貝 卜拉維在出任總理之前﹐曾在外交領域、公民社會、學術界和決策領域工作過。他是知名的經濟自由派﹐是自由市場的倡導者。據埃及財政部網站上發佈的他的簡歷 ﹐他曾在埃及、法國、科威特的大學教授經濟學﹐1979年還曾在洛杉磯的南加州大學(University of Southern California)教授經濟學。
1964年從巴黎大學(University of Paris)獲得博士學位後﹐貝卜拉維在埃及亞歷山大大學(Alexandria University)教了15年的經濟學。之後在中東的開發銀行又工作了15年﹐1995年出任聯合國副秘書長﹐2000年卸任。
2011年﹐他出任埃及財政部長。在那之前﹐他在阿布扎比工作﹐擔任阿拉伯貨幣基金組織(Arab Monetary Fund)的顧問。
在 擔任財政部長期間﹐貝卜拉維曾奮力挽救急墜而下的埃及經濟。就在幾個月前﹐軍方領導人剛剛破壞了圍繞48億美元國際貨幣基金組織 (International Monetary Fund)貸款進行的談判。軍方的決定令外國投資者感到不安﹐將埃及推向了一場國際收支危機。
JERÉ LONGMAN, SAM BORDEN 2013年05月17日
Philippe Desmazes/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
2002年世界盃賽前，大衛碧咸(David Beckham)左腳骨折，時任英國首相托尼·布萊爾(Tony Blair)曾為此打斷內閣會議，對英國突然變得撲朔迷離的比賽前途表示擔憂。各家小報都將貝克漢姆傷足的照片放在頭版，要求讀者將手放在圖片上進行大眾 民間治療。
Getty, A.P., Reuters, A.F.P.-Getty, E.P.A.貝克漢姆，1998至2013。
他出現在《Vogue》上的幾率和出現在《體育畫報》(Sports Illustrated)上的幾率一樣，出現在內衣廣告中的受歡迎程度與穿足球隊服時相同。工薪階層和同性戀粉絲都對他喜愛有加。他的妻子曾是辣妹(Spice Girls)組合的成員，而他精確的傳球以及弧線任意球催生了一部名為《我愛貝克漢姆》(Bend It Like Beckham)的電影，成為掙脫社會束縛的一個隱喻。
來自英國的《足球經濟學》(Soccernomics)合著者、密歇根大學(University of Michigan)運動管理學教授斯蒂芬·希曼斯基 (Stefan Szymanski)稱，「大衛碧咸就是足球加性；這是世界上最有賣點的兩樣東西，不是嗎？」
儘管擁有外形、天才和萬眾仰慕，貝克漢姆卻並不是足球場上 的自大狂。人們認為他把一切都獻給了他的俱樂部球隊以及英國國家隊，跟世界上最受歡迎的一些俱樂部一起獲得了不少冠軍，這些球隊包括英格蘭足球超級聯賽 (England』s Premier League)的曼徹斯特聯隊(Manchester United)，西班牙足球甲級聯賽(Spain』s La Liga)的皇家馬德里隊(Real Madrid)，以及法國足球甲級聯賽(France』s Ligue 1)的巴黎聖日耳曼隊(Paris St.-Germain)。
他在美國職業足球大聯盟(Major League Soccer)的洛杉磯銀河隊(Los Angeles Galaxy)踢了六個賽季，贏得了兩個冠軍獎盃，在此期間，單是他的名字和聲譽就給美國職業足球帶來了前所未有的國際聲望。
曾作為銀河隊教練帶領貝克漢姆兩次奪冠的布魯斯·阿里納 (Bruce Arena)稱，「我認為，他讓美職聯出了名的說法是公平的。他絕對是讓這項比賽贏得世界關注的主要人物。他是我帶過的最有進取心的球員之一。即將退役之 時，他的下肢不再矯健，但他的抱負卻比場上任何人都大。」
曾115次代表英格蘭隊出場的貝克漢姆的確也有不那麼會辦事的時候。有損其名譽的是，他有一次莽撞犯規，導致自己無緣1998年世界盃當中對陣阿根廷隊的比賽。在《體育畫報》高級撰稿人格蘭特·沃爾(Grant Wahl)所寫的《貝克漢姆實驗》(The Beckham Experiment)一書中，美國球星、貝克漢姆的銀河隊前隊友蘭登·多諾萬(Landon Donovan)指責了貝克漢姆，說他剛開始時對美國職業足球大聯盟投入不夠。
「我覺得他是全世界最有名的運動員，」沃爾說。儘管這樣的 評價也可能適用於足球運動員里奧內爾·梅西(Lionel Messi)、奧運會短跑冠軍烏塞恩·博爾特(Usain Bolt)和高爾夫球手泰格·伍茲(Tiger Woods)，但沃爾說，「貝克漢姆有一種其他那幾個人不具備的明星素質。有一種倍增效應。如果你問那個老套的問題，『究竟有多少人能認出這位體育明 星？』我覺得，能認出貝克漢姆的人會比能認出其他任何人的人都多。」
在中國，被親昵地稱作「小貝」的貝克漢姆簽署了一份據報價 值7500萬美元（約合4.6億元人民幣）的合同，責任僅僅是擔任備受醜聞困擾的中國超級聯賽的形象大使。（3月第一次亮相時，在一次公關活動上，身着西 裝領帶的貝克漢姆在踢任意球時滑倒，他跌倒的情景被發佈到了YouTube上，引來了全球觀眾的觀看。）
「可以說，他的品牌對足球的影響力比歷史上其他任何運動員 都大，可能只有貝利(Pelé)除外，」哈佛商學院(Harvard Business School)體育管理專家史蒂芬·A·格雷瑟(Stephen A. Greyser)教授說。「他可能會退出賽場，但卻不會退出足壇，不會退出自己的品牌。他的影響力肯定會持續下去。」
貝克漢姆的品牌就是他自己，在這一點上，或許其他任何運動 員都不及他。邁克爾·喬丹(Michael Jordan)總是跟耐克(Nike)聯繫在一起，同貝克漢姆有商業合作的企業的範圍卻極其廣泛：2007年抵達美國時，他已經同阿迪達斯 (Adidas)、吉列(Gillette)、摩托羅拉(Motorola)、百事(Pepsi)和華特·迪士尼(Walt Disney)簽下了合約。在美期間，他又先後同喬治·阿瑪尼(Giorgio Armani)、三福(Sharpie)、雅虎(Yahoo)、藝電(Electronic Arts)、三星(Samsung)、漢堡王(Burger King)、桑斯伯里(Sainsbury)和百年靈(Breitling)建立了合作。他還同H&M合作推出了一個內衣系列。
當然，貝克漢姆的部分吸引力在於，品牌塑造是一種家族產 業。2005年，當他推出自己的古龍香水時，他合作的那家公司也在推銷他妻子維多利亞的香水。於是，一年後，貝克漢姆夫婦推出了混合香水系列 Intimately Beckham。就連貝克漢姆10歲大的兒子羅密歐(Romeo)也參與了這個家族品牌的推廣，出現在了巴寶莉(Burberry)最近的一次廣告活動 中。
Beckham Announces Retirement From Soccer
May 17, 2013JERÉ LONGMAN,
Philippe Desmazes/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
David Beckham of Paris Saint-Germain during a French L1 football match in March.
When David Beckham broke a bone in his left foot before the 2002 World Cup, Tony Blair, then the British Prime Minister, interrupted a cabinet meeting to express his concern about England’s suddenly uncertain chances. Tabloid newspapers ran photos of Beckham’s injured foot on Page 1 and asked readers to lay their hands on the picture in an attempt at mass civic healing.
On Thursday, Beckham announced his impending retirement from soccer at 38, never the best player in the world but unsurpassed in his era as a cultural phenomenon.
The sport has long had global stars, but none whose careers emerged so fortuitously at the nexus of technology, reality television and celebrity culture. Beckham was the athlete with the most crossover appeal at the moment when everyone could watch together, online or via satellite.
Beckham was not merely an athlete; he was an international brand that smartly fused a handsomeness that bordered on beauty with athleticism, marketing savvy and an eager embrace of the role of pop idol, unsurpassed in his era as a cultural phenomenon.
He was as likely to appear in Vogue as in Sports Illustrated. He was as popular appearing in underwear advertisements as in a soccer uniform. He was appreciated by working-class fans as well as gay fans. His wife was a member of the Spice Girls, and his precise passes and curling free kicks inspired a film, “Bend It Like Beckham,” serving as a metaphor for triumph over social restriction.
“David Beckham is soccer plus sex; those are the only two things that sell in the world, aren’t they?” said Stefan Szymanski, a British co-author of the book “Soccernomics” and a professor of sports management at the University of Michigan.
“What Beckham sold was athleticism or soccer to straight men and sex to women and gay men,” Szymanski said. “He did that rather spectacularly well. I’m guessing he’s the prettiest player the game has ever had. He’s the Marilyn Monroe of soccer. Everybody would want to be next to David Beckham.”
Despite his looks and talent and adulation, though, Beckham was not a prima donna on the field. He was considered to have given everything for his club teams and the England national team, winning titles with some of the world’s most popular clubs, Manchester United of England’s Premier League, Real Madrid of Spain’s La Liga and Paris St.-Germain of France’s Ligue 1.
His name and reputation alone brought newfound international respect for professional soccer in the United States during his six seasons and two championships with the Los Angeles Galaxy of Major League Soccer.
And, in the era of the Internet and satellite television, Beckham’s career proved hugely influential in the swelling interest of European soccer in Asia and elsewhere around the globe.
“I don’t think it’s unfair to say he put M.L.S. on the map,” said Bruce Arena, who coached Beckham to two league titles with the Galaxy. “And he’s certainly one of the chief people responsible for worldwide attention of the game. He’s one of the most competitive people I ever coached. As he got to the end of his career, he didn’t have the legs he wanted to have, but he had a bigger heart than anyone on the field.”
Beckham, who made 115 appearances with the English national team, did have his less felicitous moments. Infamously, he committed an impetuous foul that got him ejected from a 1998 World Cup match against Argentina. And Landon Donovan, the American star and former teammate with the Galaxy, criticized Beckham’s early commitment to M.L.S. in a book called “The Beckham Experiment” by Grant Wahl, a senior writer at Sports Illustrated.
Still, Beckham’s global appeal went undiminished.
“I think he’s the most famous athlete in the world,” Wahl said. While a similar claim could be made about the soccer star Lionel Messi, the Olympic sprinting champion Usain Bolt and the golfer Tiger Woods, Wahl said: “Beckham has a celebrity component the other guys don’t. There’s a multiplier effect. If you play the old game, ‘How many people on earth recognize this sports star?’ I think Beckham is recognized by more people than anyone else.”
Beckham’s worldwide reach often seemed limitless.
In Tokyo, a chocolate Beckham statue that stood nearly 10 feet tall was featured in a downtown department store after the 2002 World Cup. In Australia, mere speculation that Beckham might be interested in playing in the country’s league prompted wealthy businessmen to consider helping finance what would have surely been an outrageously expensive transfer.
In China — where Beckham’s nickname is Xiao Bei, or Little Becks — Beckham signed a contract reportedly worth as much as $75 million simply to be an ambassador for its scandal-plagued league. (During his first appearance in March, Beckham — wearing a suit and tie — slipped and fell when he attempted a free kick at a public relations event, taking a tumble that led to YouTube views around the world).
“Arguably, his brand has made more impact on football than any other player in history, with the possible exception of Pelé,” said Stephen A. Greyser, a sports management expert and professor at Harvard Business School. “He may be retiring from the pitch, but he’s not retiring from football and he’s not retiring from his brand. His impact will surely go on.”
Beckham’s brand, perhaps more than any other athlete, was himself. While Michael Jordan will always be linked with Nike, Beckham’s business associations ran a spectacularly wide gamut: when he arrived in the United States in 2007, he already had agreements with Adidas, Gillette, Motorola, Pepsi and Walt Disney, and added partnerships with Giorgio Armani, Sharpie, Yahoo, Electronic Arts, Samsung, Burger King, Sainsbury and Breitling at various times during his stay in the United States. He also launched an underwear line with H&M.
Beckham’s role in raising global awareness of soccer in the United States is undeniable. During Beckham’s first year with the Galaxy, the club’s revenue rose as much as 40 percent, according to Navigate, a sports and entertainment research company.
Part of Beckham’s appeal, of course, is that branding is a family business. When Beckham launched his cologne in 2005, he did it with the company that also licenses his wife Victoria’s perfumes. The couple then launched a joint fragrance line, Intimately Beckham, a year later. Even Beckham’s 1 son, Romeo, 10, is involved in pushing the family brand as he was featured in a recent advertising campaign for Burberry.
“If you had told me as a young boy I would have played for and won trophies with my boyhood club Manchester United, proudly captained and played for my country over one hundred times and lined up for some of the biggest clubs in the world, I would have told you it was a fantasy,” Beckham said in a statement. “I’m fortunate to have realized those dreams.”
David Beckham not even in top 1,000 players - Waddle
Former England winger Chris Waddle says David Beckham is not one of the top 1,000 players of the last 40 years.The ex-Manchester United midfielder is retiring at the end of the season.
"I would say he has been a good player, I wouldn't put him down as a great," Waddle, 52, told BBC Radio 5 live.
"You can go down a list of players from the Premier League or the 70s or 80s, whatever you want to do. I'll be honest, Beckham probably wouldn't be in the first 1,000."
Beckham v Waddle
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Beckham, 38, who signed a five-month deal at Paris St-Germain in January, joined Manchester United as a trainee in 1991, making his first-team debut the following year and signing his first professional contract in 1993.He went on to make 394 appearances for United, winning six Premier League titles and the Champions League, and 115 for England.
"I think there have been a lot more talented players in the world. But he made the most of what he has got," said Waddle, who made more 100 appearances for four of his clubs - Newcastle, Tottenham, Marseille and Sheffield Wednesday - while winning 62 England caps.
"He has got a terrific image and used it very well. He never had a trick, wasn't particularly quick, but he was very good at set-pieces and deliveries, he made chances and made goals and was fantastic for clubs.
"He said the right things, he sold shirts, he put money in the tills wherever he went and conducted himself well."
Beckham became one of the world's most high-profile sportsmen during his time at Old Trafford - and a global celebrity following his marriage to Spice Girl Victoria Adams in 1999.
He signed for Real Madrid in 2003 and won a La Liga title in 2007 before switching to the United States with Los Angeles Galaxy. He also spent time on loan at AC Milan.
"As a player I would say he was a fantastic crosser of the ball, a great athlete," said Waddle. "Now people will be talking about him and saying 'How great, how great'. I would say 'how good'.
"I would not say he was a great. He was very good at his job, he worked very hard as a professional footballer."
Manchester United manager-in-waiting David Moyes, preparing to lead Everton for the final time, has added to the tributes paid to Beckham since his announcement on Thursday.
"He's been a great player, a tremendous ambassador. I think everyone who is English is tremendously proud of what David Beckham has done over the years and how he has conducted himself," said the Scot.
"I was very fortunate to play with David when he came to Preston North End, he was a great lad then, very humble and really just wanted to play.
"Everybody who was part of that team [at Preston] still remembers him and still wants to talk about how they played in a team with David Beckham. I'm no different."
Carlo Ancelotti, Beckham's current manager at PSG, said: "The football world lost a fantastic player, lost a fantastic professional, lost a good man. It's the right decision because he decided to stop and not other people [telling him to stop].
"We have to respect his decision.
"It's not my business to find a role for David. He's going to speak with the club and if they decide to give him a new position, it is up to David and the club."
Beckham trained with Arsenal in January, and when asked if he was interested in signing Beckham, Gunners boss Arsene Wenger said: "Yes, I was. It was at a period when I couldn't afford him. And after that there was a question mark before he went to Milan, but it was a position we didn't really need.
"It was always a pleasure to have him here because of his attitude and behaviour. He gained respect from everybody.
"No matter how strong a player he is, what remains in your memory is his genuine commitment and dedication and the natural humility which he always had. That will stay forever."
QPR manager Harry Redknapp was in charge at Tottenham when Beckham trained with Spurs in 2011. He said: "He was down to earth, everybody loved him, he treated everybody with great respect and he had time for everyone. He's had a fantastic career and is an absolute top-class fella.
"He's been a great role model for any young footballer."
David Beckham's most memorable moments
WIMBLEDON GOAL - 17 AUGUST, 1996
David Beckham announced himself to the football world when he scored from the halfway line for Manchester United against Wimbledon.In United's opening match of the season at Selhurst Park, the midfielder spotted goalkeeper Neil Sullivan off his line to score a famous goal in United's 3-0 victory.
Former Wimbledon goalkeeper Sullivan told BBC Radio 5 live: "He just picked it up and hit it. I just realised it was going beyond me and it dropped [under] the crossbar and that was it. The whole Manchester United team at the time were special but I didn't expect anything like that. I made that boy... but I still think he would have done all right without me!"
ENGLAND v ARGENTINA - 30 JUNE, 1998
Former England team-mate Alan Shearer told BBC Sport on Thursday: "You have to have character as a footballer. When you have your downs you have to show how strong a character you are and he did that after the World Cup in 1998."
MANCHESTER UNITED TREBLE WIN - 26 MAY, 1999
United's 2-1 win over Bayern Munich included injury-time goals from Teddy Sheringham and Ole Gunnar Solskjaer, both from Beckham corners.
Former Manchester United and England defender Phil Neville told BBC Sport on Thursday: "David Beckham - what an unbelievable career. Four titles in four countries, over 100 caps for England and the best ambassador this country has had."
BECOMING ENGLAND CAPTAIN - 15 NOVEMBER, 2000
Under previous coach Kevin Keegan, the Manchester United midfielder had been appointed vice-captain in the absence of Sol Campbell.
Beckham told BBC Sport in 2000: "This is one of the proudest moments of my football career. It's always been a big ambition of mine. As a kid I used to dream about leading my country and now it is going to happen."
GREECE GOAL - 6 OCTOBER, 2001
Former England manager Sven-Goran Eriksson told BBC Sport on 16 May that Beckham's winner against Greece was his personal highlight of the midfielder's career. "David had missed many free-kicks during that game but was mentally very strong to take it when it was almost overtime, and he scored."
WORLD CUP PENALTY V ARGENTINA - 7 JUNE, 2002
Chief football reporter Phil McNulty said at the time: "If England rode their luck in the face of an inevitable second-half revival from Argentina, who is to say they did not finally deserve it after Diego Maradona's 'Hand of God' in 1986 and the desperate exit on penalties at France 98?"
BECKHAM FORGIVES FERGUSON AFTER 'FOOTBALL BOOT' CLASH - 18 FEBRUARY, 2003
Beckham described the incident at the time - in which Ferguson accidentally kicked a football boot against his face - as "just one of those things".
Ferguson said in 2003: "I have spent 29 years as a coach and what happens in the dressing room is sacrosanct. There is no problem and we move on. That is all there is to say."
JOINING REAL MADRID - 18 JUNE, 2003
Beckham's future at the time was the source of intense media speculation after his dressing room clash with Ferguson, with a number of top clubs including Barcelona, AC and Inter Milan interested in capturing the player.
Former Real Madrid president Ramon Calderon told BBC Radio 5 live: "I have very good memories of the years he spent here. He was very professional with impeccable behaviour."
BECKHAM STEPS ASIDE AS ENGLAND CAPTAIN - 2 JULY, 2006
The midfielder said at the time: "I feel the time is right to pass on the armband as we enter a new era under new coach Steve McClaren."
LA GALAXY DEAL - 12 JANUARY, 2007
The then 31-year-old signed a five-year deal, reportedly worth £128m between his salary, existing sponsorship contracts, merchandising shirt sales and a share of the club profits.
Beckham said on Thursday: "It is every athlete's dream to go out on top form or winning a trophy; it doesn't happen very often. I have been very lucky - winning the league with Manchester United, then at Real Madrid, at LA Galaxy and now PSG."
LONDON OLYMPICS - 27 JULY, 2012
After Beckham played a key role in London being awarded the Games in 2005 an estimated 900 million people watched as the boat sped down the River Thames synchronised to a massive pyrotechnic display that included a curtain of fire descending from Tower Bridge.
Beckham told BBC Sport in July 2012: "To have an Olympic Games in London is amazing but to have it in an area where I grew up, I'm very proud to have been part of that for the last eight years."
DAVID BECKHAM JOINS PARIS ST-GERMAIN - 31 JANUARY, 2013
The former England captain signed a five-month deal with the club after leaving LA Galaxy at the end of the MLS season.
Beckham said on Thursday: "I'm thankful to PSG for giving me the opportunity to continue but I feel now is the right time to finish my career, playing at the highest level."