2011年8月31日 星期三

朱自清传 --- 目录

朱自清传 --- 目录
  • 第 1 章 “我是扬州人”
      一、“我是扬州人” 江苏北部有一座小城——东海,古时称为海州。...

  • 第 2 章 北京风雨
      二、北京风雨 1916年夏天,朱自华考入北京大学预科。北大乃全国著名学府,各地学子均以考取 这所名牌大学为光荣,现在朱自华一跃而登龙门,自然博得许多人的钦慕,全家喜悦自不待 言。...

  • 第 3 章 钱塘潮淙
      三、钱塘潮淙 朱自清在北大提前毕业的消息传到扬州,朱家上下喜形于色。...

  • 第 4 章 苦闷灵魂的呼声
      四、苦闷灵魂的呼声 1922年初春,朱自清将家眷从扬州接到杭州来。...

  • 第 5 章 温州踪迹
      五、温州踪迹 温州浙江第十中学原系温州府学堂,创办于1902年,校舍是原来的中山书院,辛亥 革命后改为省立第十学堂。...


  • 第 6 章 白马湖春秋
      六、白马湖春秋 1924年的9月,实为江浙多事之秋。这月3日,直系的江苏军阀和皖系的浙江军阀 火拼,福建的直系军阀出兵浙江平阳,企图取道温州,袭击浙江皖系军阀的后方,以声援江 苏的直系军阀。...

  • 第 7 章 重返北京
      七、重返北京 白云悠悠,人世悠悠。 朱自清离开北京整整五年,想不到如今又回来了。...

  • 第 8 章 那里走?那里走!
      八、那里走?那里走! 朱自清回到清华园不久,就接到丰子恺寄来自己的画集,请他择选品评。...

  • 第 9 章 “千里魂应忆旧俦”
      九、“千里魂应忆旧俦” 1928年随着政权易手,北京改名为北平;8月17日,南京政府决议改清华学校为 国立清华大学。...

  • 第 10 章 欧洲之旅
      十、欧洲之旅 1930年8月,杨振声到青岛大学任校长,所遗中国文学系主任一职,校方请朱自清 代理。...

  • 第 11 章 生活新篇章
      十一、生活新篇章 7月31日,朱自清到达上海,登上码头,陈竹隐已笑嘻嘻地站在那里迎接他了。...

  • 第 12 章 山雨骤至
      十二、山雨骤至 1935年元旦,“全国木刻联合展览会”在太庙举办展出,为期一周。...

  • 第 13 章 芦沟烽火
      十三、芦沟烽火 新学年开始以后,朱自清连日忙于和闻一多、朱光潜等商量《语言与文学》杂志发刊 事。...

  • 第 14 章 初到春城
      十四、初到春城 联大在昆明西北三分寺附近购置了100多亩地,建盖了百多间教室和宿舍,均泥土为 墙,茅草为顶,比较简陋。...

  • 第 15 章 “一载成都路”
      十五、“一载成都路” 一到成都,陈竹隐即引朱自清到她的姐姐家中作客。...

  • 第 16 章 在司家营
      十六、在司家营 8月间,昆明遭到日机的疯狂轰炸,联大许多学生宿舍被毁,实验室、办公室也多遭破 坏。...

  • 第 17 章 “胜利在望中”
      十七、“胜利在望中” 1944年的“五四”又到了,联大进步师生又忙于筹备庆祝活功,闻一多是积极组织 者之一。...

  • 第 18 章 “一二·一”风暴前后”
      十八、“一二·一”风暴前后” 这学期他开讲“中国文学史”,整天忙于准备功课。...

  • 第 19 章 “你是一团火”
      十九、“你是一团火” 朱自清到达成都之日,正是昆明政治形势更为严峻之时。...

  • 第 20 章 高举起投枪
      二十、高举起投枪 朱自清的精神状态和以往大不一样了,创作欲望重又高昂。...

  • 第 21 章 “何须惆怅近黄昏”
      二十一、“何须惆怅近黄昏” 1948年元旦上午,朱自清到工字厅参加新年团拜,晚上又出席中文系师生在余冠英 住宅门前举行的新年同乐晚会。...

  • 第 22 章 尾声
      尾 声:塔烟袅袅 12日下午三时,遗体移到医院太平间。...

  • 后记
      后 记 大约是五年前的春天日子里,我忽然接到北京出版社来信,约我写《朱自清传》。...


  後 記

大約是五年前的春天日子裏,我忽然接到北京出版社來信,約我寫《朱自清傳》。

接下任務後,心中老是感到不安,總覺得自己不自量力,難以完成使命,要辜負出版社的期望。因爲在我看來,“傳”是很難寫的,主要原因就在自己和傳主之間隔暸一個時代,對他的生活既缺乏具體的認識,又缺乏感性的體驗,勢必給傳記的真實性帶來影響。

但 當初敢于接受這一任務,也有一點心理依據。從1980年開始我就從事關于朱自清研究的教學工作,還接受暸“朱自清研究資料”的編輯任務,花暸很多時間探索 搜集朱自清著作和有關資抖。但編好之後,它的命運十分悲慘,至今已近十年,仍然沒有關于它的出版消息。多年勞動成果,遭到如此結果,自然感到無限痛心。但 經過這一番辛苦工作,竟使我對朱自清的創作史和生命史,有暸進一步的理解,無形中給暸我接受撰寫傳記的勇氣。因此對邀約編選“朱自清研究資料”的單位,我 始終懷有感激的心情。

由于種種原因,我在很長時間裏,對“傳”沒有動筆,但腦子裏卻是時刻在醞釀著的。這期間,除暸從朱自清 全部著述中,去探索其生命蹤迹外,還乘工作之便,遊覽暸他曾經生活過的地方。先是我在搜集彙編資料時,到北京走訪過他的夫人陳竹隱先生及其子女朱喬森和朱 蓉隽同志;還訪問暸他的生前諸友好葉聖老、王瑤、季鎮淮諸先生,承蒙他們熱情接待,回答暸許多問題,提供暸不少資料;還和遠在山西財政廳工作的朱閏生同志 通信,得到他的幫助。繼後,我又去杭州、揚州、昆明等地,探訪他曾流連過的勝境,在那裏體味他當時的心情,尋覓他生命的迹印,增加暸不少感性的認識。

在 這部傳記中,我不想逐一評論他的創作和著述,也不想細致地剖析他的思想發展過程,更不想全面地評估他對曆史所作的種種貢獻,爲他立一座能夠傳之千秋萬代的 豐碑。這不是我力所能及的。朱自清曾說自己的生活是“平如砥”,“直如矢”。這是實話。和同時代一些作家相比,朱自清一生確是沒有什麽大風大浪,他沒有驚 險經曆,沒有轟烈壯舉,毫無浪漫色彩,一切都顯得那麽平凡無奇。我只是意圖比較忠實地描畫出他那平凡的生命曆程,于中展示他的思想行爲、個性情趣,以及品 格與作風,從而映現出他在特定曆史環境中所顯現出的不平凡的風姿。由于學識與能力的局限,我深知沒有達到這一要求,其中描述失實,分析欠妥之處在所難免, 我誠摯地希望師友及讀者們予以批評指正。

朱自清沒有像其他一些作家那樣留下許多有關描寫自己生活的紀實作品。但他“意在表現自己”的散文,卻大多記敘自己的經曆,那裏留有他生命的足迹,這給我的寫作帶來暸方便,有些地方我都予以化用;此外,我也從一些回憶文章裏汲取暸不少養份。這都是合當聲明的。


在寫作過程中,我得到不少朋友的幫助。首先是北京十月文藝出版社同志們的熱情鼓勵和鞭策,沒有他們的關懷和督促,這本傳記的完成是很難預料的。上海 圖書館的趙景國同志,華東師大中文系資料室的沈茶英同志,揚州師院的吳周文同志,雲南師大的姚律入同志,上海辭書出版社的梁建民同志,都在資料的提供上予 以大力的協助,我的學生張培傑和張克平同志在百忙中幫助謄抄稿子。凡此種種,僅在此一並表示衷心的感謝。

1990年5月

于上海麗娃河畔


2011年8月25日 星期四

German humorist Loriot dies aged 87

這篇猶疑很多天才貼出


People | 23.08.2011

German humorist Loriot dies aged 87

He was a cartoonist, film director, actor and writer who made Germans laugh for decades. Vicco von Bülow, more commonly known as Loriot, has left behind a legacy of humor and a large following.

One of Germany's most famous creators of comedy, Vicco von Bülow - who worked under the stage name Loriot - died in Ammerland am Starnberger See, Bavaria, on Monday, August 22. According to a spokesperson for his publisher, Diogenes Verlag, he "passed away peacefully" at home.

Born in 1923 into a noble Prussian family, Bernhard Victor Christoph Carl (or just Vicco) von Bülow started his career drawing cartoons with characters that had potato noses and depicted the funny side of human frailty and communication problems.

All-round talent

Vicco von Bülow, aka Loriot, with his puppet characterLoriot was both a cartoonist and a comedianVery soon, German television discovered not only his cartoons but his talent as a comedian and Loriot, as he started calling himself, was asked to present a series of sketches and cartoons that became an important part of Germany's cultural consciousness.

He and his amusing characters became such a success that he went on to produce a few full-length movies. None of them have been screened outside the German-speaking realm, but the BBC has run some of Loriot's sketches and cartoons and received a great response from an English audience.

As he got older, Loriot even had a humorous perspective on his own age. "You're barely born and you're already 80," is how he commented the feeling he had about entering his 80s.

In answer to the question of what had most influenced his work, Loriot answered in 2007: "I remember that, when I started studying, I was living between a madhouse, a prison and a cemetery. The location alone explains everything, I think."

Author: Eva Wutke (dpa, KNA)

Editor: Kate Bowen


2011年8月24日 星期三

包世臣




要記得到"英國風"與我和朱自清共游倫敦....
(我知道他出國前 浦江清送兩首詩 葉公超送他包世臣書法 害得我趕緊去查此包公.....)

google 圖片 包世臣

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维基百科,自由的百科全书

包世臣(1775年-1855年),清朝文學家,字慎伯,晚號倦翁安徽涇縣人。

[編輯] 生平

包世臣自幼家貧,但勤於詞章,並喜談國事。嘉慶十三年(1808年)中舉,但多次考進士不中。此後曾先後為陶澍裕謙楊芳幕客。他一生研究國事,東南各官吏都紛向他諮詢,以此名滿江淮。

包世臣思想,反對脫離民事,文章也大都關切時務政事。他反對傳統「重農抑商」政策,以「好言利」自許,提出「本末皆富」為「千古治法之宗」、「子孫 萬世之計」;他又提出「生齒日繁,地之所產,不敷口食」的「人多致貧」論。他堅持經世致用之學,對鴉片戰爭前後的社會和經濟問題,作了較為廣泛的探討,主 張具有進步意義的社會改革,在當時社會上有一定影響。

著作有《中衢一勺》、《藝舟雙楫》、《管情三義》、《齊民四術》。


2011年8月22日 星期一

黃鷗波

黃鷗波

21世紀初 犯約2006)利用網路上的有限資料,寫篇弔文,放在blog上,自愧內容不充實。

我可能是在1997年每周去黃老師處,跟一些師兄共學,用台(河洛)語讀經典,譬如說,《四書》唐詩三百首》等等。之前,就有朋友將他的課程錄音,聽說90年代初期老師的聲音真宏亮有韻味。參考黃鷗波:詩畫交融》(台北:國立歷史博物館,2004。)中的讀書(同樂)會照片--對於一般人,我鄭重推薦晚年的回憶、訪問稿。

幾年以後,我買幾本舊月刊,讀了老師為某一「彩墨邀請展」,寫的推薦文章:「探幽 尋秘 創新的黃昭雄」(《藝術家》,19933月號,頁479。)然後,讀到林玉山先生為黃老師寫的八十歲畫展之序文:黃鷗波八十回顧展畫集序」(《藝術家》轉載,19972月號,頁470-71;畫展期間為:1月21日~ 3月16日,省立美術館)。我以為,這篇可能是介紹黃老師的文章中之最,許多教育、創業等的歷程都交代,連師母的事蹟都說了,很不可多得,所以勉勵自己,將它一字一字”打”下來:(林先生比黃先生約長10歲,共同的照片請參考黃鷗波:詩畫交融》等

「鷗波是表親娥姊的兒子,姊夫清渠詩文造詣甚深,鷗波從小即隨父親習漢文,也曾隨秀才林植卿習師,後來又至壺仙花果園聽賴雨若講授詩文。我們雖是親戚,因住處遠隔,一直到壺仙花果園中才相會。

雨若先生早年留日專研法律,返嘉之後,開辦律師事務所,卻常勸人和解勿訟。他在嘉義南郊購買一片土地,植花種果,名為「壺仙花果園」。雨若先生的思想超逾常人,故有哲人之稱,特於園中設義學、修養會,遇假日、星期六下午親自講授經學、詩文。尚時時鼓勵年輕學子,勿死守島內一隅,應出外探求發展的空間,因此還聘邱景樹教北京語、英語。由於園中花木扶疏,亭橋雅緻,來此寫生的畫家或吟遊的詩人相繼不絕。….. 我畫『拂曉』等作,都是在園中寫生,而且這些作品曾入選「台、府展」,有的還獲賞。當時的嘉義市有著濃厚的藝術風氣,鷗波在此環境中也感染喜好繪畫的氣息,因此立志當畫家。遂赴東京川端畫學校習畫苦讀,結業後在東京任設計之職。不久因戰爭情況轉烈,被徵調至楊州,任日本憲兵隊翻譯官。當時日軍在沿海佔領區,需要翻譯人員,…..。他們能任翻譯工作,甚道一遊大陸,實與雨若先生教誨有關。

日本戰敗後……與嘉義畫友重聚,遂加盟「春萌畫會」。光復後的三四年,鷗波、盧雲生、李秋禾和我,先後遷居台北,因離嘉旅北親友甚少,相互之往來益為親密。

鷗波聰敏而熱情,幽默之文思。游彌堅欣賞其帶有民俗之趣的詩文及童謠,邀聘為台灣省教育會編輯委員,台灣省文化協進會編輯委員。他也曾在開南商工、師大附中、大同中學、國立藝專任教。

鷗波妻室賴玉嬌賢淑多藝,伉儷具有創業精神,民國三十八年即辦「城東洋裁補習班」,教導婦女裁縫、編織,配合社會經濟成長,給予婦女習藝、修養,兼得副業的機會。民國四十年創辦「新光美術補習班」,雖然當時有些名畫家亦開班教畫,但都在家中不拘形式地教學,而「新光美術補習班」則是當年台北惟一政府立案的美術補習班,頗具規模,幾乎有職業€捕校的雛型。在十數年間,培育不少年輕畫家,如汪如同、池伯成、李義濱、于百齡、陳恭平、劉耕谷等人,他們曾參與「省展」或其他展覽活動,都有優秀的成績。平時教書、作畫之餘,鷗波仍不忘研讀詩文,持續參與詩社,如旅北之鷗社、瀛社等。在繪畫活動方面更為活躍,曾與畫有創辦「青雲畫會」,在民國六十年「省展」決定取消國畫第二部,膠彩畫將失去活動空間時,又與畫友組「長流畫會」,近年再組「綠水畫會」,為膠彩畫爭取發展的機運。

二次大戰後的日本好像過得愈來愈快,轉眼間年輕的鷗波已屆八十之壽,欣悉仍時時執筆作畫,近日將舉行展覽,因略記共同經歷之畫境往事。」



黃鷗波 : 詩畫交融

在台灣,小孩滿周歲作「度晬 too7-tse3」,我倒是沒見過所謂的「抓周」,
我的台語老師有將它畫出來
黃鷗波 : 詩畫交融

據我姑姑說 我一歲時是抓書的 不過那時候台灣尚未流行"全集"

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陳 嘉翎



Search in FindBook


陳 嘉翎 書名/作者 黃鷗波 : 詩畫交融 = Huang Ou-Po : poems and paintings / 陳嘉翎主訪.編撰 出版項 台北市 : 國立歷史博物館, 2004 總圖2F密集書庫 940.992 8015 v.2


其他書名 前輩書畫家系列 2
Huang Ou-Po : poems and paintings
詩畫交融 稽核項 191面 : 部份彩圖,像 ; 26公分 叢書名 口述歷史叢書; 2
前輩書畫家系列; 2 主要叢書 口述歷史叢書 2 附註 含參考書目 ISBN/價格 986-00-0013-1 平裝 標題 csh 黃 鷗波 訪談錄
csh 畫家 臺灣 訪談錄


柯慶明

柯慶明老師在台大校圓和全球漢學界都小有名氣
他的文章 包括日記等等 都很容易去"問市"


柯慶明:「教學是生命對生命的現場

老師只是在已知領域比學生多懂一點,學生應該自主學習,『再多走一步』,超越老師。」

柯老師是創造、開創型的人物,譬如說,昔日主編過《現代文學》(這雜誌早已停刊,不過2010年他們慶祝創刊50周年);他是台大出版中心的開創主任,雖然只有很短期,不過出版的《中國文學史》(台靜農著)、《中國美學與文學研究論集》(高友工著)等等都是很了不起的作品。

學生要超越老師,談何容易:著名的翻譯家馮象先生(作品:《摩西五經》、《智慧書》,香港:牛津大學出版社)就曾撰文,他們在學術和人格上都無法超越昔日的(北大)師長。我想,原因似乎也很簡單,做學問需要打好基礎,能夠耐得住學者的清苦生活,懂得潛沉,願意為學生付出…….


參考《臺大教學傑出教師的故事3 》台北:臺大出版中心,2009,頁20-29。這本書是臺大新聞研究所學生採訪19位老師之作品。

教務長的序中這些話,令我不忍卒讀:「….. 將膺選教學傑出教師的經驗與心得紀錄下來,正是希望增進臺大的競爭力,以及同學的競爭力…….


胡適 李濟 張光直



《故院長胡適先生紀念論文集》台北:中央研究院,歷史語言研究所集刊第34本(上下兩冊),196212

……我得到胡先生自紐約寄給我的一封信;信內最後一段如下(原信另製版附錄):

我近來有一個妄想,想請镏公與兄替我想想:

我想在南港院址上,租借一塊小地,由我自己出錢,建造一所有modern 方便的小房子,可供我夫婦住,由我與院方訂立契約,聲明在十年或十五年後,連房與地一併收歸院方所有。此辦法有無法律上的障礙?此意有幾層好處:

1)可以開一例子,給其他海內外院士可以仿行,將來在南港造成一排學人住宅。

2)我覺得史語所的藏書最適於我的工作(1948年我長期用過);又有許多朋友可以幫助我。(近來與嚴耕望先生通信,我很得益處。舉此一例,可見朋友襄助之大益。)

3)我若回臺久住,似住在郊外比住在臺北市為宜。

此計畫市一種妄想,不但要镏公與兄替我想想,也要兄轉告思亮、子水諸朋友镏替我想想。(委尚未告知他們)。

…….

他去世以後,大家都想所以紀念他的方法,卻得不到任何十分滿意的結論。不過若把紀念胡先生的事分作兩方面看,也許我們可以看得清楚一點。我的意思是,若從永久性的紀念說,像胡先生一生的成就,可以說是”自有千古”,不需要任何紀念的標幟。換句話說,他留下來的工作成績,就是紀念他最好的紀念品。歷史上的人物,如韓愈、朱熹這一類的人,是用不著別人紀念他們的。另一方面看,若是懷念他的人,受過他的影響的人們設想,他們與胡先生的關係自然是因人、因地、因時而各有不同;他們確實可以由這些不同的關切想出不同的紀念方法。

史語所同仁有幸,在胡先生最後的幾年生活中,得與他朝夕相處,所獲得的益處,方面是很多的;但他留在南港最深刻的印象,仍是他那做學問的方法。就這一點說,研究所同仁各就他本人的研究工作,寫一篇文章來紀念他,算是有意義的了。所以我們這一次論文集所載的論文,都是由與本所有關的人所撰著。

李濟 五十一年十二月二十七日,南港」

談點李濟

我讀過李濟先生的長子李光謨先生寫的文章,說李濟的墓在另一山頭,與胡適之墓遙遙相對,似乎是說他的老子也是胡適級的巨人。李光謨忘記他在194年與張光直合編的《李濟考古學論文選集》中,張先生在「編者後記」中這樣說:「李先生在資料裡抓到了許多關鍵性的問題,但他並沒有很明白地指點出來這許多問題之間的有系統、有機的連繫。很可惜的是,李濟先生沒有給我們一本考古理論、方法論的教科書。」

我們可參考李光謨《鋤頭考古學家的足跡李濟治學生涯鎖記》(北京:中國人民大學出版社,1996)這本書可以知道學生為他立慕志銘是:「清標自守、師表百世」

談點張光直

張光直先生晚年回台灣當中央研究院的副院長。我們可以在電視上看到他與Parkinson症奮鬥的幾個畫面,令人不忍。

我發現大陸出版幾本紀念張光直先生的文集,可是台灣還是靜悄悄,似乎沒有人寫文章,很無情。我與中研院的一位研究員說,如果你組稿,我可以出版。他欣然接受。可是幾年過去了,我知道這是定案了。

台灣的出版界可能有它的問題。譬如說,我讀過北京出版的張光直父親的張我軍全集,可是我們除了板橋的某小學紀念他之外,似乎靜悄悄的。

昔日張光直先生哈佛大學考古系收的某中國學生,當初英文程度簡直,可說「慘」,可是他有學人底子,20年之後就成為芝加哥大學的名教授,著作(英中文)等身。

目錄

李濟

跋斐休的唐故圭峰定慧禪師傳法碑 胡適先生遺稿

績溪嶺北音系 趙元任

台語系聲母及聲調的關係 李方桂

敦煌千佛洞遺碑及其相關的石窟考 石璋如

孔廟百石卒史碑考 勞榦

荀子斠理 王時岷

北魏軍鎮制度考 嚴耕望

近代四川合江縣物價與工資的變動趨勢 全漢昇 王業鍵

道教之自搏與佛教之自撲補論 楊聯陞

清人入關前的手工業 陳文石

「老滿文史料」序 李光濤

從文法語彙的差異證國語左傳兩書非一人所作 張以人

川南的鴉雀苗及其家制 芮逸夫

再說西京雜記

甲骨文金文 及其相關問題 龍宇純

說異 李孝定

唐武后改字考 董作賓 王恆餘

論國風非民間歌謠的本來面目 屈萬里(附陳槃跋)

東漢黨錮人物的分析 金發根

春秋戰國的社會變動 許倬雲

雲南方言中幾個常見的詞彙 楊時逢

讀明刊毓慶勳懿集所載明太祖與武定侯郭英敕書 黃彰健

國語黃帝二十五子得姓傳說的分析(上篇) 楊希枚

明初東勝的設防與棄防 吳緝華

Reduplicatives in the Book of Odes 周法高

殷商時代裝飾藝術研究之一

附載

中國人思想中的不朽觀念(胡適先生英文講稿) 楊君實譯

胡適先生中文著作目錄 徐高阮編

胡適先生中文遺稿目錄 徐高阮編

胡適先生西文著作目錄 袁同禮 Eugene L. Delafield 編

胡適先生詩歌目錄 胡頌平編


2011年8月14日 星期日

莊喆《主題‧原象---莊喆 畫展》



國立歷史博物館全球資訊網-展覽內容-展覽回顧-一般展覽-主題‧原像 ...

www.nmh.gov.tw/zh-tw/Exhibition/Content.aspx?Para...22 - 頁庫存檔
主題‧原像─莊喆畫展 .... 傳統的素材中找尋現代的造型語彙,專注游移在抽象與具象中造象,在日積月累習作中,他詮釋著心中空靈的山水,並試圖創作出畫家心中的原象...



莊喆老師見過數次面 沒上過他的課 沒跟他聊過 只看過他的畫......

還是可以稱他為老師

***

我記得前幾月有記莊喆的blog 找不到

今晚在某 used books 買到歷史博物館 的 主題原象---莊喆 畫展》* (2005)
末頁 學歷
第2行 1963-73 執教於東海大學建築系

(然後他出國榮歸台灣 兩次任教1年或一學期
都不是東海

這當然有公立大學的因素
不知道是否有其他"物非人非"之處??

"建築系的同學是多才多藝的,過去莊喆老師、張肅肅老師所引燃同學們對繪畫和藝術的狂熱是值得重視與記憶的,"


*

雪舟破墨山水図變奏11幅 頁40-50

雪舟(せっしゅう、応永27年(1420年) - 永正3年8月8日(諸説あり)(1506年))は、室町時代に活動した水墨画家・禅僧。「雪舟」は号で、(いみな)は「等楊」(とうよう)と称した。

備中に生まれ、京都相国寺で修行した後、大内氏の庇護のもと周防に移る。その後、遣明船に同乗して中国()に渡り、中国の画法を学んだ。

現存する作品の大部分は中国風の水墨山水画であるが、肖像画の作例もあり、花鳥画もよくしたと伝える。の古典や明代の浙派の画風を吸収しつつ、各地を旅して写生に努め、中国画の直模から脱した日本独自の水墨画風を確立。後の日本画壇へ与えた影響は大きい。

現存する作品のうち6点が国宝に 指定されており、日本の絵画史において別格の高い評価を受けているといえる。このため、花鳥図屏風など「伝雪舟筆」とされる作品は多く、真筆であるか否 か、専門家の間でも意見の分かれる作品も多い。代表作は、「四季山水図(山水長巻)」「秋冬山水図」「天橋立図」「破墨山水図」「慧可断臂図」など。弟子 に、秋月、宗淵、等春らがいる。



山水図(破墨山水図)(東京国立博物館、1495年(明応4年))

国宝
指定名称:紙本墨画山水図
雪舟等楊筆,雪舟自序・月翁周鏡等六僧賛
せっしゅうとうよう,せっしゅう・げっとうしゅうきょう
1幅
紙本墨画
148.6×32.7
室町時代・明応4年(1495)
東京国立博物館
A-282
  本図上方に明応4年(1495)3月中旬、数え76歳の年記を有する雪舟(1420-1506?)自身の序と当時の京都五山の有名な詩僧6人の題詩があ り、それらの内容と絵の表現から、本図は雪舟の真筆であることが明らかな貴重な作品である。雪舟の自序によると、周防(山口県)の雪舟のもとで画を学んだ 如水宗淵(じょすいそうえん)が相模(神奈川県)に帰るにあたり、師の画業を正しく受け継いだ証として雪舟に描くことを求めたのが本図である。雪舟の絵と 序をもらった宗淵は帰途、京都でさらに6人の高僧に詩を書いてもらっている。
 また雪舟は自序の中で、かつて中国へ渡り、李在(りざい)と長有声(ちょうゆうせい)に画を学んだこと、日本では如拙(じょせつ)、周文(しゅうぶん)の画を受け継ぐことなどを述べ、宗淵のために画学の系譜を明らかにするとともに、自負のほどを語っている。
  この山水図は、潑墨(はつぼく)という輪郭線を用いず墨をはね散らすような、粗放な画法によって描かれている。墨の濃淡を面的に用いているにもかかわら ず、確かな骨組みであり、雪舟固有の安定感と構築性を示す。自序に「破墨の法」とあることから、本図は古来「破墨山水図」の名で有名である。




現在我們可以在網路上觀賞莊喆老師的「雪舟破墨山水図變奏11幅」 (頁40-50)的原本山水図(破墨山水図)(東京国立博物館、1495年(明応4年))

我查國內兩本美術辭典中的「破墨」的解釋之後,我相信這是必須向日本再次「請回來」學習的,不只是此圖,因為我們讀日本的雪舟專著,知道這是他76歲的作品,而他年紀稍小時,另有「仿玉澗 (牧溪)的破墨畫」

莊老師的,不只是學習,他是進一步發揮。用他自己的話

……說明我的目的……這幅的長與寬是直立的兩個正方體,所以用三竹寺分把山勢分成上中下。在三元空間表現距離正好又是遠、中、近三等分。山、樹、岩、岸、村舍、小舟就一次在這三等分中準確調配完成。簡與繁就這樣奇妙的融合在一起了。我想把這個解悟到的心得用不同的幅度來呈現。不同於原畫的水墨,我期望也把色彩的明暗度加進去,抽取出筆與染的純粹繪畫性,省略一切細節,既是「抽象」,又是「自然」。這完全也躲一再敗過去四十年想結合的,從古畫中看出現代,可能與可表現的究竟有多少?反覆推敲求證,在真實自然與已有的畫蹟中實際還埋藏無限生機。我相信這種雙限性的發展可以越過時空,無盡無限 (莊喆《主題‧原象---莊喆 畫展》頁11)


2011年8月10日 星期三

馬可波羅 Marco Polo 虛實


Marco Polo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Polo - 頁庫存檔
Marco Polo was a merchant from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia ...

考古學家︰馬可波羅 從未到過中國

〔編譯管淑平/綜合報導〕13世紀義大利威尼斯商人馬可波羅描述其中國和遠東之旅的「馬 可波羅遊記」,讓他名列史上最偉大探險家之一,但義大利考古學家經過考證後指出,馬可波羅其實從來沒到過中國,而是拾人牙慧,將他在黑海地區從波斯商人那 裡聽來的中國、日本和蒙古旅行經驗,東拼西湊當成自己的東方遊記,可能根本就是個騙子。

東方遊記與史實不符

義大利那不勒斯大學考古學教授佩特雷拉,率領考古團在日本研究後提出這種說法。佩特雷拉特別點出馬可波羅描述當時中國元朝皇帝忽必烈,在西元1274、1281年兩次入侵日本的矛盾以及與史實不符之處,「他把這兩次搞混了,把第一次和第二次遠征的一些細節混在一起」。

例如,馬可波羅說,忽必烈第一次征日時,艦隊從朝鮮出發前往日本途中遭遇颱風,「但此事其實發生在1281年,若真是目擊者,有可能搞混相隔7年的事嗎?」此外,馬可波羅說忽必烈艦隊是5桅船,但考古團在日本挖到的殘骸卻是3桅。

佩特雷拉在最新一期義大利歷史雜誌「聚焦歷史」(Focus Storia)的訪問中說,「在我們的挖掘過程中,他所說內容的許多疑點也開始浮現」。

佩特雷拉指出,馬可波羅提到忽必烈的艦隊用瀝青當防水塗料,用的是波斯語的「瀝青」,而非中文或蒙古語說法。他提到的許多中國或蒙古地名,也不是用當地說法,而是波斯語。馬可波羅宣稱曾擔任忽必烈的使節,但現存蒙古和中國文獻記載中都未見他的名字。

可能取自波斯商人經驗

佩 特雷拉的質疑呼應了大英圖書館中文部主任吳芳思(Frances Wood)1995年著作「馬可波羅有沒有去過中國?」(Did Marco Polo Go to China?)一書論點。她說,馬可波羅的遊記沒提到當時中國婦女裹小腳、用筷子、喝茶等生活習俗,甚至隻字未提長城。

吳芳思表示,在威尼斯文獻中,也從未出現馬可波羅家族與中國直接往來的訊息,他的東方見聞可能是取自波斯商人的旅行經歷或旅遊指南,他自己東遊足跡可能從未超過黑海。

「馬可波羅遊記」是馬可波羅自中國返鄉後,在威尼斯與熱那亞戰爭中被俘期間,口述給名為皮薩(Pisa)的獄友聽,據稱皮薩寫書時加油添醋許多內容。


Mies van der Rohe



搜尋結果

  1. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    - [ 翻譯這個網頁 ]
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Mies_van_der_Rohe - 頁庫存檔
    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. He is commonly referred to and addressed by his surname; Mies. ...
  2. 路德維希·密斯·凡德羅- 维基百科,自由的百科全书

    zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/路德維希·密斯·凡德羅 - 頁庫存檔
    路德维希·密斯·凡德罗(Ludwig Mies van der Rohe,1886年3月27日-1969年8月17日 ...
  3. Mies van der Rohe」的圖片搜尋結果

    - 檢舉圖片


August 19, 1969
OBITUARY

Mies van der Rohe Dies at 83; Leader of Modern Architecture

Special to The New York Times

CHICAGO, Aug. 18--Mies van der Rohe, one of the great figures of 20th-century architecture, died in Wesley Memorial Hospital here late last night. He was 83 years old.

Mr. van der Rohe had entered the hospital two weeks ago.

He is survived by two daughters, Mrs. Georgia van der Rohe and Mrs. Marianne Lohan; five grandchildren and six great-grandchildren.

Expressed Industrial Spirit

By ALDEN WHITMAN

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, a man without any academic architectural training, was one of the great artist-architect-philosophers of his age, acclaimed as a genius for his uncompromisingly spare design, his fastidiousness and his innovations.

Along with Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier, the German-born master builder who was universally know as Mies (pronounced mees) fashioned scores of imposing structures expressing the spirit of the industrial 20th century.

"Architecture is the will of an epoch translated into space," he remarked in a talkative moment. Pressed to explain his own role as a model for others--a matter on which he was shy, as he was on most others--he said:

"I have tried to make an architecture for a technological society. I have wanted to keep everything reasonable and clear--to have an architecture that anybody can do."

A building, he was convinced, should be "a clear and true statement of its times"--cathedrals for an age of pathos, glass and metal cages for an age of advanced industrialism.

He thought the George Washington Bridge in New York an outstanding example of a structure expressing its period, and he used to go to admire it whenever he visited the city.

"It is the most modern building in the city," he remarked in 1963.

He was fond of the bridge because he considered it beautifully proportioned and because it did not conceal its structure. Mies liked to see the steel, the brick, the concrete of buildings show themselves rather than be concealed by ornamentation. A 20th-centrury industry building had to be pithy, he believed.

Influence on Colleagues

Mies's stature rested not only on his lean yet sensuous business and residential buildings, but also on the profound influence he exerted on his colleagues and on public taste. As the number of his structures multiplied in the years since World War II and as their stunning individuality became apparent, critical appreciation flowed to him in torrents, and his designs and models drew throngs to museums where they were exhibited. It became a status symbol to live in a Mies house, to work in a Mies building, or even to visit one.

The Mies name had already been established among architects long before he came to the United States in 1937. In 1919 and 1921 in Berlin he designed two steel skyscrapers sheathed in glass from street to roof. Although the buildings were never erected, the designs are now accepted as the originals of today's glass-and-metal skyscrapers.

Ribbon Windows

In 1922 Mies introduced the concept of ribbon windows, uninterrupted bands of glass between the finished faces of concrete slabs, in a design for a German office building. That has since become the basis for many commercial structures.

Mies, in 1924, produced plans for a concrete villa that is now regarded as the forerunner of the California ranch house. He is also said to have foreshadowed the return of the inner patio of Roman times in an exhibition house built in 1931; to have started the idea of space dividers, the use of cabinets or screens instead of walls to break up interiors; and to have originated the glass house, with windows and glass sliding panels extending from floor to ceiling to permit outside greenery to form the visual boundaries of a room.

Apart from simplicity of form, what struck students of Mies's buildings was their painstaking craftsmanship, their attention to detail.

"God is in the details," Mies liked to say.

In this respect the buildings reflected the man, for Mies was fussy about himself. A large, lusty man with a massive head topping a 5-foot, 10-inch frame, he dressed in exquisitely hand-stitched suits of conservative hue, dined extravagantly well on haute cuisine, sipped the correct wines from the proper goblets, and chained-smoked hand-rolled cigars.

Gold Chain for Watch

For a man so modern in his conceptions, he had more than a touch of old-fashionedness. It showed up in such things as the gold chain across his waistcoat, to which was attached his pocket timepiece. Rather than live in a contemporary building or one of his own houses--he briefly contemplated moving to a Mies apartment but feared fellow tenants might badger him--he made his home in a high-ceilinged, five-room suite on the third floor of an old-fashioned apartment house on Chicago's North Side. The thick-walled rooms were large and they included, predictably, a full kitchen with an ancient gas range for his cook.

The apartment contained armless chairs and furniture of his own designs as well as sofas and wing chairs--in which he preferred to sit. The walls were stark white; but the apartment had a glowing warmth, given off by the Klees, Braques and Schwitterses that dotted its walls. Paul Klee was a close friend, and Mies's collection of Klees was among the finest in private hands.

Mies's chairs were almost as well known as his buildings, and they were just as spare. He designed his first chair, known as the MR chair in 1926. It had a caned seat and back and its frame was tubular steel. There followed the Barcelona chair, an elegant armless leather and steel design of which the legs formed an X; the Tugendhat chair, an armless affair of leather and steel that resembled a square S; and the Brno chair, with a steel frame and leather upholstery that looked like a curved S.

The bottoms of all these chairs were uniformly wide, a circumstance that puzzled furniture experts until one of them asked Mies for an explanation. It was simple, he said; he had designed them with his own comfort in mind.

Recognition After 50

Mies did not receive wide public recognition in the United States until he was over 50 years old. Up to 1937 he lived in Germany, where he was born, at Aachen, on March 27, 1886. Emigrating to Chicago, he had to wait for the postwar building boom before many of his designs were translated into actuality. At his death, examples of his work were in Chicago, Pittsburgh, Des Moines, Baltimore, Detroit, Newark, New York, Houston, Washington, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Montreal, Toronto and Berlin. All his buildings were dissimilar, although the same basic principles were employed in each.

The principles centered in a gothic demand for order, logic and clarity.

"The long path through function to creative work has only a single goal," he said, "to create order out of the desperate confusion of our time."

One Mies structure, accounted among his outstanding ones, is the 38-story dark bronze and pinkish-gray glass Seagram Building on Park Avenue between 52d and 53d Streets. The building, which was designed in association with Philip C. Johnson, has been called by appreciative critics the city's most tranquil tower and "the most beautiful curtain-wall building in America." It emphasizes pure line, fine materials and exact detailing outside and in. Special attention was paid to the room numbers, doorknobs, elevator buttons, bathroom fixtures and mail chutes, as well as the furniture.

The building's grace is enhanced by its being set in a half-acre fountained plaza of pink granite. It was begun in 1956 and completed two years later at a cost of $35-million. It was, at the time, the city's most costly office building.

Not everyone who gazed upon it or watched its extruded bronze aging was convinced of its beauty. Acerbic nonarchitectural critics pointed out that the tower rises 520 feet without setbacks and that it is unornamented. It is too spare, they said. One likened it to an upended glass coffin.

The Seagram Building ranked third in Mies's offhand list of his six favorites, chosen to illustrate his most notable concept--"Less is more." (By this Delphic utterance he meant achieving the maximum effect with the minimum of means.)

First on the list was the Illinois Institute of Technology's Crown Hall. This is a single glass- walled room measuring 120 feet by 220 feet and spanned by four huge trusses. The structure appears to do no more than to enclose space, a feeling reinforced by its interior movable partitions. It was one of 20 buildings that Mies designed for the school's 100-acre campus on Chicago's South Side. Crown Hall is as good an example as any of Mies's "skin-and-bones architecture," a phrase that he once used to describe his point of view.

The Chicago Federal Center, Mies's largest complex of high- and low-rise buildings, was his second favorite. He considered its symmetry symbolic of his lifelong battle against disorder.

Another Chicago creation was fourth--two 26-story apartment house towers at 860 and 880 Lake Shore Drive that overlook Lake Michigan. The facades are all glass. Tenants had to accept the neutral gray curtains that were uniform throughout the buildings and that provided the only means of seeking privacy and excluding light. No other curtains or blinds were permitted lest they mar the external appearance. (He was also the architect of the Promontory Apartments in Chicago, in which he used brick and glass in an exposed concrete frame.)

Mies's fifth favorite was a project for a Chicago convention hall, a place for 50,000 people to gather in unobstructed space under a trussed roof 720 feet square. The project never materialized.

The final pet on the architect's list was the since-destroyed German Pavilion at the 1929 International Exposition at Barcelona. It was, one critic said, "a jewel-case structure employing the open planning first developed by Frank Lloyd Wright that combined the richness of bronze, chrome, steel and glass with free-standing walls."

In addition to the Seagram Building, the architect was represented in the New York area by the Pavilion and Colonnade Apartments, both in Colonnade Park, Newark. He also devised a master plan for a 21-acre development in New Haven.

Mies's most recent building, the National Gallery in Berlin, opened last September. It is a templelike glass box set on top of a larger semibasement, and serves as a museum.

Although many accolades were bestowed on Mies for these and other works, there were also brickbats. "Unsparing," "grim," the work of "barren intellectualism" and "brutal in its destruction of individual possessions and the individual" were some of the terms his detractors used.

"Less is less," they said, turning his aphorism against him.

Taught by Mason Father

Ludwig Mies, who added the "van der Rohe" from his mother's name because of its sonority, learned the elements of architecture from his father, a German master mason and stonecutter, and from studying the medieval churches in Aachen.

At times, friends recalled, he would describe with unrestrained enthusiasm the quality of brick and stone, its texture, pattern and color.

"Now a brick, that's really something," he once said. "That's really building, not paper architecture."

For him the material was always the beginning. He used to talk of primitive building methods, where he saw the "wisdom of whole generations" stored in every stroke of an ax, every bite of a chisel.

His students in the United States and Germany had to learn the fundamentals of building before they could start to consider questions of design. He taught them how to build, first with wood, then stone, then brick and finally with concrete and steel.

"New materials are not necessarily superior," he would say. "Each material is only what we make it."

At Aachen Mies attended trade school and became a draftsman's apprentice before setting off for Berlin at the age of 19 to become an apprentice to Bruno Paul, Germany's leading furniture designer. Two years later he built his first house, a wooden structure on a sloping site in suburban Berlin. Its style was 18th century.

In 1909 Mies apprenticed himself to Peter Behrens, then the foremost progressive architect in Germany, who had taught Le Corbusier, and Walter Gropius. Mies was put in charge of Behrens's German Embassy in St. Petersburg, Russia.

House Never Built

Going to the Netherlands in 1912, Mies designed a house for Mrs. H. E. L. J. Kroller, owner of the renowned Kroller Muller collection of modern paintings, near The Hague. He set up a full- scale canvas and wood mock-up on the site to assure perfection, but the house was never built.

Mies returned to Berlin in 1913 and opened his own office, but with the outbreak of the war in 1914 his life was dislocated for four years in the German Army, during which he built bridges and roads in the Balkans. After the war, with his own style coming into definition, he directed the architectural activities of the Novembergruppe, an organization formed to propagandize modern art, and became one of the few progressive architects of the time to employ brick.

Often he would go to the kilns to select one by one the bricks he wanted. He used them for the monument (now destroyed) to Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, the German Communist leaders; for suburban villas for wealthy businessmen; and for low-cost housing for the city of Berlin.

From 1926 to 1932 he was first vice president of the Deutscher Werkbund, formed to integrate art and industry in design. He directed the group's second exposition, the Weissenhof housing project erected in Stuttgart in 1927.

The peak achievements of Mies's European career were the German Barcelona pavilion and the Tugendhat house in 1930. A. James Speyer, a critic for Art News, extolled them both as "among the most important buildings of contemporary architecture and the most beautiful of our generation." The pavilion consisted of a rectangular slab roof supported by steel columns, beneath which free-standing planes of Roman travertine, marble, onyx and glass of various hues were placed to create the feeling of space beyond. The Tugendhat house permitted space to flow in a similar fashion.

In 1930 Mies took over direction of the Bauhaus, a laboratory of architecture and design in Dessau, Germany. It was closed three years later after the Nazis attacked the architect as "degenerate" and "un-German."

At the urging of a New York architect who was a close friend, Philip C. Johnson, Mies emigrated to the United States to head the School of Architecture at the Armour (now Illinois) Institute of Technology in Chicago. He retired from the post in 1958.

As a teacher Mies did not deliver formal lectures, but worked, seminar fashion, with groups of 10 or 12 students. His method of teaching, according to a former student, was "almost tacit." "He was never wildly physically active, and he did not do much talking," this student recalled, adding that Mies, sitting Buddha-like, would frequently puff through a whole cigar before commenting on a student sketch.

Abandoning the Beaux Arts system based on competition for prizes, Mies sternly told his students:

"First you have to learn something; then you can go out and do it."

He was not one to tolerate self-expression among his students. One of them once asked him about it. Silently he handed the student a pencil and paper. Then he told her to write her name. This done, he said:

"That's for self-expression. Now we get to work."

Another former student thought of Mies as "a great teacher because he subjects himself to an extraordinary discipline in thinking and in his way of working, and because what he is teaching is very clear to him."

Mies himself was quite confident of his influence.

"I don't know how many students we have had," he said a couple of years ago, "but you need only 10 to change the cultural climate if they are good."

Mies was well-to-do, but not wealthy. He received the usual architect's fee of 6 per cent of the gross cost of a building, but he was not a very careful manager of his income, according to his friends. He was considered generous with his office staff and on spending for designs that were unlikely to see the light of day.

The architect received three noteworthy honors--the Presidential Freedom Medal and the gold medals of the Royal Institute of British Architects and of the American Institute of Architects. He was a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters.


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