2013年4月28日 星期日

Ang Lee 李安 (II):Thank You, Xie Xie, Namaste, "life is a process of learning."

Film Director Ang Lee: 'Telling Stories Is a Quest for the Meaning of Life'

Ang Lee's first choice of profession was acting. But his Chinese accent made it difficult to get a break in America, where he had gone from Taiwan to study at the Tisch School of the Arts in New York. He turned to directing instead. As a director, his voice is heard all over the world. He has recently picked up a second best-director Oscar for Life of Pi. He had earlier won an Oscar for Brokeback Mountain.
Lee believes that "life is a process of learning." He wants to be a permanent student of film studies, so that "I can always make different films, taste different roles, go to different places and experience various stories…. I want to study my own life and discover myself by making films…. My work is driven by feelings. I follow my feelings and then communicate them to the audience.”
In this interview, conducted by students from Wharton’s Joseph H. Lauder Institute of Management & International Studies, Lee talks about his strong interest in experimenting with new themes, his focus on cultural similarities rather than differences and the influence of his own life on his movies.
Below is an edited transcript of the interview.

China Knowledge@Wharton: The films you have worked on are very diversified. Brokeback Mountain, Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon, Wedding Banquet and Life of Pi are so different from each other. How do you select the theme?
Ang Lee: It’s like traveling; you always prefer to go to a different destination each time.
We learn all our lives. School is just the beginning. All work is a process of learning. I want to be a permanent student of film studies, so that I can always make different films, taste different roles, go to different places and experience various stories…. I want to study my own life and discover myself by making films. For me, filmmaking is not just work; it’s my life.
I have learned a lot of professional skills, too. After my fourth work, Sense and Sensibility, I refused to be stereotyped. I tried diversified themes which needed more effort and also some sacrifice in remuneration. After I tried several different topics, people realized I would not be stereotyped. It’s a big world and there are so many things to do. Why should we repeat the same thing? Of course, there are some people who are getting better and better in one direction. But I love continuous experiments and adventure, and to learn and grow from that.

China Knowledge@Wharton: Given the rise of mainland China, how can Taiwan improve its visibility? Also, many people think that its cultural diversity is a competitive advantage for Taiwan. Do you agree? How can Taiwan build on this?
Lee: I fully understand when you say that Taiwan’s visibility is inadequate. Taiwan has a lot of so-called soft power. We have been nurtured by Chinese traditional culture and have also absorbed Western and Japanese culture to some extent. In addition, I think the Taiwanese are very nice people. Maybe it’s because I am a Taiwanese myself.
The basic quality of the Taiwanese people is very good, which is an advantage. But the world doesn't understand Taiwan very much. So I shot Life of Pi in Taiwan partly to increase its visibility.
On the film industry in particular, I think Taiwan does not have the infrastructure. All the basic elements are there; they are just not very well organized. Our film industry has to become stronger and the government should pay more attention.
Taiwanese people should have a sense of crisis. Young people like you should be alert that we have to try harder because the current advantages will not last too long. I think young people on the mainland are more diligent.

China Knowledge@Wharton: You have built a cross-cultural communication bridge with your international works. Was that your original vision?
Lee: No. It was just survival at the beginning. My original dream was to become an actor, although that failed because of my poor English when, at the age of 23, I came to the U.S. to study drama. I grew up in a Chinese milieu, but was quite gifted in Western drama. Deep in my heart, I am still fascinated by the stage, though I am now telling stories with the camera. I am a mixture of both Eastern and Western cultures. I live in New York, and most of my colleagues -- from idea generation, research and playwriting to post production and film editing -- are American.
My first film in New York was sponsored by a Taiwan film company. That was a hit with the mainstream Taiwan audience. My second work, Wedding Banquet, got me some international recognition. My [early] films were mainstream in Asia, but in the U.S. they were distributed slowly by art houses because they were foreign-language films. After I made some Chinese films, I began to shoot English films. I also joined the global tour to promote Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon. This was an international hit.
As a filmmaker, I am a vessel. I feel something and then express it. It is an experiment. We are driven by feelings instead of plans. You have emotions and you express them. We are observed by others. Many artists do not start with a concept. We are more intuitive. My work is driven by feelings. I follow my feelings and then communicate them to the audience.

China Knowledge@Wharton: Leaving aside your family members, who has had the biggest influence on your life and work?
Lee: My family members have had the most influence on me. For example, fatherhood -- the dynamics between father and son -- is a major theme in my work. How does the Chinese traditional culture represented by my father survive in a modern society? How does he adapt to a Western-oriented life?
Apart from my family, James Schamus, my long time working partner, is a very influential figure for me. He is the one who takes care of me at work. From the original idea and research to production, he is involved in everything. He has written many scripts for me and has helped sell my films later on. He is now CEO of Focus Features [a production and distribution company], so he was actually the boss of three of my works. He also teaches at Columbia University.
Many people who worked with me are close partners when we are shooting the film. Their lives get injected into my perceptions and the theme I am working on. When you are so engrossed doing one thing, the story you are telling becomes your own story. The past four years, I have drifted like Pi on the sea. In order to experience that loneliness, I didn’t work with James on this one, which is the first time we were not together on a film. I wanted to taste that loneliness, so that I could finally grow, reach the other shore of the Pacific, and become a man from a boy. My life developed in parallel with my film.

China Knowledge@Wharton: You have won many prizes globally and achieved a lot. What do you plan next?
Lee: As I was saying, I don’t have plans. When I was young and unknown, no one wrote scripts for me. So I wrote them myself. Now, there are people who write for me. I look at what stimulates my imagination. Some directors can shoot different films at the same time. I can’t. I always spend years on one film. Until that is nearly finished, I do not select the next one. I don’t have too many hobbies in life. I just love making films.
Right now, my work is at the crossroads. Life of Pi was more high-tech and visual-arts involved. This was quite novel for me, but also very expensive. In the future, I might go back to low-budget films.
At present, I am taking on a new project -- a TV play. I have never done this before. The first episode is titled “Tyrant” and we are shooting in the Middle East, which should be quite interesting.
My previous nine films were all made from books. I am still reading a lot of scripts both in English and Chinese, so there is no answer to your question yet.

China Knowledge@Wharton: I read an interview you did in 2008 after Brokeback Mountain won an Oscar award. You mentioned that you have experienced a lot of difficulties and challenges. What advice you would offer students like us?
Lee: Life is a permanent learning process. You have to keep learning as long as you are alive. Never think you know the answer; constantly challenge yourself. Life has so much to teach; school is just the beginning.
For [those looking at a career in film], my advice is to write the script yourself. When you are young, no one will write for you. It is especially tough for a Chinese [actor] to find a good role in the U.S. So you have to be able to write and create. The theme has to be novel and connected with your life so that you have true feelings about it. But it has to be above your personal experience and contain some universal value so people around the world can accept it.

China Knowledge@Wharton: Would you tell us which of your films impacted you the most and why?
Lee: Actually every film was an experience for me; it was what I most wanted to do at that time. If you want to me to choose, it’s Lust, Caution. For a Chinese citizen, it’s scary to talk of female sexuality, patriotism in war and treason all in one story. It is easier to portray a gay American cowboy [Brokeback Mountain].
One of the most important missions for drama is to explore human nature. If everyone is calm and life is nice, there will be nothing to examine or reveal. In Lust, Caution, I not only needed to explore a topic I was scared about and unwilling to face, but I also needed to expose a forbidden theme in Chinese culture. That film was a painful, rebellious and unsettling experience. Americans are not as interested in this story because they do not feel strongly on the subject.

China Knowledge@Wharton: You have made films on homosexual subjects. However, I feel that the target audience of these films is mainly Westerners. How would you make a film on that theme for Asian people, especially Chinese?
Lee: As a matter of fact, Wedding Banquet was made for the mainstream audience in Taiwan. I was not expecting it to be a box-office success in the U.S. That script was written by me for the Taiwan Central Motion Picture Corporation. But they didn’t want to make the film because of the homosexual theme. Americans didn’t want to make it because it was too Chinese. So I got the chance to make it only later. The movie was a hit in Taiwan and internationally. Brokeback Mountain was also received well in Taiwan. Some people have watched it more than a dozen times.
I am not sensitive about the nationality of my film. I grew up in Taiwan in a Chinese culture, so my view of the world is more oriental. At the same time, I have absorbed a lot of Western culture and technology; I work closely with my American colleagues on everything.
Take Life of Pi, for example. It is an English-language film. It’s an Indian story. It did best in Taiwan and mainland China. It doesn't make a difference to me. I think you can find people you can relate to in every corner of the world. People are not divided by cultures. Your heart, beliefs and perceptions of art are more important than cultural differences. This is human nature.
As a film director, I have to be able to capture the flavor of a particular place. But the ultimate goal is to explore human nature through the prism of culture, which is universal.

China Knowledge@Wharton: I like Life of Pi and have also read the novel. There are a lot of different interpretations. What is the major theme of your film?
Lee: When I first read the novel, I did not think of religion. I thought of authorship -- the connection between the author and the story. I think Life of Pi is not about religion; it is about God. What is God? It is hard to define. We Chinese think anything beyond three feet above our heads is God. Everything which is unknown to you or not controlled by you is God. I think God is your emotional connection to the unknown. 
Oriental people worship mysticism; we respect things we don’t understand. This book has inspired me to [look at] that unknown. We not only need to know, we but also need to know that we cannot know. Faith is the connection between us and the unknown in terms of our emotional life.
This involves storytelling. Why do we need to tell stories? Because life doesn’t make sense; we can’t give it an artificial, logical interpretation based on our own assumption and understanding. So we need storytelling. A story will contain a structure, including a beginning, a middle and an end. So the story itself is meaningful. I think telling stories is a quest for the meaning of life. Pi is an endless and irrational number. It’s always developing and it represents the impenetrable, meaningless and ridiculous nature of life. We need stories to make sense of our lives.
We are together to listen to a story and to share wisdom. We feel that life has a meaning. But according to Buddhism, this is only an illusion. But do you think illusion has less meaning than what you can touch or verify?

China Knowledge@Wharton: As an international director and producer, you are also a manager of an organization. You have to consider cost, budget, promotion, profitability etc. How do you organize this kind of work?
Lee: China has a saying: “Man’s calculation can never be as good as God’s calculation.”
There are many outstanding MBA and law school graduates working in the film and entertainment industry. If we could calculate which movie will make more money, we can all become very rich. The fact is that most productions make a loss; you subsidize them with a few hits. From the business angle, no one really knows the result [in advance].
You need to have the ability to organize work and control the budget. You have a vision and implement it. You need to be very rational and organized in implementation, which is my strength. I am not only a director but also a producer. So I have to be very organized and efficient at work. I do not think too much about whether the movie will be a hit.
Music has something similar to math. So do films. It is not just intuition. In such a big project, calculation has a role, too. But in the end, you have to make people feel it is one piece – that it has not been calculated. That can make it really touching.
I think the most important things are what you have not calculated -- like emotion. A film is an emotional ride. It has curves. The story needs to be a flow and you have to capture emotions. This is something you cannot get through calculation. You have to devote your heart. Art is abstract; both sense and sensibility are crucial.

The questions in this interview were contributed by Lauder students Charlotte McAusland, Michael Wu, Ying Wang, David Cummins, Kevin Lam, Jeanne Chen, Lane Rettig, Edward Wu and Justin Knapp, and Theresa Jen, director of the Lauder Chinese Language and Culture Program.

Published : 2013.04.24


Mario Anzuoni/Reuters

北京——周日晚,奧斯卡頒獎典禮在洛杉磯舉行,生於台灣的電影導演李安(Ang Lee)獲大獎,包括因《少年派的奇幻漂流》(Life of Pi)而獲得最佳導演獎,之後在致詞中,他熱情洋溢地感謝了他的出生地。但他的感謝未能傳遞到中國,至少沒有經官方媒體傳遞。
為什麼?幾乎就在李安發表致辭的同時,中國共產黨總書記習近平正在會見台灣國民黨榮譽主席連戰(Lien Chan)。這是一場政治較量的新轉折,較量已歷時64年,一直回朔至1949年結束的中國內戰,當時國民黨逃到台灣,繼續領導中華民國。而共產黨領導的 中國,即中華人民共和國,一直堅持對台灣擁有主權,而且沒有放棄在必要的時候用武力收復台灣的威脅。就連新華社援引李安感謝台灣也會被認為是承認事實上的 現實,即台灣是一個單獨的國家,這是不可接受的。
在另外一篇報道中,新華社也刪掉了李安感謝台灣的話,只援引了他說的這些話:「謝謝你,電影之神。我真的必須與那3000名和我一起工作的人分享這 個獎,每一個和我一起拍攝《少年派的奇幻漂流》的人,謝謝你們,謝謝你們相信這個故事,謝謝你們和我一起走完這段令人難以置信的旅程。謝謝你,美國電影藝 術與科學學院,謝謝,那馬斯特(namaste)。」(最後的「謝謝」是用中文說的,namaste是印度的合十禮——譯註)
而且,《台北時報》(Taipei Times)的讀者也了解到在台下,「李安感謝了他的祖國,他說電影90%的拍攝工作都是在那裡完成的。『他們為我們提供了大量的物質幫助和經濟幫助,』 他說。『我很高興,台灣為這部電影付出了這麼多。我覺得這部電影屬於全世界,』」《台北時報》的一篇報道中引用他的話說。

Thank You, Xie Xie, Namaste: A Movie Undercuts Old Rivalries

BEIJING — After the Taiwan-born film director Ang Lee won big at the Oscars on Sunday evening in Los Angeles, including scooping Best Director for “Life of Pi,” he effusively thanked his place of birth. But his thanks didn’t make it into China, at least not via the official media.
Why? At almost the same time as Mr. Lee’s speech there was a meeting in Beijing between Xi Jinping, the head of China’s Communist Party, and Lien Chan, the honorary chairman of Taiwan’s Kuomintang party, the latest twist in a political rivalry now dating back 64 years to the end of the Chinese civil war in 1949, when the Kuomintang fled to Taiwan and set up the Republic of China. Communist Party-run China, the People’s Republic of China, still claims Taiwan and has not dropped threats to take it by force, if necessary. Even for Xinhua to quote Mr. Lee thanking Taiwan would be to unacceptably recognize the de facto reality that Taiwan is a separate state.

It’s all deep politics, with Mr. Lee’s victory bound to lead to a debate about whether Mr. Lee is “Chinese or not.” Mr. Lee, who has never denied he is culturally Chinese and appears keen to work in and with the mainland of China, is known to be proud of his Taiwan roots and sees himself as an internationalist.
In its account of the event, Xinhua, the official news agency, merely described him as “Coming from China’s Taiwan,” which fits into China’s ongoing claims.
Here’s what Mr. Lee said about Taiwan: “I cannot make this movie without the help of Taiwan. We shot there. I want to thank everybody there helped us. Especially the city of Tai Chong.” He went on to thank “My family in Taiwan.”
In another story, Xinhua also left out Mr. Lee’s thanks to Taiwan, quoting only this version of his words: “Thank you, movie God. I really need to share this with all 3,000, everybody who worked with me in ‘Life of Pi,’ I want to thank you for, I really want to thank you for believing this story, and sharing this incredible journey with me. Thank you, Academy, xie xie, namaste.”
Readers of the Taipei Times, however, learned also that backstage, “Lee thanked his home country, where he said 90 percent of the film was shot. ‘They gave us a lot of physical help and financial help,’ he said. ‘I’m glad that Taiwan contribute this much to the film. I feel like this movie belongs to the world,’” he said in a story carried by the Taiwan newspaper.
As the Taipei Times cited Mr. Lien as saying in the meeting with Mr. Xi, “core issues” remain unresolved. Taiwan and China can work out a reasonable arrangement, Mr. Lian said, according to the newspaper, sounding pragmatic.
Mr. Xi had a different, more dramatic take on the situation, speaking of China and Taiwan working together for the “great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation,” in the China Daily’s words, reflecting speeches he has made frequently since becoming party leader.
Meanwhile, Mr. Lee offered something completely different in his speech: a multicultural, multilingual salutation that reflected the deeply globalized nature of his movie, which explores human survival, animals, and religions.
“Thank you, Academy. Xie xie, namaste,” he said, in English, Mandarin Chinese and Hindi.

Wall Street Journal (blog)
Meanwhile, Taichung Mayor Jason Hu said he plans to make Mr. Lee an “honorary citizen” of the city in central Taiwan, calling the director “a living testament that Taiwan's movie industry can have a spot in the international arena,” according to a ...
 'Life of Pi's' Oscars give limelight to Taiwan (+video)
Christian Science Monitor
When Ang Lee, who won an Oscar for directing 'Life of Pi,' announced that he couldn't have done the movie 'without the help of Taiwan,' the island cheered. By Ralph Jennings, Correspondent / February 25, 2013. Ang Lee poses with his award for best ...

美國的Oscar 強調科技與多元

李安究竟有多厲害-用深厚的人文藝術素養 駕馭最新科技

李安拍攝「少年PI的奇幻漂流」,成就了3D電影的全新境界。 (資料照)
在 奧斯卡揭曉前,幾乎所有的媒體、影評人,以及來自商業鼻息最敏銳的賭盤,皆壓倒性看好「林肯」導演史蒂芬史匹柏將獲最佳導演獎。同樣的,他們也不知道李安 的「少年PI」已經為好萊塢電影開出了一條新路;為電影如何運用最新3D科技畫出了一個指標。這才是李安厲害的地方。因此,頒獎典禮上才會「一翻兩瞪眼」 的唸出了「Ang Lee(李安)」的名字。
李安以「少年PI的奇幻漂流」不但再創其導演生涯高峰,其實也成就了3D電影的全新境界。「少 年PI」在奧斯卡不只擒得技術類獎項,證明了影藝學院終究也看到李安的深度;以及在這深度之後所帶來的全球巨大的票房商機。(「少年PI的奇幻漂流」在全 球票房高達5億8342萬美元,約173億4400萬台幣,是這部電影成本的4倍多。)
擅用個人內涵 征服好萊塢
李 安的成就絕不僅止於將小說中所描繪的「理查帕克」、海洋、森林等動物或大自然景象,幻化為優美又立體的影像。「少年PI」大半的故事被極抽象性的情感表達 所佔據,還有深邃悠遠的東方哲學和宗教,他卻能利用冷冰冰的3D技術轉化成繞指柔般的語言,讓「少年PI」一舉撼動全球人心;這證明了李安雖長期生活於西 方社會,並與現實的好萊塢廝殺或合作,最終仍以他東西兼具的個人內涵,征服了好萊塢。



Chris Pizzello/Invision, via Associated Press

北京時間2月25日12時,好萊塢杜比劇院里,奧斯卡金像獎評獎委員會宣布,李安 (Ang Lee)憑藉《少年派的奇幻漂流》(Life of Pi)獲得第85屆最佳導演獎。這是李安繼2006年憑藉《斷背山》(Brokeback Mountain)摘取當年的奧斯卡最佳導演獎桂冠之後,第二次獲此殊榮。除此之外,《少年派的奇幻漂流》還獲得了本屆的最佳攝影、最佳視覺效果和最佳配 樂獎項。
電影《少年派的奇幻漂流》是根據加拿大作家揚·馬特爾(Yann Martel)暢銷同名書改編,影片講述了來自印度的少年派和一隻孟加拉虎在海上長久漂泊,最終獲救的歷險。《少年派的奇幻漂流》這部電影頗受矚目,全球票房總計接近六億美元。
在頒獎現場,李安面帶笑容,雙手合十放在心口處,微微鞠躬向頒獎人員致禮並接過小金人,一如既往的內斂和靦腆。在獲獎感言中,李安不吝感謝,他首先 感謝了“電影之神”,之後他用英文說:“我必須把這個獎和我一起工作的三千多名工作人員一起分享,每一個和我一起為《少年派的奇幻漂流》而工作的人,謝謝 你們,謝謝你們和我一起相信了這神奇的故事,一起走這神奇旅程。”之後他感謝了小說原著揚·馬特爾寫出了這部“不可思議、鼓舞人心的小說”,感謝了二十世 紀福克斯電影公司以及這部電影的製作人們,感謝了電影的演員們,尤其是扮演少年派的演員、印度演員蘇拉·沙瑪(Suraj Sharma),李安稱他們是他心中的小金人。
之後李安接著說:“沒有台灣我就無法拍出這部電影,我們在那裡進行拍攝。我想謝謝那裡幫助過我們的每一個人。特別是台中這座城市。我的印度夥伴們, 我愛你們。我的加拿大夥伴們,我愛你們。我的家在台灣。我的妻子林惠嘉,我們到今年夏天就結婚30年了,我愛你。”在感謝妻子三十年的陪伴時,他的妻子林 惠嘉在台下露出了一系列誇張的喜悅表情。
最後李安說:“謝謝,Namaste”。“謝謝”是用中文表述的。“Namaste”是合十禮的意思,指印度和尼泊爾地區人與人相互問候的方式。在 梵語中,namas指“鞠躬、敬禮、虔敬的致意”,te代表“向您”。握手是人和人之間的問候方式,人不能伸手向神致意,但卻可以通過合十禮“向您心中的 神性致意”。
李安在接受小金人的時候正是以合十禮向頒獎人簡·方達(Jane Fonda)和邁克爾·道格拉斯(Michael Douglas)致意。
台灣作家、主持人陳文茜在接受《紐約時報》北京分社電話採訪中評論說:“從《卧虎藏龍》獲得最佳外語片獎,到《斷背山》李安獲得最佳導演獎,再到今 天《少年派的奇幻漂流》再獲最佳導演獎,李安一直在跨越。他跨越了東西方文明,跨越了時間、性別、宗教。宗教這一點在《少年派的奇幻漂流》里表現得非常突 出。同樣的,他還跨越了心理和真實,跨越了慾望和理教的掙扎。當每一個人都被以上的某一個框架死死束縛住的時候,他可以理解這一切,從而進入了一個不同的 世界。李安是獨特而卓越的。”
中國影評人張小北與陳文茜有相似的看法:“他身上非常好地保留了中華文化中儒雅的成分”,但是他認為李安仍然是一個美國導演,“儘管他在台灣接受了 基礎的教育,但是他的關於戲劇、電影的訓練都是在美國完成的。好萊塢正是這樣一個地方,世界各地的導演匯聚那裡去拍攝自己的文化”,所以從某種程度上來 講,“李安的作品是西方語境下的,他的東方世界也是好萊塢熱衷看到的那個東方”。
2007年11月,中國電影理論專家、北京大學中文系教授戴錦華在一場名為“《色·戒》:身體、政治、國族”的講座中這樣談起李安:“他跨越了不斷 被描述的,不斷被討論的關於東方文化和西方文化,雙方的衝突及理解、融合。而李安的意義不僅在於他一個華人導演身份在好萊塢成功,而且在於他在華人世界或 者東方世界的成功使得他把東方文化帶入了西方世界”。
新華網則將李安稱為“勝者”。在一篇名為《奧斯卡隨筆:站在東西方共通之處——勝者李安》的報道中寫道:“李安贏了,又收入一座奧斯卡最佳導演的小金人,又為華人電影寫下了濃墨重彩的一筆。 ”

----這篇不曉得是否偽作       不過多少可參考.
 文 / 李安

1978年,當我準備報考美國伊利諾大學的戲劇電影系時,父親十分反感,他給我列了一個資料:在美國百老匯,每年只有兩百個角色,但卻有五萬人要一起爭奪 這少得可憐的角色。當時我一意孤行,決意登上了去美國的班機,父親和我的關係從此惡化,近二十年間和我說的話不超過一百句!



妻子是我的大學同學,但她是學生物學的,畢……業後在當地一家小研究室做藥物研究員,薪水少得可憐。那時候我們已經有了大兒子李涵,為了緩解內心的愧疚, 我每天除了在家裡讀書、看電影、寫劇本外,還包攬了所有家務,負責買菜做飯帶孩子,將家裡收拾得乾乾淨淨。還記得那時候,每天傍晚做完晚飯後,我就和兒子 坐在門口,一邊講故事給他聽,一邊等待"英勇的獵人媽媽帶著獵物(生活費)回家"。





後來,我的劇本得到基金會的贊助,我開始自己拿起了攝像機,再到後來,一些電影開始在國際上獲獎。這個時候,妻子重提舊事,她才告訴我:"我一直就相信, 人只要有一項長處就足夠了,你的長處就是拍電影。學電腦的人那麼多,又不差你李安一個,你要想拿到奧斯卡的小金人,就一定要保證心裡有夢想。"