2017年2月22日 星期三

紀念 John Berger (鍾漢清) 2017-02-18約翰.伯格 2(John Berger, 1926.11.5- 2017.1.2)

紀念 John Berger (鍾漢清) 2017-02-18 1.奇人:John Berger 00-36min 2.John Berger :藝術­文學 36min-62min 3.社會關懷 62min-76min…

Walter Benjamin wrote the essay “Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”
"機械複製時代中的藝術作品"要義闡述/John Berger原著;互互譯,台北:電影欣賞(第六卷),1988  
Berger’s documentary, Ways of Seeing 1972. 書中特別推薦此篇論文
John Berger與Walter Benjamin 兩人都寫過【說故事的人】文章,性質差很大。
John Berger的老友 Ernst Fischer (1899–1972) 在The Necessity of Art.1959/1971/2010 就提到Walter Benjamin 論波特萊爾;2010年的新版,由John Berger寫 Introduction,詳細"紀錄" Ernst Fischer 死亡當天(1972)的情形。

真正影響John Berger的藝術思想的,是Max Raphael ( 1889 – 1952), German-American art historian. ..Fellowships awarded by the Bollingen Foundation,希望讀者讀讀Wikipedia 中他的詞條。

Born in Austria, Ernst Fischer (1899–1972) studied philosophy before working as a newspaper editor, radio commentator, and writer; in the years after World War II he became a leading cultural commentator. His books include Art Against Ideology and The Necessity of Art.1959/1971/2010
Fischer took many of the commonplace concepts of Marxist artistic theory up to that point - art as labor, collective vs individual, formalism and socialist realism - and develops them in an wide-ranging essay on the history of art from magic and religion to the Romantics, critical realism and art in the service of building socialism (critically) not just state propaganda.
"Art is necessary in order that man should be able to recognize and change the world. But art is also nec

2.18 漢清講堂 我負責:
紀念John Berger (1926-2017) :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Berger
0. 奇人
1. 社會關懷: Fellow Prisoners 監獄與高牆 (vs WED's)

好像在1月5日,我決定2月份的"漢清講堂"要紀念 John Berger (1926-2017)。手頭上約有 John Berger的8本書,約是他的著作清單的三分之一強,再加上報紙的訃聞與YouTube上的影片,所以"評介"這位【生生世世是紅色】 (Permanent Red, 先生之一本作品書名)的藝術家 (極廣義的說法;他跟Susan Sontag (1933-2004)在某些領域的文類類似,都有小說、論攝影、藝術評論、公共知識份子.....)。

John Berger is a storyteller, essayist, novelist, screenwriter, dramatist and critic, 

With John Berger / Ways of Seeing , Episode 4 (1972)

A BAFTA award-winning series with John Berger, which rapidly became regarded as one of the most influential art programmes ever made. In this…

Hanching Chung https://www.amazon.com/Portraits-John-Berger/dp/1784781762

A major new book from one of the world’s leading writers and art criticsJohn Berger, one of the world’s…

約翰.伯格(John Berger, 1926.11.5- 2017.1.2)

His grandfather was from Trieste,[5] 
小時候母親Miriam Berger帶他逛商店看電影的"敘述故事"之影響。《我們在此相遇. 里斯本》的對話。

父親Stanley Berger-- his father had been an infantry officer on the Western Front during the First World War and was awarded the Military Cross[3][6] and an OBE.[7]  John 自稱他屬第一次世界大戰世代。父親臨終時的素描。
戰後,進入倫敦中央藝術學院及切爾西(Chelsea)藝術學院就學。老師有Henry Moore等等,同學的故事,參見《我們在此相遇. 伊斯林頓》。
這學校屬專科,非大學系統。這點要注意,尤其是大學系統的藝術史、政治學、社會學、經濟學等,與John Berger的,不同世界:John Berger 的現實在"此地",希望在左派。



伯格的第一部小說發表於1958年,*A Painter of Our Time (1958)[8]

This visionary first novel by the Booker Prize-winning author of To the Wedding and G. is at once a gripping intellectual and moral detective story and a book whose aesthetic insights make it a companion piece to John Berger's great works of art criticism.
"'Life will always be bad enough
for the desire for something better
not to be extinguished in men
(Gorky,參見Berger, 1989, p. 5).

  • Permanent Red (1960)[52] (Published in the United States in altered form in 1962 as Toward Reality: Essays in Seeing)

1962年結婚,遷居日內瓦:認識瑞士攝影家 Jean Mohr,,合作出書,如《藝術與革命》 Art and Revolution: Ernst Neizvestny, Endurance, and the Role of the Artist in the USSR (1969).[2] 一書內的近百張照片。

A Fortunate Man (with Jean Mohr) (1967)
  • Another Way of Telling (with Jean Mohr) (1982)[52]
  • At the Edge of the World (with Jean Mohr) (1999)[56]
  • John by Jean: Fifty Years of Friendship (Jean Mohr, ed.) (2016)[75]

  • *G. (1972)[25]  布克獎,獎金的流向。

 In 1972 he won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and the Booker Prize for his novel G. 

1974年起移居法國農村 (晚年在巴黎置產):由 Tilda Swinton 製作、以 John Berger 為題的紀錄片 The Seasons in Quincy: Four Portraits of John Berger 亦於2016年 8 月推出
有不少文章和照片記農夫,如《說故事的人》,還有農村"小說"四部曲:He lives in a village in Haute-Savoie the French Alps.
Pig Earth by John Berger 

The Seasons in Quincy: Four Portraits of John Berger, 2016
This is "TRAILER - The Seasons in Quincy: Four Portraits of John Berger" by Bartek Dziadosz on Vimeo,

In 2009 he was awarded the Golden PEN award by London PEN for a lifetime’s contribution to literature. 

他的力作FELLOW PRISONERS (約2011年)之後,以為準備就緒,沒想到又讀到一篇傑作 An Apple Orchard (An Open Letter to Raymond Barre, Mayor of Lyon)--光這篇,就值得去買{另類出口}譯作 (台北麥田),而我SLIDES已作成,還覺得只談了原篇交響曲般的文意中的一條線索而已!
現在的資訊發達,可以知道里昂市長(1996-2001) Raymond Barre是法國政壇奇人,他的計畫遷建約1848年建的監獄 (在隆河兩支流之間),至今也沒落實 (囚犯2009年都遷走了,兩座監獄 (Berger的傑作內有之間的通道,監獄外的人與內部親友之"呼"話......)的建物仍在)。Berger請教森林專家,建議栽種Spartan蘋果品種 (20世紀加拿大的科學選種),
果樹間相具距6米 (囚犯平均面積3米乘3米,遠比林文蔚 Ewam Lin 畫筆下的台灣鐵窗內朋友寬敞得多多.......)。


Wikipedia的John Berger

Here Is Where We Meet - The New Yorker



The human essence of nature exists only for social man; for only here does nature exist for him as a bond with other men, as his existence for others and their existence for him, as the vital element of human reality; only here does it exist as the basis of his own human existence. Only here has his natural existence become his human existence and nature become man for him. Society is therefore the perfected unity in essence of man with nature, the true resurrection of nature, the realized naturalism of man and the realized humanism of nature. [Marx note at the bottom of the page: Prostitution is only a particular expression of the universal prostitution of the worker, and since prostitution is a relationship which includes not only the prostituted but also the prostitutor – whose infamy is even greater – the capitalist is also included in this category.]因此,社會性質是整個運動的一般性質;正像社會本身生產作為人的人一樣,人也生產社會。活動和享受,無論就其內容或其存在方式來說,都是社會的,是社會的活動和社會的享受。自然界的人的本質只有對社會的人說來才是存在的;因為只有在社會中,自然界對人說來才是人與人聯繫的紐帶,才是他為別人的存在和別人為他的存在,才是人的現實的生活要素;只有在社會中,自然界才是人自己的人的存在的基礎。只有在社會中,人的自然的存在對他說來才是他的人的存在,而自然界對他說來才成為人。因此,社會是人同自然界的完成了的本質的統一,是自然界的真正復活,是人的實現了的自然主義和自然界的實現了的人道主義。

Walter Benjamin

A. S. Byatt 在《論歷史與故事》說, Walter Benjamin的 《The Storyteller》中說,"一個人的人生從他死去的那一刻變成故事。"      說故事的人,都是逝者的秘書。接過亡魂的字條,以故事向世人轉達。

Max Raphael ( 1889 – 1952), German-American art historian. ..Fellowships awarded by the Bollingen Foundation
Zur Erkenntnistheorie der konkreten Dialektik, 1934, French translation
Prehistoric Cave Paintings, New York, Pantheon, 1945, Bollingen Series, no. 4.
Prehistoric Pottery and Civilization in Egypt, New York, Pantheon, 1947, Bollingen Series, no. 8.
The Demands of Art, Princeton University Press, 1968 (posthumous), Bollingen Series, no. 78.
Landscapes: John Berger on Art
By John Berger
Tom Overton and Verso, 2016

If art ... why does its power to move us endure long after the base has been transformed?
 Why, asked Marx, do we still look towards Greek art as an ideal?
If art in the last analysis is a superstructure of an economic base,


“The function of the work of art is is to lead us from the work to the process of creation which it contains.”
he asks us to imagine the artist at work
the artist turns raw material into artistic material by shaping it to represent an idea or an object; the artist turns his perception into something external and objective, a representation

Painting ... to developing our historical and evolutionary self-consciousness.
 Painting is especially well suited to developing our historical and evolutionary self-consciousness.

 紀念John Berger (1926-2017)
0. 奇人
1. 社會關懷: Fellow Prisoners 監獄與高牆


希望的品質:An Apple Orchard (An Open Letter to Raymond Barre, Mayor of Lyon) .2000.  2009人去
The Shape of a Pocket by John Berger
Raymond Barre 法國政治界的奇人,70年代當過部長。1996-2001當里昂市長。

關鍵詞:說故事者與人的hospitality 關係;法西斯財務/資本;思考歷史與將來做為人的要件.....注意聽聽詩;(敵人) 非形容詞、名詞,要的是動詞、行動.......
Rear Window - JOHN BERGER ­ 從"憤青"到憤怒的老人;,

Hospitality: the friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests, visitors or strangers, a word that shares its origin with hospital, a place to treat sick or injured people.



It would be the first apple orchard in the heart of a city in the entire world!
An Apple Orchard (An Open Letter to Raymond Barre, Mayor of Lyon)
Imagine this site turned into an apple orchard . . . It would be the first apple orchard in the heart of a city in the entire world!

本月要紀念John Berger。談他的力作FELLOW PRISON (約2011年)之後,以為準備就緒,沒想到又讀到一篇傑作 An Apple Orchard (An Open Letter to Raymond Barre, Mayor of Lyon)--光這篇,就值得去買{另類出口}譯作 (台北麥田),而我SLIDES已作成,還覺得只談了原篇交響曲般的文意中的一條線索而已!

現在的資訊發達,可以知道里昂市長(1996-2001) Raymond Barre是法國政壇奇人,他的計畫遷建約1848年建的監獄 (在隆河兩支流之間),至今也沒落實 (囚犯2009年都遷走了,兩座監獄 (Berger的傑作內有之間的通道,監獄外的人與內部親友之"呼"話......)的建物仍在)。Berger請教森林專家,建議栽種Spartan蘋果品種 (20世紀加拿大的科學選種),

果樹間相具距6米 (囚犯平均面積3米乘3米,遠比林文蔚 Ewam Lin 畫筆下的台灣鐵窗內朋友的,寬敞得多多.......)

監獄與高牆:W. Edwards Deming 與 John Berger 的比喻
The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education, 1992
Four Days with Dr. Deming, 1995



John Berger

 Berger’s work, the sprawling orchard of words he planted and tended over the decades.
 This impetus towards kindness and care for the ill and strange, the vulnerable and dispossessed is everywhere in Berger’s work, the sprawling orchard of words he planted and tended over the decades.

de la métropole de Lyon
voir sur la carte du Rhône

Prison Saint-Paul / Prison Saint-Paul - Saint Joseph
Prison Saint-Paul, also named Prison Saint-Paul - Saint Joseph

View rue Delandine

each single leaf is distinct, and so they are confronting billions—no, not billions (the word has been corrupted by dollars), they are confronting an infinite multitude of new leaves. For prisoners, small visible signs of nature’s continuity have always been, and still are, a covert encouragement.

每個單葉是不同的,所以他們面對數十億 - 不,不是數十億(這個詞已被美元腐蝕),他們正面對無數大量的新葉。 對於囚犯來說,小的明顯的自然連續性的跡像一直是,並且仍然是一個隱蔽的鼓勵。

John Berger, esteemed writer, painter, art critic and leading thinker discusses his life’s work and perception of the world today. teleSUR…

border regimes – fences, walls, cells and checkpoints

Image Credit: US-Mexico Border (Brooke Binkowski CC BY 2.0)

《轉危為安》及《新經濟學》2015  經濟新潮出版社及朋友: 這兩本譯作,可說是許多朋友的共同努力。文豪歌德曾說:「人的靈魂,就像被耕耘的田地。從異國取來種子,花時間來選擇、播種的園藝家,豈是容易的?」在此我感謝諸位朋友: 《轉危為安》的貢獻者:劉振老師、林有望、鄭志庚、蔡士魁、張華、甘永貴、鄧嘉玲、施純菁。徐歷昌、潘震澤老師指出原作的某段引文有錯。 《新經濟學》的貢獻者:戴久永(天下文化版的譯者)、李明、鄧嘉玲、吳程遠、張華。 這次的新譯本,特別在多處地方請教兩位戴明學者:威廉‧謝爾肯巴赫(William W. Scherkenbach)先生,他著有《戴明修練I》(The Deming Route to Quality and Productivity—Road Maps and Roadlocks)和《戴明修練II》(The Deming’s Road to Continual Improvement);2008年他曾來台擔任「東海大學戴明學者講座」教授,舉辦了3場演講,所有相關教材,請參考華人戴明學院出版的《台灣戴明圈》。另外還有邁克爾‧特威特(Michael Tveite)博士。他倆的貢獻,在書中相關的地方都會有附注。 此次翻譯時,參考了部分書籍:《聖經》(思高本)、台灣的《學術名詞》網站、《英語姓名譯名手冊》(北京商務印書館)……。

The Prison
The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education, 1992
Four Days with Dr. Deming, 1995

Fellow Prisoners by John Berger


兩個世紀以後,各國政府強加大量“公民權死亡”(civil death),方式有透過法律,武力,經濟威脅和種種美言。

In the nineteenth century, long-term imprisonment was approvingly defined as a punishment of “civic death.” Two centuries later, governments are imposing—by law, force, economic threats and their buzz—mass regimes of civic death.

financial system
Today, in the era of globalization, the world is dominated by financial, not industrial, capital, and the dogmas defining criminality and the logics of imprisonment have changed radically. Penitentiaries still exist and more and more are being built. But prison walls now serve a different purpose. What constitutes an incarceration area has been transformed.

A financial system (within the scope of finance) is a system that allows the exchange of funds between lenders, investors, and borrowers. Financial systemsoperate at national, global, and firm-specific levels.

今天,在全球化時代,世界由金融主宰,而不是工業,資本。而且,界定犯罪的dogma (教條)和監禁的邏輯已經徹底改變了。監獄仍然存在,越建越多。但監獄牆現在服務於不同的目的。什麼構成監禁區域已改變了。

“criminal = slave laborer” ; by neoliberalism to become “worker = hidden criminal.”
The Gulag no longer exists. Millions work, however, under conditions that are not very different. What has changed is the forensic logic applied to workers and criminals.


During the Gulag, political prisoners, categorized as criminals, were reduced to slave laborers. Today millions of brutally exploited workers are being reduced to the status of criminals.


Over six million Mexican women and men work in the US without papers and are consequently illegal. A concrete wall of over one thousand kilometers and a “virtual” wall of eighteen hundred watchtowers were planned

The prison is now as large as the planet and its allotted zones can vary and can be termed worksite, refugee camp, shopping mall, periphery, ghetto, office block, favela, suburb. What is essential is that those incarcerated in these zones are fellow prisoners.


periphery 〔社会〕 〔文化人類〕 〔記号〕 周縁:文化体系で十分に秩序化されていない部分.


Today the purpose of most prison walls (concrete, electronic, patrolled, or interrogatory) is not to keep prisoners in and correct them, but to keep prisoners out and exclude them.


Most of the excluded are anonymous—hence the obsession of all security forces with identity. They are also numberless, for two reasons.


 擷取利潤如魚鷹(倒影版  藍東顯)

大多數政府以“牧民”代替引導。 (在美國監獄俚語中,囚徒的一種說法是"牧畜民(英語: Herder)"。)
Most governments herd instead of steer. (In US prison slang, “herders” is one of the many words for jailers.)

The market forces dominating the world assert that they are inevitably stronger than any nation-state.

Their working hours, their place of residence, their past skills and experience, their health, the future of their children, everything outside their function as employees has to take a small second place beside the unforeseeable and vast demands of liquid profit. Furthermore, the rigidity of this house rule is called flexibility. In prison, words get turned upside down. The alarming pressure of high-grade working conditions has obliged the courts in Japan to recognize and define a new coroners’ category of “death by overwork.”

他們的工作時間,他們的居住地點,他們的過往技能和經驗,他們的健康,他們的孩子的未來,作為員工的一切外部職能必須在不可預見的和巨大的液體利潤的需求旁邊佔一小部分。此外,這個房子規則的剛性被稱為靈活性。在監獄裡,話語變得顛倒了。 高等級工作條件的驚人壓力迫使日本的法院承認和界定一個新的死因裁判官類別“過度勞動造成的死亡”。


Friends of John BERGER

John Berger's suggestions to a young writer. 與讀者共謀;每天試寫一點......

Hold Everything Dear: Dispatches on Survival and Resistance (2008)

 Berger's response to today's global economic and military tyranny. From Hurricane Katrina, 9/11 and 7/7, to resistance in Ramallah and dislocation in the Middle East, he explores the personal choices, encounters, sacrifices, griefs and memories that occur in the course of political resistance to empire and colonialism.

The book begins with an invocation to the dead, and they remain present throught the journey to fear, despair and desire. After examining the terrible kinds of survival that is to left to people who have lost everything and still live, Berger brings us to desire and its ability to create another world, a chance for something to work right, to give a reprieve from pain, even if just for a moment. Art, of course, is present, as endurance, as witness and as creation

 "Every form of contestation against this tyranny is comprehensible.

Dialogue with it is impossible.

For us to live and die properly, things have to be named properly.

Let us reclaim our words."
 Visceral and passionate, Hold Everything Dear is a profound meditation on the far extremes of human behaviour, and the underlying despair. Looking at Afghanistan, Palestine, and Iraq, he makes an impassioned attack on the poverty and loss of freedom at the heart of such unnecessary suffering. These essays offer reflections on the political at the core of artistic expression and even at the center of human existence itself.

in Where are We? (每天億萬通通信開頭語)
To take in what is happening, "an interdisciplinary vision is necessary in order to connect the 'fields' which are institutionally kept separate.

Any such vision is bound to be (in the original sense of the word) political."
Late Middle English: from Old French politique political, via Latin from Greek politikos, from politēs citizen, from polis city.

Relating to the government or public affairs of a country.

'Those who read or listen to our stories see everything as though through a lens. This lens is the secret of narration, and it is ground anew in every story, ground between the temporal and the timeless ... In our brief mortal lives, we are grinders of these lenses'. -- And Our Faces, My Heart, Brief As Photos
This stunning work is a shoebox filled with delicate love letters containing poetry and thoughts on mortality, art, love and absence, capturing moments in time that hover above Berger's surprising landscapes.
From his lyrical description of the works of Caravaggio and profound explorations of death and immigration to the sight of some lilac at dusk in the mountains, this is a beautiful and most intimate response to the world around us.

 - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/and-our-faces-my-heart-brief-as-photos-9780747576914/#sthash.n3ZPtFPR.dpuf

John Berger during a rehearsal of “Lying Down to Sleep’” at the Prado Museum in Madrid in 2010.CreditEmilio Naranjo/European Pressphoto Agency

Berger rehearsing the play “Est-ce que tu dors?” (are you sleeping?) in 2012 in Avignon.

Justhatched Cuckoo Chick
“Nothing in the nature around us is evil,” he wrote. “This needs to be repeated since one of the human ways of talking oneself into inhuman acts is to cite the supposed cruelty of nature.”
“The just-hatched cuckoo, still blind and featherless, has a special hollow like a dimple on its back,” he continued, “so that it can hump out of the nest, one by one, its companion fledglings.”

Raymond Mason (sculptor)
John Berger 的題目是"Pull the other leg, it's got bells on it"*,
譯成:你要吹牛 就繼續吹吧 (收入【另類的出口】 ,128-133。這篇談的是 Raymond Mason的關於市井小民的大型雕塑 (長3米*高3米),陳列在巴黎的St.Eustace 聖猶士坦教堂內.....)


By Martine Franck 1992, FRANCE. Paris.

A train may hide another
'Attention! Un train peut en cacher un autre.'

 He photographed the apparently unseen. And when it was there in his photos it was more than visible.

Cartier-Bresson returned to drawing,  an act of solidarity with

Drawing - or anyway drawing as he drew - has less to do with the sense of sight than with the sense of touch, with touching the substance and energy of things, with touching the enigma of life without thinking about eternity or the second train. Drawing is a private act.

with both those who see the second train and those who don't.

John Berger pays tribute to his good friend
The Observer, Sunday 8 August 2004

Henri CARTIER-BRESSON  about inspiration
(about 1998, handwriting )
'In a world collapsing under the weight of the search for profit, invaded by the insatiable sirens of Techno-science and the greed of Power, by globalisation and the new forms of slavery - beyond all of this, friendship and love exist.'
He wrote this in his own handwriting, which was open like a lens which has no shutter.

Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1934 vs 1963
Mexico (girl with a magazine), photo by Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1934
That's better, he says.

An epitaph for him? Yes, a photo he took in Mexico in 1963. It shows a small girl in a deserted street carrying a framed daguerreotype portrait of a beautiful and serene woman which is almost as large as the child. Both are about to disappear behind a tall fence.

Ernst Iosifovich Neizvestny ( "unknown".)
Ernst Neizvestny 1925-2016;1976 移民美國Russian-American sculptor, painter, graphic artist, and art philosopher

Mr. Neizvestny’s style, a blend of socialist realism and expressionism with nods to Jacques Lipchitz and Henry Moore, walked a fine line between orthodoxy and heresy.

Alexander Calder, once said to Neizvestny, "All my life I create the world of children, and you create the world of man."

Nikita S. Khruschev's
Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow

Mask of Sorrow
Magadan, Magadan Oblast, Russia,
The Mask of Sorrow is a monument perched on a hill above Magadan, Russia, commemorating the many prisoners who suffered and died in the Gulag prison camps in the Kolyma region of the Soviet Union during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. Wikipedia

John Berger on the Booker Prize (1972)
John Berger on the Booker Prize (1972)
David Hockney poses in front of his re-designed masthead for The Sun. Photo via The Sun Twitter.