2011年6月13日 星期一

周恩來(1)

看過周恩來的傳記

1955或57 周恩來大學演講 (洗腦)可達7小時


巫寧坤回憶錄《一 滴淚》(A Single Tear)


年譜資料待查


***

法國大革命造成了什麼影響? “現在下結論為時太早。”

上世紀70年代初,在回答有關近兩個世紀前法國爆發的人民起義的問題時,周恩來如此說道。此事為那種中國是一個深謀遠慮、富有耐心的文明的說法提供了依據。

中國前總理的這句話已成為格言,經常被人們引用,作為睿智的中國人眼光長遠的證據——相形之下,西方人則顯得沉不住氣。

問題在於,在與首開訪華先河的已故美國總統理查德•尼克松(Richard Nixon)會晤期間,周恩來所指的並非1789年攻占巴士底獄(Bastille)事件。尼克松當時的翻譯表示,周恩來答案中所指的,是發生在僅僅3年前的事件,即1968年的巴黎學生騷亂。

在華盛頓召開的慶祝亨利•基辛格(Henry Kissinger)《論中國》(On China)一書出版的研討會上,退休的外交官傅立民(Chas Freeman)試圖糾正這個由來已久的錯誤。

“我清楚地記得這段對話。中間發生了一個誤解,因為太過有趣,而沒有得到糾正。”

他表示,當被問及有關法國大革命和巴黎公社(Paris Commune)的事情時,周恩來被搞糊塗了。 “不過當時學生們就是用這些詞語來形容他們在1968年所從事的運動,因此周恩來對這些詞也是這樣理解的。”

澳大利亞國立大學(Australian National University)的白傑明(Geremie Barme)表示,周恩來這句話契合了西方普遍存在的一種觀點,即東方人具有思想長遠且“有些深刻”的傾向。 “然而,在中國,你聽到的大多是這樣的言論:領導人目光短淺、急功近利,且根本談不上敏銳。”

白傑明接著表示,能夠在北京閱覽外交部檔案的中國研究人員說,檔案裡明確記載著:周恩來指的是1968年的巴黎騷亂。

中方檔案裡也記載著與周恩來交談的是亨利•基辛格。

基辛格的一位女發言人表示:“他記不清楚了,不過傅立民的說法似乎更加真實可信。”

周恩來隱晦而慎重的回答,也反映出了當時北京嚴峻的政治環境——他不願冒險對捲入巴黎騷亂的激進法國毛派作出評判。

中國領導人的言論遭到誤讀、並成為主流說法,這並不是頭一次。

“致富光榮”據說出自中國市場改革的發起者鄧小平,卻沒有任何資料表明他​​說過這句話。

據學者們說,經常被引用的中國祝詞“願你生活在盛世!”(May you live in interesting times),實際上在中國並無出處。

譯者/何黎

Zhou’s cryptic caution lost in translation


The impact of the French Revolution? “Too early to say.”

Thus did Zhou Enlai – in responding to questions in the early 1970s about the popular revolt in France almost two centuries earlier – buttress China’s reputation as a far-thinking, patient civilisation

The former premier’s answer has become a frequently deployed cliché, used as evidence of the sage Chinese ability to think long-term – in contrast to impatient westerners.

The trouble is that Zhou was not referring to the 1789 storming of the Bastille in a discussion with Richard Nixon during the late US president’s pioneering China visit. Zhou’s answer related to events only three years earlier – the 1968 students’ riots in Paris, according to Nixon’s interpreter at the time.

At a seminar in Washington to mark the publication of Henry Kissinger’s book, On China, Chas Freeman, a retired foreign service officer, sought to correct the long-standing error.

“I distinctly remember the exchange. There was a mis­understanding that was too delicious to invite correction,” said Mr Freeman.

He said Zhou had been confused when asked about the French Revolution and the Paris Commune. “But these were exactly the kinds of terms used by the students to describe what they were up to in 1968 and that is how Zhou understood them.”

Geremie Barme, of the Australian National University, said Zhou’s quote fitted with the widespread western view of an “oriental obliquity” that thought far into the future and was “somehow profound”. “Whereas, in China, you mostly hear that the leadership is short-sighted, radically pragmatic and anything but subtle,” he said.

Dr Barme added that Chinese researchers with access to the foreign ministry archives in Beijing said that the records made clear that Zhou was referring to the 1968 riots in Paris.

The Chinese archives also record Zhou’s conversation as being with Henry Kissinger.

A spokeswoman for Dr Kissinger said that “he has no precise recollection but that the Freeman version seems much more plausible”.

Zhou’s cryptic caution also reflected the murderous political climate in Beijing at the time, and the premier would not have risked passing judgment on the radical French Maoists involved in the Paris riots.

It is not the first time a mis­interpretation of a Chinese leader’s saying has mistakenly entered mainstream parlance.

Deng Xiaoping, who launched the country’s market reforms, is credited with saying, “To get rich is glorious”, although there is no record that he said it.

The oft-quoted Chinese curse, “May you live in interesting times”, does not exist in China itself, scholars say.

張貼留言

網誌存檔