2013年5月8日 星期三

中年美國人自殺率顯著上升Suicide Rates Rise Sharply in U.S. / 自殺事件: 姓歐生,原能會

Suicide Rates Rise Sharply in U.S.

Suicide rates among middle-aged Americans have risen sharply in the past decade, prompting concern that a generation of baby boomers who have faced years of economic worry and easy access to prescription painkillers may be particularly vulnerable to self-inflicted harm.
More people now die of suicide than in car accidents, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which published the findings in Friday’s issue of its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. In 2010 there were 33,687 deaths from motor vehicle crashes and 38,364 suicides.
Suicide has typically been viewed as a problem of teenagers and the elderly, and the surge in suicide rates among middle-aged Americans is surprising.
From 1999 to 2010, the suicide rate among Americans ages 35 to 64 rose by nearly 30 percent, to 17.6 deaths per 100,000 people, up from 13.7. Although suicide rates are growing among both middle-aged men and women, far more men take their own lives. The suicide rate for middle-aged men was 27.3 deaths per 100,000, while for women it was 8.1 deaths per 100,000.
The most pronounced increases were seen among men in their 50s, a group in which suicide rates jumped by nearly 50 percent, to about 30 per 100,000. For women, the largest increase was seen in those ages 60 to 64, among whom rates increased by nearly 60 percent, to 7.0 per 100,000.
Suicide rates can be difficult to interpret because of variations in the way local officials report causes of death. But C.D.C. and academic researchers said they were confident that the data documented an actual increase in deaths by suicide and not a statistical anomaly. While reporting of suicides is not always consistent around the country, the current numbers are, if anything, too low.
“It’s vastly underreported,” said Julie Phillips, an associate professor of sociology at Rutgers University who has published research on rising suicide rates. “We know we’re not counting all suicides.”
The reasons for suicide are often complex, and officials and researchers acknowledge that no one can explain with certainty what is behind the rise. But C.D.C. officials cited a number of possible explanations, including that as adolescents people in this generation also posted higher rates of suicide compared with other cohorts.
“It is the baby boomer group where we see the highest rates of suicide,” said the C.D.C.’s deputy director, Ileana Arias. “There may be something about that group, and how they think about life issues and their life choices that may make a difference.”
The rise in suicides may also stem from the economic downturn over the past decade. Historically, suicide rates rise during times of financial stress and economic setbacks. “The increase does coincide with a decrease in financial standing for a lot of families over the same time period,” Dr. Arias said.
Another factor may be the widespread availability of opioid drugs like OxyContin and oxycodone, which can be particularly deadly in large doses.
Although most suicides are still committed using firearms, officials said there was a marked increase in poisoning deaths, which include intentional overdoses of prescription drugs, and hangings. Poisoning deaths were up 24 percent over all during the 10-year period and hangings were up 81 percent.
Dr. Arias noted that the higher suicide rates might be due to a series of life and financial circumstances that are unique to the baby boomer generation. Men and women in that age group are often coping with the stress of caring for aging parents while still providing financial and emotional support to adult children.
“Their lives are configured a little differently than it has been in the past for that age group,” Dr. Arias said. “It may not be that they are more sensitive or that they have a predisposition to suicide, but that they may be dealing with more.”

Preliminary research at Rutgers suggests that the risk for suicide is unlikely to abate for future generations. Changes in marriage, social isolation and family roles mean many of the pressures faced by baby boomers will continue in the next generation, Dr. Phillips said.
“The boomers had great expectations for what their life might look like, but I think perhaps it hasn’t panned out that way,” she said. “All these conditions the boomers are facing, future cohorts are going to be facing many of these conditions as well.”

Nancy Berliner, a Boston historian, lost her 58-year-old husband to suicide nearly two years ago. She said that while the reasons for his suicide were complex, she would like to see more attention paid to prevention and support for family members who lose someone to suicide.

“One suicide can inspire other people, unfortunately, to view suicide as an option,” Ms. Berliner said. “It’s important that society becomes more comfortable with discussing it. Then the people left behind will not have this stigma.”


美國疾病控制與預防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)在周五發佈的新一期《發病率和死亡率周報》(Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)中指出,死於自殺的人數高於死於車禍的人數。2010年總共有33687人死於車禍,而自殺身亡的人數為38364人。
從1999年到2010年,年齡從35歲到64歲的美國人的自殺率上升了近30%,達到每10萬人中就有17.6人死於自殺,之前的這一數據為 13.7。儘管中年男性和中年女性的自殺率都在上升,但有更多男性親手結束了自己的生命。中年男性的自殺率是每10萬人中27.3人,而對中年女性而言, 每10萬人中只有8.1人死於自殺。
“自殺案例被大大低報了,”羅格斯大學(Rutgers University)的社會學副教授朱莉·菲利普斯(Julie Phillips)說。“我們知道我們沒有把所有的自殺案例算在內。”菲利普斯發表過關於自殺率上升的研究報告。
“我們在嬰兒潮一代人中發現了最高的自殺率,”疾病控制與預防中心的副主任伊利安娜·阿里亞斯(Ileana Arias)說。“這一群體可能自身存在一些問題,他們如何看待人生問題以及他們對人生作何選擇都可能產生影響。”




近兩年前,波士頓的歷史學家白鈴安(Nancy Berliner)的丈夫在58歲時自殺。她說,他自殺的原因是複雜的,她希望更多關注能夠被投向預防自殺,以及對自殺者家庭成員的支持上。

核電廠壓力測試 環團質疑買假報告

請來六位專家 未獲歐盟授權
〔記 者湯佳玲/台北報導〕原能會日前公佈經濟合作暨發展組織核能署(OECD/NEA)專家小組針對我國運轉中三座核電廠的壓力測試同儕審查報告;綠色消費者 基金會董事長方儉質疑說,這根本不是合格的壓力測試報告,因為歐盟規範的小組成員應有七人,但原先進行我國壓力測試的OECD專家只有六人,且未獲歐洲核 能安全管制機構(ENSREG)同意授權,後來加入的第七人甚至是原能會官員羅偉華濫竽充數,他痛批原能會造假,要求立法院追回這筆「買假報告」的錢。
原能會公布報告 冒出第七人
測試不符規定 環團痛批造假
原能會:羅偉華 未參與審查


2013-5-7 市北教大碩士生 校園廁所燒炭亡