2010年11月6日 星期六

Ernesto Cardenal卡得尼爾

在尼加拉瓜,詩和革命不可分

──卡得尼爾(Ernesto Cardenal, 1925-)兩詩抄

本文作者(右)與尼加拉瓜詩人卡得尼爾於2009年格瑞那達詩歌節合影。
李敏勇/圖片提供
1987 年夏天,我在一次美國之行,於書店購得美國詩人費靈格蒂(Lawerence Ferlinghetti, 1919-)一本《自由尼加拉瓜七日記》和一本《詩人之國──尼加拉瓜詩工作坊作品集》。我是從這兩本書認識了桑定革命,以及尼加拉瓜詩人卡得尼爾的。這 也促成了我在2009年的一本書詩人之國《革命之花》的出版,更因此決定應邀出席在尼加拉瓜舉行的第五屆(2009年)格瑞那達國際詩歌節,這一年的活動 主題是「詩是人類的良心」。這樣的詩的機緣,前後大約二十年之久。

說到尼加拉瓜,無論詩和革命,都離不了卡得尼爾這位詩人。皈依天主教神職的他,不止以詩,更以行動介入桑定革命──這是1979年推翻親美蘇慕薩政權的長 期統治,改變尼加拉瓜政治狀況的革命。而當時的詩人卡得尼爾並成為桑定政府的文化部長,更擴大了他在革命時期的詩工作坊,吸引了美國詩人的關注。

卡得尼爾有一本詩集,書名就是《政治詩》,集中一首一首詩都是對於政治的現實觀照:

我們的詩暫時不能發表,
只以油印或手抄傳遞。
但總有一天
詩裡反抗的獨裁者
名字會被遺忘
而我們的詩流傳下來。
         ──〈政治詩〉

這樣的政治詩,直指政治壓制文學的發言。在不自由的國家,這是事實。詩會干預政治,應該是政治干預了詩所造成的。干預政治,但仍保留了詩的質素,這是詩人的職責。詩人相信:詩比權力更永恆。持有這樣的信念,詩人才能在困厄中追尋。

桑定革命成功的那一年(1979),卡得尼爾五十四歲。2009年,他已八十四歲高齡。能夠在格瑞那達這個文化古城見到他,覺得很高興。而且,在詩歌節的閉幕式,我們一起被安排朗讀作品。不止這樣,在接著的幾天的活動,都有見面,甚至交談。

參與桑定革命的卡得尼爾,已與尼加拉瓜的革命強人奧特嘉(D. Ortega Suaredra)決裂,因他執政後不盡符卡得尼爾主張的民主原則。奧特嘉在一次總統選舉失利後,又再拾總統的權力位置,但卡得尼爾堅持他的詩人之路。以 一個詩人的身分,他贏得西班牙語詩壇,甚至世界詩壇的尊敬。2010年春,他又和一位西班牙作家、一位阿根廷作家被西班牙語文學會提名角逐諾貝爾文學獎。

卡得尼爾有《政治詩》,也有《讚美詩》。兩種迥異的詩集,其實交織著他的詩的共相。

喔,主啊,給我語字的耳朵
     聽取我的嗚咽
   留意我的抗議聲
因為你不是一個對獨裁者友善的上帝
你既不是他們的政治同黨
也不是被宣傳影響的人
更不是和盜匪結夥的人
他們的言辭裡沒有誠信
         ──〈讚美詩5〉

卡得尼爾詩集兩種。
李敏勇/圖片提供
在 尼加拉瓜的格瑞那達國際詩歌節那幾天,我和卡得尼爾有多次相敘的機會。除了開幕式當晚的朗誦會同台,在詩歌嘉年華的市區遊行,在俄羅斯詩人葉天圖先寇 (V. Yevtushenko, 1933-)的西班牙語版詩集發表會,以及其他活動,都看到他的身影。我送他我的漢英對照詩集If you Ask,也送他我譯介的尼加拉瓜民眾詩選《革命之花》──這本詩選裡有卡得尼爾以詩參與桑定革命開出來的詩之花。

【2010/11/07 聯合報】@ http://udn.com/


卡得尼爾詩抄(兩首)

從藍色之窗看到的願景

從圓弧之窗,每樣事物看來都是藍色的,
地球是藍色的,藍而綠,藍
            (天空──藍)
      每樣事物看來都是藍色的
藍色的湖泊和瀉湖
      藍色的火山
      ,更藍的是
 在藍色湖泊中的藍色島嶼。
這是自由國度的形貌。
而所有人民戰鬥的地方,我認為:
           是為了愛!
活著而沒有剝削的
        怨恨。
在一個可愛的國度相愛對方
非常地愛,不止為國家
     也為她的人民
一切都為她的人民。
那就是為何上帝許諾那麼多愛
給它的社會。
而在所有這些藍色地區他們戰鬥,他們受苦
  為一個愛的社會
   就在這個國家這個地方。
一片藍色已經強化……
對我而言就像看著所有的戰地,
 和所有的死亡,
那,在這面窗玻璃之後,小小的,圓弧形的
           藍色,
       我看著藍色的所有陰影。

為那些死去的人,我們死去的人

當你獲得任命、獎章、
    升遷,
想想死去的人。
當你受到歡迎、派遣、
    委任,
想想死去的人。
當你贏得選舉,群眾
    慶賀你,
想想死去的人。
當你和領導者站上演說台
      舉杯互敬,
想想死去的人。
當你在城市的機場被迎接,
想想死去的人。
當你上節目在麥克風前談話,
 當電視攝影機面對著你,
想想死去的人。
當你成為派發執照,
    命令、許可的人,
想想死去的人。
當矮小的老嫗來找你陳訴困難,
 有關她小小的土地,
想想死去的人。
  看他們沒有穿襯衫,被拖拉,
  流著血,戴著頭巾,襤褸片片,
  被壓在澡盆裡,施行著電擊,
    他們的眼睛
  他們的喉嚨被切開,滿是彈孔,
沿著路旁被拋棄,
  在涵洞他們挖掘自己
  的墳堆,
或只是躺在地上,豐沃野生植物土壤:
你象徵他們。
每一個死去的人
託付了你。


Reverend Father Ernesto Cardenal Martínez (born January 20, 1925) is a Nicaraguan Catholic priest and was one of the most famous liberation theologians of the Nicaraguan Sandinistas, a party he has since left. From 1979 to 1987 he served as Nicaragua's first culture minister. He is also famous as a poet. Cardenal was also the founder of the primitivist art community in the Solentiname Islands, where he lived for more than ten years (1965-1977).

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Early life

Born into an upper class family in Granada, Nicaragua, he is a first cousin of Pablo Antonio Cuadra. Cardenal studied literature first in Managua and from 1942 to 1946 in Mexico. Later, from 1947 to 1949, he continued his studies in New York and traveled through Italy, Spain and Switzerland between 1949 and 1950.

In July 1950, he returned to Nicaragua, where he participated in the 1954 "April Revolution" against Anastasio Somoza García's regime. The coup d'état failed and ended with the deaths of many of his associates. Cardenal subsequently entered the Trappist Monastery of Gethsemani (Kentucky, United States), under the other poet-priest Thomas Merton, but in 1959 he left to study theology in Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Cardenal was ordained a Catholic priest in 1965 in Granada.[1] He went to the Solentiname Islands where he founded a Christian, almost monastic, mainly peasant community, which eventually led to the founding of the artists' colony. It was there that the famous book El Evangelio de Solentiname ("The Gospel of Solentiname") was written. Cardenal collaborated closely with the Marxist Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (Sandinista National Liberation Front, or FSLN), in working to overthrow Anastasio Somoza Debayle's régime.
Many members of the community of Solentiname engaged with the process of the Revolution, in the guerrilla warfare that the FSLN had developed to strike at the regime. 1977 was a crucial year to Cardenal's community since Somoza's National Guard, as a result from an attack to the headquarters stationed in the city of San Carlos, a few miles from the community, raided Solentiname and burned it to the ground, with Cardenal fleeing to Costa Rica. On 19 July 1979, immediately after the Fall of Managua, he was named Minister of Culture by the new Sandinista regime. He occupied this office until 1987, when his ministry was closed owing to economic reasons. When Pope John Paul II visited Nicaragua in 1983, he openly scolded Cardenal, who knelt before him, on the Managua airport runway, for resisting his order to resign from the government. The Pope admonished Cardenal: Usted tiene que arreglar sus asuntos con la Iglesia ("You must make good your dealings with the Church").

Cardenal left the FSLN in 1994, protesting the authoritarian direction of the party under Daniel Ortega but insists that he has retained his leftist opinions. He is a member of the Movimiento de Renovación Sandinista (or MRS / Sandinist Renovation Movement) that participated in the 2006 Nicaraguan General Elections (the formula was Edmundo Jarquín, president / Carlos Mejía Godoy, vicepresident). Days before the election, Cardenal stated, in a clear reference to his dispute with Ortega, that "I think it would be more desirable an authentic capitalism, as Montealegre's (Eduardo Montealegre, the presidential candidate for Alianza Liberal Nicaragüense) would be, than a false Revolution".[1]

He is also a member of the board of advisers of the pan-Latin American TV station teleSUR.

Cardenal has been for a long time a polemical figure of Nicaragua's literature and cultural history. He has been described as "the most important poet right now in Latin America"[2], politically and poetically, he's been a very vocal figure of Nicaragua, and a valid key to analyze and understand the contemporaneous literary and cultural life of Nicaragua.

During a short visit to India he came in touch with a group of writers called the Hungry generation হাংরি আন্দোলন and had a profound influence on them.

Recognition

Cardenal received the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in 1980.

He won the Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award in November 1990.[3]

He was nominated to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature in May 2005.

He participated in the Stock Exchange of Visions project in 2007.

Bibliography

Poetry

  • Gethsemani Ky
  • Hora 0 ("Zero Hour")
  • Epigramas ("Epigrams")
  • Oración Por Marilyn Monroe ("Prayer for Marilyn Monroe")
  • El estrecho dudoso ("The Doubtful Strait")
  • Los ovnis de oro ("Golden UFOs")
  • Homenaje a los indios americanos ("Homage to the American Indian")
  • Salmos ("Psalms")
  • Oráculo sobre Managua ("Oracle on Managua")
  • Con Walker en Nicaragua ("With Walker in Nicaragua and Other Early Poems")
  • Cántico Cósmico ("Cosmic Canticle")
  • El telescopio en la noche oscura ("Telescope in the Dark Night")
  • Vuelos de la Victoria ("Flights of Victory)
  • Pluriverse: New and Selected Poems

Notes

External links

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