play "Hernani" is published in this same year, took a large step towards a more realistic theatre and made him a rich man.
1831
Hugo's next book, "Notre-Dame de Paris" (The Hunchback of Notre Dame) is published. This book, not only increased his popularity and reputation as the greatest writer in France, but also brought about his election to the French Academy in 1841.
1833
Actress Juliette Drouet became his mistress and supported by a small pension, she became his unpaid secretary and travelling companion for the next fifty years.
1843
In this year Hugo's daughter Léopoldine was drowned, along with her husband and his play "Les Burgraves" was a failure.
For the next few years, Hugo decided to focus on the growing social problems in France and did not write at all.
1845
As his father had been a Napoleonic General, he had become a Royalist as a young man. In this year, he was made a peer of France by King Louis Philippe.
1848
The year of the French Revolution. By now, Hugo was a Republican and had been elected with the new formation of the Second Republic, to the French Constitutional Assembly and to the French Legislative Assembly. Here Hugo was an avid advocate of social injustice.
1851
After the unsuccessful revolt against President Loius Napoleon (later Emperor Napoleon III), when Hugo risked execution by trying to rally the workers of Paris against the new Emporer, he fled to Brussels.
1852
It was clear, however that as a close neighbour of France, the Belgian authorities were concerned that Hugo's political statements would strain relationships between the two countires so during this year Hugo moved to Jersey.
"Napoléon Le Petit" (The Little Napoleon) is published.
1853
Hugo's best known works of poetry, "Les Chatiments" (Punishments) is published.
1855
Queen Victoria's visit to Paris caused a highly satirical article to be published by French exhiles in a London newspaper and the contents of the article were repeated by some of Hugo's  fellow proscribed in the newspaper tehy had found in Jersey.
This led to three of them being expelled.
Declaring his own solidarity with them led subsequently to the expulsion of Hugo himself and he arrived in Guernsey at the end of October.
1856
"Les Contemplations" is published.
This book of poetry was an immediate success and with the proceeds, he bought 38 Hauteville in St Peter Port, now more commonly known as Hautevillle House.
1862
"Les Misérables", his longest and most famous work is published. This novel is about the social injustice of 19th century France in which the main character, Jean Valjean, is sentenced to prison for 19 years for stealing a loaf of bread.
 
 
Les Chansons des rues et des bois ( 1865)
Songs of the streets and wood (1865)
1870
After the Franco-Prussian War and the fall of the Empire, Hugo made a triumphant return to Paris.
Here he resumed his role in politics and was elected to the National Assembly.
1872/1873
In this year he completed or published the majority of the works for which he is known, such as "Les Contemplations", "Les Misérables" and "Les Chansons des rues et des bois" (1865), "Les Travailleurs de la Mer" (1866), "L'Homme qui rit" (1869) and "Quatre-Vingt-Treize" (1874).
1876
Hugo is elected to the Senate, but poor health meant that he returned to Guernsey.
1885
May 22nd: At the age of eighty-three, Victor Hugo died in Paris
1st June: He was given a national funeral attended by over two million people.
His body was laid in state under the L'Arc de Triomphe and he was later borne on a pauper's hearse, in accordance with his wishes, to be buried in the Panthéon, the burial place of many great French people.
 
 

Published during Hugo's lifetime

Published posthumously

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