2013年5月8日 星期三

中年美國人自殺率顯著上升Suicide Rates Rise Sharply in U.S. / 自殺事件: 姓歐生,原能會


Suicide Rates Rise Sharply in U.S.

Suicide rates among middle-aged Americans have risen sharply in the past decade, prompting concern that a generation of baby boomers who have faced years of economic worry and easy access to prescription painkillers may be particularly vulnerable to self-inflicted harm.
More people now die of suicide than in car accidents, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which published the findings in Friday’s issue of its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. In 2010 there were 33,687 deaths from motor vehicle crashes and 38,364 suicides.
Suicide has typically been viewed as a problem of teenagers and the elderly, and the surge in suicide rates among middle-aged Americans is surprising.
From 1999 to 2010, the suicide rate among Americans ages 35 to 64 rose by nearly 30 percent, to 17.6 deaths per 100,000 people, up from 13.7. Although suicide rates are growing among both middle-aged men and women, far more men take their own lives. The suicide rate for middle-aged men was 27.3 deaths per 100,000, while for women it was 8.1 deaths per 100,000.
The most pronounced increases were seen among men in their 50s, a group in which suicide rates jumped by nearly 50 percent, to about 30 per 100,000. For women, the largest increase was seen in those ages 60 to 64, among whom rates increased by nearly 60 percent, to 7.0 per 100,000.
Suicide rates can be difficult to interpret because of variations in the way local officials report causes of death. But C.D.C. and academic researchers said they were confident that the data documented an actual increase in deaths by suicide and not a statistical anomaly. While reporting of suicides is not always consistent around the country, the current numbers are, if anything, too low.
“It’s vastly underreported,” said Julie Phillips, an associate professor of sociology at Rutgers University who has published research on rising suicide rates. “We know we’re not counting all suicides.”
The reasons for suicide are often complex, and officials and researchers acknowledge that no one can explain with certainty what is behind the rise. But C.D.C. officials cited a number of possible explanations, including that as adolescents people in this generation also posted higher rates of suicide compared with other cohorts.
“It is the baby boomer group where we see the highest rates of suicide,” said the C.D.C.’s deputy director, Ileana Arias. “There may be something about that group, and how they think about life issues and their life choices that may make a difference.”
The rise in suicides may also stem from the economic downturn over the past decade. Historically, suicide rates rise during times of financial stress and economic setbacks. “The increase does coincide with a decrease in financial standing for a lot of families over the same time period,” Dr. Arias said.
Another factor may be the widespread availability of opioid drugs like OxyContin and oxycodone, which can be particularly deadly in large doses.
Although most suicides are still committed using firearms, officials said there was a marked increase in poisoning deaths, which include intentional overdoses of prescription drugs, and hangings. Poisoning deaths were up 24 percent over all during the 10-year period and hangings were up 81 percent.
Dr. Arias noted that the higher suicide rates might be due to a series of life and financial circumstances that are unique to the baby boomer generation. Men and women in that age group are often coping with the stress of caring for aging parents while still providing financial and emotional support to adult children.
“Their lives are configured a little differently than it has been in the past for that age group,” Dr. Arias said. “It may not be that they are more sensitive or that they have a predisposition to suicide, but that they may be dealing with more.”

Preliminary research at Rutgers suggests that the risk for suicide is unlikely to abate for future generations. Changes in marriage, social isolation and family roles mean many of the pressures faced by baby boomers will continue in the next generation, Dr. Phillips said.
“The boomers had great expectations for what their life might look like, but I think perhaps it hasn’t panned out that way,” she said. “All these conditions the boomers are facing, future cohorts are going to be facing many of these conditions as well.”

Nancy Berliner, a Boston historian, lost her 58-year-old husband to suicide nearly two years ago. She said that while the reasons for his suicide were complex, she would like to see more attention paid to prevention and support for family members who lose someone to suicide.

“One suicide can inspire other people, unfortunately, to view suicide as an option,” Ms. Berliner said. “It’s important that society becomes more comfortable with discussing it. Then the people left behind will not have this stigma.”

中年美國人自殺率顯著上升


過去十年間,中年美國人這一群體的自殺率出現顯著上升,從而引發了人們的擔憂:經歷了多年經濟憂患、並能輕易獲取處方止痛藥的嬰兒潮這代人在面對自我傷害的風險時可能尤其脆弱。
美國疾病控制與預防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)在周五發佈的新一期《發病率和死亡率周報》(Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)中指出,死於自殺的人數高於死於車禍的人數。2010年總共有33687人死於車禍,而自殺身亡的人數為38364人。
自殺通常被看作青少年和老年人的問題,但中年美國人的自殺率出現飆升,確實令人吃驚。
從1999年到2010年,年齡從35歲到64歲的美國人的自殺率上升了近30%,達到每10萬人中就有17.6人死於自殺,之前的這一數據為 13.7。儘管中年男性和中年女性的自殺率都在上升,但有更多男性親手結束了自己的生命。中年男性的自殺率是每10萬人中27.3人,而對中年女性而言, 每10萬人中只有8.1人死於自殺。
最顯著的增加出現在50多歲的男性人群中,該群體的自殺率上升了大約50%,達到每10萬人中約30人。對女性而言,最大的增長出現在年齡位於60歲到64歲的女性人群,該群體的自殺率上升了將近60%,達到每10萬人中7.0人。
對自殺率作出解釋是很困難的,因為地方官員報告死因的方式有差異。但疾病控制與預防中心及學術研究人員稱,他們確信這些數據表明自殺死亡案例確實有所增加,而不是統計上的異常。儘管對自殺案例的報告在全國各地並不總是一致,目前的數據其實還太低。
“自殺案例被大大低報了,”羅格斯大學(Rutgers University)的社會學副教授朱莉·菲利普斯(Julie Phillips)說。“我們知道我們沒有把所有的自殺案例算在內。”菲利普斯發表過關於自殺率上升的研究報告。
自殺的原因通常很複雜,官方和研究人員都承認,沒有人能明確解釋自殺率上升背後的原因是什麼。但疾病控制與預防中心的官員列出了一些可能的解釋,如和其他代際群體相比,這代人在青少年時期也曾出現更高的自殺率。
“我們在嬰兒潮一代人中發現了最高的自殺率,”疾病控制與預防中心的副主任伊利安娜·阿里亞斯(Ileana Arias)說。“這一群體可能自身存在一些問題,他們如何看待人生問題以及他們對人生作何選擇都可能產生影響。”
自殺率的上升也可能源於過去10年內的經濟低迷。從歷史上看,自殺率會在有金融壓力和經濟挫折的時期上升。“其上升確實與同一時期內許多家庭經濟狀況的下降相符,”阿里亞斯博士說。

另一個因素可能與奧施康定和羥考酮之類阿片類藥物的大範圍使用有關,在大劑量服用的情況下,這些藥物非常致命。

儘管大多數自殺仍舊使用槍械,官員稱服毒自殺(包括故意過量服用處方葯)和自縊也有着顯著增加。在過去10年間,服毒自殺總共上升了24%,而自縊上升了81%。

阿里亞斯博士指出,較高的自殺率可能是由嬰兒潮一代人所特有的一系列生活和經濟情況所導致。這個年齡層的男女通常需要面臨著的很大壓力,他們在照顧年邁父母的同時仍需為成年子女提供經濟和情感支持。

“對與這一代人,他們與之前這個年齡段的人群的生活有些不同,”阿里亞斯博士說。“這大概不是因為他們更加敏感或有自殺傾向,而是因為他們可能要處理更多問題。”
羅格斯大學的初步研究表明,對未來的幾代人來說,自殺的風險似乎不會減小。在婚姻、社交孤立和家庭角色等方面的轉變意味着嬰兒潮一代所面對的壓力將持續到下一代,菲利普斯博士說。
“嬰兒潮一代曾對自己的生活寄予厚望,但我想一切可能並非盡如人意,”她說。“在嬰兒潮一代所面對的所有這些狀況里,其中許多也將在未來幾代人的生活里出現。”
近兩年前,波士頓的歷史學家白鈴安(Nancy Berliner)的丈夫在58歲時自殺。她說,他自殺的原因是複雜的,她希望更多關注能夠被投向預防自殺,以及對自殺者家庭成員的支持上。
“不幸的是,自殺者可以啟發別人把自殺視為一種選擇,”白鈴安說。“重要的是,社會應該更易於接受對自殺進行探討。這樣,留下來的人才能不再身背恥辱。”
翻譯:陶夢縈、林蒙克





核電廠壓力測試 環團質疑買假報告

請來六位專家 未獲歐盟授權
〔記 者湯佳玲/台北報導〕原能會日前公佈經濟合作暨發展組織核能署(OECD/NEA)專家小組針對我國運轉中三座核電廠的壓力測試同儕審查報告;綠色消費者 基金會董事長方儉質疑說,這根本不是合格的壓力測試報告,因為歐盟規範的小組成員應有七人,但原先進行我國壓力測試的OECD專家只有六人,且未獲歐洲核 能安全管制機構(ENSREG)同意授權,後來加入的第七人甚至是原能會官員羅偉華濫竽充數,他痛批原能會造假,要求立法院追回這筆「買假報告」的錢。
原能會副主委周源卿回應表示,羅偉華是原能會駐法代表,負責接洽與連繫等行政工作,並未參與審查;OECD同儕審查經費來自於原能會捐獻,詳細數字不清楚。但據三月中記者會原能會官員說法,原能會捐款OECD十二萬歐元,相當於新台幣四百六十多萬元。
原能會公布報告 冒出第七人
原能會邀請國際六位專家組成OECD獨立審查小組,在今年三月完成為期兩週的「台灣運轉中核能電廠壓力測試國家報告」同儕審查,當時並召開記者會說明初步審查結果。原能會五月三日公佈正式報告,報告中的小組成員卻悄悄從六人變成七人。
方儉指出,台灣的壓力測試報告根本不是合格的壓力測試,因為歐盟規範的小組成員應有七人,但原先進行我國壓力測試的OECD專家只有六人,後來才加入原能會派駐法國OECD一等秘書羅偉華當作第七人充數。
不過,方儉說,歐盟壓力測試嚴格規範要由經歐洲核能安全管制機構(ENSREG)與歐盟委員會同意的七人小組組成,而且受審查設施的國家不可以是審查小組成員。
測試不符規定 環團痛批造假
方儉指出,原能會拿得出來審查小組名單的歐盟同意書嗎?他批說,原能會花錢謊稱是歐盟壓力測試同儕審查,但事實上根本不是。
方儉說,原能會是一個拙劣的說謊者,他把英文版壓力測試報告從頭到尾看完,內容根本是一份「核電廠簡介」;請來六位專家非七位,不符同儕審查的規定,他三月下旬去信OECD/NEA,過了兩週無回音,現在卻忽然莫名其妙出現第七人羅偉華。
原能會:羅偉華 未參與審查
方儉說:「這夥人可能根本沒看過ENSREG的壓力測試規範,就拿一個台灣人來充數,恰好違反規定,證明這是一份無效的壓力測試。」他痛批原能會造假,六位專家不僅未獲ENSREG同意授權,第七人甚至是原能會官員濫竽充數,要求立法院追回這筆「買假報告」的錢。



 5月報導3月的自殺事件卻不明說......

2013-5-7 市北教大碩士生 校園廁所燒炭亡

〔記者錢利忠/台北報導〕台北市立教育大學數學教育研究所廿八歲姓碩三生,疑不堪課業壓力,昨早被發現在學校公誠樓地下三樓廁所內燒炭氣絕,家屬聞訊趕到,難過地說:「愛面子也不用這樣!」
台北市立教育大學學生事務長林國瑞說,他的父母找不到人,曾於三月廿五日在苗栗家鄉報案失蹤,隔日校方調監視器發現他曾到校,由於三月廿七日是本學期碩士論文大綱口試申請截止日,他與女友、同學、老師失聯,不排除交不出碩論題目才尋短。
林國瑞說,歐生大學時也念該校數學系,大六肄業退伍後,以同等學力考取數學教育研究所,現為碩班三年級生,若錯過這學期碩論大綱口試申請,勢必要念第四年。
昨早九點多,清潔工發現廁所上鎖,找保全開鎖入內,驚見歐生面朝下仰躺在地,空氣中飄著淡淡焦炭味,一旁遺留一只計時近八小時的碼表,警方懷疑他在估算吸一氧化碳致死的時間,初步排除他殺嫌疑,也沒找到遺書,家屬情緒哀傷不願受訪。


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