Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why T...
James Q. Wilson
James Q. Wilson, investigator of American society, died on March 2nd, aged 80
Mar 10th 2012 | from the print edition
LECTURING once at Harvard, where he taught government for 26 years, James Q. Wilson slipped in a slide of himself in scuba-diving gear beside a 20-foot shark. His students, accustomed to his shyness, were somewhat surprised. They should not have been. Mr Wilson had co-written with his wife Roberta a book on coral reefs, and dived down to explore them whenever he had the chance. There, swimming among the calcified branches, he asked himself questions. Why were some fish camouflaged, and not others? Why did some socialise in the mornings, but not the afternoons? Why did they like to feed on non-nutritious bits of the reef? In short, why did they do what they did?
Sitting eagerly in Fenway Park to watch the Red Sox game, or strolling through the streets of New York City, he asked much the same questions about the swarming mass of human beings. What motivated them, and were their motives changing? What made them afraid? What made them happy? Why were their marriages and families failing? Could they be governed better and, if so, how? Fans of his frequent articles in Commentary and the Public Interest sometimes joked that his “Q” was for query, as well as quirky.
His doctoral thesis in 1959 inquired into the political behaviour of blacks in Chicago, finding that their subservience to white powerbrokers was a way of getting benefits for themselves. His masterwork “Bureaucracy” (1989) looked at armies, prisons and schools as well as government agencies, discovering that policymakers rarely knew what the cliff-face workers did. From the mid-1960s he was periodically sucked in to sit on government commissions agonising over the crime rate, because no one else asked questions about it in the fresh-eyed way that he did.
The approach he took was empirical and practical. Grand, simple theories never fitted neatly, though in his giddy youth he had hoped to find them. Instead he looked at human behaviour on the ground, talked to people, and built up details. None was too small. One policeman on a street corner would nod and wink at scuffling boys, while another arrested them; he concluded that there were three distinct styles of police behaviour, linked sometimes merely to mood, but often to the nature and prosperity of the neighbourhood. A patrolman on the beat did not necessarily reduce the crime rate; but the elderly woman at the bus stop, who felt safer, thought he did. Most famously, if one window was broken in a building and left unrepaired (his italics), soon all the other windows would be broken too, and criminal elements would take over. If places were visibly cared for, crime was deterred.
This “broken windows” theory, written up with George Kelling in the Atlantic in 1982, made Mr Wilson’s name, especially when it was taken up, years later, by the police departments of New York and many other cities. He was glad of that, but also modestly irritated. Among his many books, he was proudest of those that investigated the workings of government in all its flawed, shambling efforts to balance fairness, fiscal prudence, big goals and multiple clashing interests. The label “sociologist” annoyed him. “Political scientist”, though, was fine and good.
A flickering candle
The word “neocon” was also tacked on him, as an eager follower of Irving Kristol and adviser to the American Enterprise Institute. He shook it off, pointing out his broad liberal streak (his friendship with Pat Moynihan, a Democrat who also investigated the pathology of black families, and his youthful campaigning for Hubert Humphrey). “Policy sceptic”, he thought, defined him better. Though he came to favour stiff prison sentences for criminals and public orphanages for welfare mothers, he never set out on his quests with pre-set answers. Thus he favoured capitalism, but teased out the immorality in it; he knew America’s government needed to be smaller, but marvelled that the monster worked as well as it did, keeping liberty and order, however tenuously, in balance.
Much of his most elegant writing dealt with morality and virtue. He wanted to restore these ideas to public discourse, rather than the limp word “values”; for most human beings, he believed, had a moral sense and tried to live by it. This was “not a strong beacon light”, rather “a small candle flame, casting vague and multiple shadows”. Parents inculcated it with admonitions and rewards, and perhaps even policymakers, by reforming welfare or the tax code, could help it along a little. Like Aristotle, whose shade he revered, he believed in habituation to virtuous acts. Both upbringing and instinct made him an optimist, as befitted a thinker formed in safe, sunny, small-town California.
Problems remained, however. None was more thorny, for him, than quantifying the evidence. Many of the social problems he pondered seemed to boil down to culture and ways of thinking, for which the data were ungathered and ungatherable. As a scientist, political or social, he needed to count and collate things to find the answers to his questions. But nothing that was really important about human beings, he once said, could be measured in that fashion. Like the parrotfish, flicking their blue tails around him, his objects of inquiry would ultimately get away.
官僚机构 : 政府机构的作为及其原因 / 詹姆斯.Q.威尔逊(James Q. Wilson)著; 孙艳 北京市 : 生活.讀書.新知三联书店, 2006 北京第1版 Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why T...
By DAVID BROOKS
Above his other achievements, James Q. Wilson reintegrated the vocabulary of character into discussions of everyday life.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The broken windows theory is a criminological theory of the norm setting and signaling effect of urban disorder and vandalism on additional crime and anti-social behavior. The theory states that monitoring and maintaining urban environments in a well-ordered condition may stop further vandalism and escalation into more serious crime.
The theory was introduced in a 1982 article by social scientists James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. Since then it has been subject to great debate both within the social sciences and in the public sphere. The theory has been used as a motivation for several reforms in criminal policy.
The broken windows theory has received support from several empirical studies. At the same time it has also been the subject of a large body of criticism.
political scientist and an authority on public administration. He was Ronald Reagan Professor of Public Policy at Pepperdine University and a senior fellow at the Clough Center for the Study of Constitutional Democracy at Boston College. He was the co-author of the 1982 article on broken windows theory.
 CareerJames Wilson completed his B.A. at the University of Redlands in 1952, where he was the national collegiate debate champion in 1951 and 1952. He completed an M.A. (1957) and a Ph.D. (1959) in political science at the University of Chicago. From 1961 to 1987, he was the Shattuck Professor of Government at Harvard University.
His 1975 book "Thinking About Crime" put forward the then non-obvious theory of incapacitation as the most effective explanation for the reduction in crime rates observed where longer prison sentences were the norm. Criminals might not be deterred by the threat of longer sentences, but repeat offenders would be prevented from further offending- simply because they would be in jail rather than out on the street.
The broken windows theory was first introduced by social scientists Wilson and George L. Kelling, in an article titled "Broken Windows" and which appeared in the March 1982 edition of The Atlantic Monthly.
From 1987 until 1997, he was the James Collins Professor of Management and Public Policy at the UCLA Anderson School of Management at UCLA. From 1998 to 2009, he was the Ronald Reagan Professor of Public Policy at Pepperdine University's School of Public Policy. 
Wilson's university text American Government (now coauthored with John J. DiIulio, Jr.) is widely sold.[verification needed]
 Political and business positionsWilson was a former chairman of the White House Task Force on Crime (1966), of the National Advisory Commission on Drug Abuse Prevention (1972–73) and a member of the Attorney General's Task Force on Violent Crime (1981), the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (1985–90), and the President's Council on Bioethics. He was a former president of the American Political Science Association. He served on the board of directors for the New England Electric System (now National Grid USA), Protection One, RAND, and State Farm Mutual Insurance.
He was the chairman of the Council of Academic Advisors of the American Enterprise Institute. Wilson was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society, and a member of the International Council of the New York-based Human Rights Foundation.
 Political viewsAlthough, as a young professor, he "voted for John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson and Hubert Humphrey and worked in the last's presidential campaign",  Wilson was later recognized as a leading conservative scholar, as indicated by his advisory position to the American Enterprise Institute.
- Honorary doctorate from Harvard University
- Lifetime Achievement Award, American Political Science Association, 2001
- Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush in 2003
 DeathOn March 2, 2012, Wilson died in Boston, Massachusetts from complications due to leukemia . 
- American Politics, Then and Now (2010)
- American Government, 12th ed. (2010, with John J. DiIulio, Jr.)
- Understanding America: The Anatomy of an Exceptional Nation (2008, ed. with Peter Schuck)
- The Marriage Problem: How Our Culture Damages Families (2002)
- Moral Judgment (1997)
- The Moral Sense (1993)
- On Character: Essays by James Q. Wilson (1991)
- Bureaucracy (1989)
- Crime and Human Nature (1985, with Richard Herrnstein)
- Watching Fishes: Life and Behavior on Coral Reefs (1985, with Roberta Wilson)
- The Politics of Regulation (1980)
- The Investigators (1978)
- Thinking About Crime (1975)
- Political Organizations (1973)
- Varieties of Police Behavior (1968)
- The Amateur Democrat (1966)
- City Politics (1963, with Edward C. Banfield)
- Negro Politics (1960)
 See also
- ^ John D. Lofton, Jr. (14 April 1975). "The case for jailing crooks". The Telegraph-Herald: p. 4.
- ^ James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. "BROKEN WINDOWS: The police and neighborhood safety" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-09-03. (HTML version)
- ^ http://publicpolicy.pepperdine.edu/academics/faculty/default.htm?faculty=james_wilson
- ^ "Center Announces James Q. Wilson as First Clough Senior Fellow". The Clough Center Report (The Gloria L. and Charles I. Clough Center for the Study of Constitutional Democracy, Boston College Department of Political Science): p. 1. Fall 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- ^ Wilson, James Q. (September 21, 2009). "A Life in the Public Interest". The Wall Street Journal.
- ^ "James Q. Wilson dies at 80; pioneer in 'broken windows' approach to improve policing". The Los Angeles Times. ()
- Biography at Boston College
- Wilson's page at Pepperdine's website
- No easy answers, an interview with Wilson in Reason
- Center for Inquiry's Textbook Accuracy Report [PDF]
- Wilson's rebuttal to textbook criticisms at Internet Archive
Well everything I do is personal
I mean, everything you do is personal
if it's not personal, it's probably no good
You don't want to do something impersonal, stealing from somebody
如果你想要抄襲 不要抄襲 去偷
if you're going to copy, don't copy, steal
我的意思是 從別人身上偷點子 不要抄襲
I mean, steal from somebody else, don't copy them英國攝影大師大衛貝利（David Bailey）31日在倫敦談到創作。現年76歲的他目前正在倫敦的國家肖像館展出超過250幅歷年作品。
At home: David Bailey
|David Bailey has the ultimate swinging sixties story. A working-class lad from London’s East End picks up a camera, with no formal training, and sets the fashion world alight by the age of 24. Along the way, he enjoys the carnal pleasures his new-found status (and proximity to supermodels) allows him, while making friends with celebrities such as Mick Jagger and the Kray twins.||大卫•贝利拥有终极版“摇摆的六十年代”(swinging sixties)的人生故事。这个出生于伦敦东区(East End)工人家庭、未受过正规教育的孩子进入摄影行当，到24岁时已经在时装界红得发紫。在他的人生历程中，在与米克•贾格尔(Mick Jagger)以及克莱孪生兄弟(Kray twins)等大腕称兄道弟的同时，还坐享由自己如日中天社会地位（以及与超级名模关系密切）而带来的种种风流韵事。|
|As we sit in the living room of his second home on Dartmoor, in the south of England, I ask whether the 1960s were as good as everyone says. “Yes, it was great,” he says, before pausing, deep in thought. “Well, it was great for 500 people living in London. It wasn’t great if you were a coal miner in Wales.”||在他位于英格兰南部达特穆尔(Dartmoor)的别居坐定后，我问他上世纪60年代是否如传闻中那样棒。“没错，那是个伟大时代，”他说，然后陷入了深思。“唉，对于生活在伦敦的500个大人物是如此，你若是威尔士的煤矿工人，那就完全另当别论了。”|
|Bailey is no coal miner but he does live part of the year in this detached stonemason’s house dating from the 1200s. He has owned the property for 25 years and has an expansive studio on the grounds. It’s more parish poet than swinging sixties but his enjoyment of this house with Catherine, his wife of 30 years, and sometimes his three kids, is nothing new. He has always preferred the quiet life, he tells me. It is the media who have played up his hedonistic image.||贝利不是煤矿工人，但他每年要在这与世隔绝、建于13世纪的石匠房屋中住上一阵子。他25年前 买下了这幢房子，地面一层有个面积很大的工作室。与其说是摇摆的六十年代生活，倒不如说是田园牧歌式的生活，但他喜欢与自己相濡以沫30年的妻子（有时还 有三个孩子）居住于此却不是什么新鲜事。他对我说自己一直特喜欢恬静的生活，是媒体添油加醋渲染了他享乐主义的形象。|
|Contrary to popular misconceptions, Bailey, as his wife calls him, hasn’t touched alcohol since he was 33 and doesn’t go out all that much either. He might occasionally “have a puff”. Weed or cigarettes? “Weed, preferably, if you’ve got some.” Unfortunately, I don’t. “Yeah, don’t take it on the train,” he cautions. “They have dogs there.”||与公众对他的误解截然相反的是，贝利（妻子这样称呼他）33岁以后就滴酒未沾，也不太外出。他 也许偶尔会“吞云吐雾一把”。我问他是抽雪茄还是香烟？“你要是有的话，就给我来根雪茄。”不巧的是，本人身上没雪茄。“当然喽，千万别在火车上抽，”他 提醒我。“火车上有专门的检测狗。”|
|In the living room, which has a fireplace and two large sofas, what sounds like tribal music wafts through the air and African sculptures clutter the tables. Bailey has loved African art “ever since I can remember”, partly thanks to an uncle who brought back indigenous records from his travelling. “He had a big influence on me because he travelled a lot – and he changed underwear three times a day.” In particular, it was the connection with Picasso and the surrealists – who were also obsessed with African art – that pulled him in.||他家的客厅有壁炉与两张大沙发，飘荡着非洲部落风格的音乐，桌子上则杂乱地堆放着各种非洲塑 像。贝利说“自己从记事起”就很喜欢非洲艺术，部分原因要归功于自己的叔叔，他游历非洲后就会带回来很多当地的纪念品。“他对我影响甚大，因为他到处游历 ——他甚至一天要更换三次内衣裤。”尤其是与毕加索(Picasso)以及超现实主义者（那些人也痴迷于非洲艺术）的交往让他对此萌生了兴趣。|
|Bailey complains that journalists say his house looks “very sixties” when they come. “It might say African junk shop, but it definitely doesn’t say sixties,” he says. “That’s where the preconceived ideas come in. You get lumped in with the sixties. It’s my old joke. Michelangelo said, ‘Oh, not another ceiling.’ It’s the same thing if you think about it.”||贝利抱怨说：记者们来家里后，都说他的房子象“六十年代的古董。“说它象非洲旧货店也许还靠点 谱，但绝对不能说是六十年代的古董，”他说。“这就是那些先入为主看法的由来，说我整天与那些六十年代的东西为伴，当然这都是关于我的老掉牙笑话了。米开 朗基罗(Michelangelo)曾说，‘天那，可别再让我创作天顶画了。’如果你仔细想一想我的遭遇，两者道理是一样的。”|
|Yet by his own admission, Bailey is no Michelangelo. He says he fell into fashion photography because he needed the money. “I’m not interested particularly in fashion [but] it was the only way to be creative,” he says. “You couldn’t do photography as an art form because you’d starve.” Now, he says he wants to be in the Financial Times because its readers “might buy my stuff”.||然而贝利也坦承自己不是米开朗基罗。他说自己从事时装摄影的原因是需要钱。“本人不是对时尚特 别感兴趣，但这是我产生创意的唯一办法，”他说。“不能把摄影当作一种艺术行当来干，因为那样自己会挨饿。”他说如今自己接受《金融时报》采访的原因是读 者“或许会买自己拍的那些照片”。|
|Although Bailey is best-known for his photographs with white backgrounds and celebrities at the fore, it was his main influence, Bill Brandt, who pioneered the style in the UK. Richard Avedon had meanwhile done something similar in the US. In fact, Bailey says he got the idea from another photographer, John French. “John was a bit in love with me,” says Bailey. “I think he quite liked the idea of a bit of rough, a bit of heterosexual rough from the East End.”||众所周知，虽说贝利所拍照片往往是名人站于前，身后则是白色背景，但对他影响最大的比尔•布兰 德(Bill Brandt)则是开创了英国摄影风格之先河。同时，理查德•阿威顿(Richard Avedon)在美国也作了类似的开拓类工作。事实上，贝利说自己是从另一位摄影师约翰•弗伦奇(John French)那儿学到了摄影的理念。“约翰与我有点情投意合，”贝利说。“我觉得他很喜欢略带狂野风格的作品，即来自伦敦东区略带粗犷情色的风格。”|
|He asks me if I’m gay on a couple of occasions. “Well, you go to people’s houses for a living to look at their interiors,” he says when I tell him no. For a man who made his name in the fashion business it seems a bit like stones and glass houses.||他问我是否在很多场合属于同性恋者。当我作了否定的回答后，他对我说：“你的工作就是到别人家去采访，打探对方的底细。”对于他这样在时装界功成名就的人来说，你很难做到完美无缺。|
|Bailey still takes photos – he shows me an obscure book of maybe 100 photos of his friend Damien Hirst’s face. And he’s also taken up painting, although his latest creations have received a mixed reception.||贝利还在从事摄影——他给我看一本不起眼的册子，里面大约有100张他朋友达明安•赫斯特(Damien Hirst)的脸部照片。此外他还画画，虽说他最近创作的作品让人毁誉参半。|
|We walk into his studio, a converted barn opposite the house, full of paintings and encrusted easels. “I did painting before I did photography,” he says. “There’s no difference to me because the camera’s just a paintbrush, the same as digital is a paintbrush, if you want to use digital. I’m not enamoured with digital because it reduces everyone to the same level.”||我俩步入其工作室，它位于房子对面，由谷仓改建而来，里面堆满了画作以及镶有外壳的画架。“我 画画的时间要早于摄影，”他说。“这对于我来说没啥差别，因为相机就是画笔，如同手指作画笔一样（如果用手指作画的话）。我不喜欢用手指作画，因为那样一 来大家的水平都成了一个档次。”|
|Bailey’s retreat into the wilderness has given his politics a provincial air of working-class Tory made good, and he is not shy of making bold, generalised statements.||贝利退居乡野，让这个出生工人家庭、脱胎换骨的保守党员的政见拥有了一丝乡野气息，他也会直言不讳地发表一通既犀利又笼统的言论。|
|I ask what he thinks of the Occupy Wall Street movement, having taken part in the protests against the Vietnam war. “Oh, sure, they’ll occupy it,” he says. Pardon? “Who should occupy it?” he asks, confused. The massive protests taking over the US, I remind him. “Oh, that, no. Once I saw them with painted faces.” He says he is no Conservative, although he sounds like one and has an unlikely political hero. “I think George Osborne has got a grip on what’s wrong.”||鉴于他参加过反越战的抗议示威活动，我问他如何看待“占领华尔街运动”(Occupy Wall Street Movement)。“对，占领者当然会成功，”他说。然后他让我重复一遍问题。“谁将占领华尔街？”他迷惑不解地问我。我提醒他是占领美国的大规模抗议 示威活动。“哦，原来如此，这不可能成功。我曾见过这些抗议者脸上都涂抹了油彩。”他说自己不是保守派，虽说听起来他是如此，而且自己心里有个靠不住的政 治人物。“我觉得乔治•奥斯本(George Osborne)老是死揪住错误的事不放。”|
|For Bailey there is a simple problem with the world. “There’s just too many people. Don’t worry about my car burning too much petrol. Worry about 10 more kids being born since we started speaking. That’s the problem. Nobody seems to address it.”||对于贝利来说，目前全球只有一个简单问题。“就是人口太多了。不要担心我的车烧了多少油，还是担心这事吧：从我俩开谈以来，又有10个孩子出生了。这才是问题关键所在，但似乎没人去着手处理。”|
|So, what should we do about it? “The Chinese did it,” he replies, before offering his support for a one-child rule in the UK too. “I’m guilty because I had three kids. You can blame my wife for that,” he adds quickly and chuckles. He has an idiosyncratic laugh, which is wheezy at times because of bad asthma – he takes hits on his inhaler throughout the interview.||因此，我们应该如何应对呢？“中国人就做到了，”他回答道，然后说了一大通支持在英国实行一胎 化政策的理由。“我内心很愧疚，因为我有三个孩子，你要怪的话就怪我妻子，”他很快补充说，并咯咯笑了起来。他的笑很有特点，因为他患有哮喘，所以有时说 话带喘气声——整个访谈期间，他不时使用人工呼吸器。|
|Bailey is not short on confidence. In the past he had a reputation as something of a cad, taking the most beautiful women of the period under his wing. “What’s wrong with sleeping with the most beautiful girls in the world if you can?” he says. “What am I going to do? Say, ‘Oh, you’re too beautiful. I’ll look for somebody uglier.’”||贝利并不缺乏信心，他过去有恶棍的臭名，喜欢勾搭当时的漂亮女人。“自己有能耐与最漂亮的女人同床共枕，何错之有？”，他说。“我知道如何讨好女人，我会说，‘哎呀，您长得真是太美了，本人还是找个丑一点的吧。’”|
|This machismo reflects a boyish quality in Bailey. He never really had to grow up, so perhaps this is understandable. Raised in Leytonstone, east London, in a working-class family, he left school at 15, afflicted with dyslexia and dyspraxia. Bailey explains that teachers didn’t understand how to treat people with such learning difficulties back then, which resulted in him being put in “silly class”, he says. He then went into the Air Force for national service and spent two years in Malaya. “I saw lots of things that you never get to see in the East End.”||这种大男子气概反映了贝利身上的孩童气质。他从来就没长大，因此他的所作所为或许可以理解。他 出生于工人家庭，在伦敦东区的莱顿斯通(Leytonstone)长大，15岁时就因受阅读障碍与动作协调能力丧失症辍学。贝利解释说那时的老师不懂得如 何教那些有学习障碍的学生，结果导致他被分到了“差班”，他说。他随后因服兵役参加皇家空军，并在马来西亚度过了两年时光。“我看到了许许多多以前在伦敦 东区从未见过的东西。”|
|As he sits in his 1,000-year-old country house in Devon, it feels like he’s still living that dream. “If I hadn’t been lucky, I’d have been stuck there all my life,” he says. “Sometimes I still can’t believe my luck.”||看到他坐在德文郡(Devon)那座拥有1000年历史的房子里，感觉他仍然生活在那个梦境里。“要是不走运的话，我会一辈子生活在伦敦东区那个穷地方，”他说。“有时我仍然难以置信自己的运气。”|
|Bailey’s favourite thing is a sculpture of a man with an alligator’s head (and eyes that look like he’s taken LSD). He bought it from a dealer of oceanic art in Sydney in the 1980s. His wife, Catherine (who Bailey says is his second favourite thing) chose him, pleading: “He’s dying to come with us!” Bailey has a lot of sculptures, all surrealist African-looking ones, but this one stands out among the collection, mostly due to his personality, says Bailey. He’s even picked up a nickname, George, along the way. And Bailey promises it’s not in homage to the chancellor.||贝利最心爱的东西是一个鳄鱼头形的男性雕像（从眼睛看象是服了迷魂药）。这是他上世纪80年代 从悉尼一位海洋艺术交易商那里购得的。他的妻子凯瑟琳（Catherine，贝利说她是自己第二心爱之物）看上了这件东西，并恳求我说：“它太想与我们在 一起了！”贝利藏有很多雕塑，多数是非洲风格的超现实主义作品。但这一件与众不同，多半是由于自己的个性，贝利说。他甚至给它取了个乔治的名字。贝利向我 保证这可不是为了向哪位高官拍马屁。|