2017年6月19日 星期一

Chris Patten 彭定康;周南;,... New Director General of the BBC George Entwistle

看《末代港督》

2015/7/5 — 0:44
末代港督彭定康 (圖:James Yuanxin Li @ wikipedia)
末代港督彭定康 (圖:James Yuanxin Li @ wikipedia)
英國廣播公司時有佳作。一九九七年播出的《末代港督》(The Last Governor of Hong Kong),一連五集,記錄了彭定康任內與新華社和港澳辦交鋒的故事。回歸十八年,「千古罪人」的身影,早從上亞厘畢道的官邸遠逝,但在任五年間他有意無意留下的兩道主旋律,似乎在連接北京和香港的長廊裡,猶未散去。

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自主還是服從
誠如彭定康新聞秘書韓新所述,中國共產黨不再奉行馬克思主義,僅餘列寧式政黨對紀律的要求、對控制的執迷。彭定康的舉手投足,卻與這種哲學捍格不入,且將他的政治改革擱下不談,單是他上任未幾前往新華社作禮節式拜訪,但又不按照港督慣例將演說講稿送呈中方備案一事,就足見他的作風,與北京的期望,南轅北轍。
也難怪東道主周南祝酒之時,站姿生硬,未現笑容,好像不滿意這位初來乍到的殖民地首長壞了規矩。畢竟,強調組織淩駕個人蘇俄式的政黨哲學,一直是中國現實政治的一股潛流。孫中山組織中華革命黨,入黨誓詞即謂:「願犧牲一己之生命、自由、權利,附從孫先生。」孫解釋:「革命必須有唯一之領袖,然後才能提挈得起,如身使臂,臂使指,成為強有力之團體人格。」以後孫又云:「只全黨有自由,個人不能有自由,然後我們的革命才可以望成功。」在《中國之命運》裡蔣介石也寫道:「中國人民老早就有了很大的自由,不須去爭‧‧‧‧‧‧無論在戰時或戰後,一片散沙一樣的個人自由是不能存在的。」至於共產黨,層層節制,自不待言。
彭定康政改藍圖多有可議之處,是否違反《基本法》,或者兩國外長通信協定,也見仁見智,但從中國政治的脈絡思考,就不難理解最令中方痛恨的,不是彭定康的政見,而是他有執有守的姿態。《末代港督》就有這樣一幕:彭定康在北京英國使館招待中方代表,時任英國首相馬卓安不滿中方怠慢彭定康,決定取消某京官訪英的行程。彭定康得知此事後,馬上致電唐寧街十號,向首相秘書據理力爭,坦言此舉會使中英會談破裂,並云假如首相打算一意孤行,他願親赴倫敦解釋。
這樣的對話,都在鏡頭前進行。與今日香港承風希旨的高官和議員相比,彭定康高明百倍,而月前立法會議員否決關卡重重的普選方案,也正是不願服從和不得自主之間一個保住尊嚴的抉擇。
抗爭還是妥協
        《末代港督》論述北京和倫敦的角力,精彩非常。首相和外相支持港督,但外交官出身的兩位前港督麥里浩男爵和衛奕信男爵則在上議院力陳彭定康公然與北京對抗之弊,熟諳中國事務、曾任駐華大使的柯利達爵士更連珠炮發,多次公開表示彭定康不應拂逆中方意願,推行九七後必遭推倒重來的政改方案,是不稱職(incompetent)的表現。彭定康立法局的反駁,亦甚優雅:
我認為香港人染上一種在英國稱為柯利達症的流行病,這種病並不單止對「性情憂鬱的退休大使」有所影響,其影響顯然較為廣遠。此病有多種成因和徵狀。患者往往認為自己才具有美德,自己方知曉香港應怎樣做才對,自己才關注那些令香港變成那麼獨特的事物,並認為除非別人都贊同你的意見,附和你的分析,否則,對香港來說,只有死路一條。除非別人常常同意你的見解,否則香港便劫數難逃。這些都是這種流行病的徵狀。
(I think that we suffer in Hong Kong from an epidemic of what we call at home, Craddockitis, and it is something which affects not just dyspeptic retired ambassadors; it clearly goes wider than that. And there are a number of ingredients to the disease, a number of symptoms. There is a belief that one has a monopoly of virtue, a belief that one has a monopoly of wisdom about what is right for Hong Kong, a belief that one has a monopoly of concern about the things which have made Hong Kong so special, and a belief that unless everybody else agrees with you and follows your own analysis, that, as far as Hong Kong is concerned, is the end of the road. Hong Kong is doomed unless people always agree with you. Those are some of the symptoms of this epidemic.)
柯利達和彭定康的分岐,可由不久前故世、時任港澳辦主任的魯平在彭定康離京回港後對記者說的話,得到注解。魯平說:
雙方的分歧的實質,不是什麼要加快民主步伐的問題,而是究竟要合作,還是要對抗。我們是不希望見到對抗。因為這樣,畢竟對香港不利。但這並不是可以一廂情願的。如果對方一定要對抗的話,那麼我們也只能夠奉陪。
同意,就是合作,有異議,即屬對抗。這樣的戲碼,自政改爭議開始以來,無日無之,日日上演。港人為尊嚴和民主走上街頭,即背負反中亂港的罪名,我們的苦況,彭定康的困境,相隔二十年,卻如出一轍。
《末代港督》對我們有所啟示,全因片中人物都曾為香港前途上下求索。麥里浩、衛奕信、柯利達不是出賣香港利益的人。他們的提議,都為解決一個問題:面對堅信「異議即對抗」的政權,如何為爭取香港到最大的利益?如果說,彭定康的行動,迹近抗爭,他們三人的答案,則傾向妥協,但妥協之中,又有所堅持,就如《經濟學人》在柯利達的訃文中所說:「他的策略不是投降,縱然他彷似高舉雙手,向京叩頭。在他看來,那不過是向他們點頭,冷靜而充滿算計。(And his method was not surrender, though it might look as though he had put his hands up, or made a cringing kowtow to the Chinese. It was just, as he saw it, a nod in their direction, in a coolly realistic way.)」
        今日,妥協徒勞,抗爭無用,我向大家推薦英國廣播公司這部舊作。





2012.7.5

BBC Pulls From Ranks for Director-General

By ALICE SPERI



LONDON—British Broadcasting Corp. named George Entwistle director-general, tapping a veteran programming executive from within its own ranks to navigate through a period of belt-tightening.
Associated Press
 
New Director General of the BBC George Entwistle poses for media in London.
Mr. Entwistle, 49 years old, will take over from current Mark Thompson, who said he would step down after almost eight years leading the U.K.'s publicly funded television and radio network.
In a sign of the budget pressures on BBC, Mr. Entwistle will earn of £450,000 a year ($707,000)—£221,000 less than his predecessor—following a long period of criticism of BBC executives' pay. Chris Patten, chairman of the oversight body known as the BBC Trust, which made the appointment, had said the next director would earn less.
Mr. Entwistle is director of BBC Vision, which runs program production, commissioning and broadcast across TV and Web.
He joined BBC in 1989 as a broadcast-journalism trainee. He worked on news and cultural programming for the network, where he ran the current-affairs program Newsnight for three years, starting the day before the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the U.S. He later started "The Culture Show" and worked on the current director's strategy review for the corporation's future, which included the recent restructuring. Last month, he oversaw the Queen's Diamond Jubilee coverage, which came under criticism for its commentary and scant live coverage.
In an interview with BBC on Wednesday, Lord Patten highlighted Mr. Entwistle's background in production as a key reason for his appointment.
"It's obviously an advantage that George knows the organization very well and the organization knows him," Lord Patten said. He said he expected Mr. Entwistle to find ways to improve BBC's performance at a time of financial constraints that he called "totally understandable."
One of Mr. Entwistle's primary tasks will be to secure new public funding in 2016. The corporation's current agreement with the British government sets the terms for its roughly £3.5 billion in annual funding, which comes from mandatory licenses U.K. households must buy to watch TV. In 2010, the BBC and the government agreed to retain household licenses at £145.50—but only if the broadcaster cut costs.
Mr. Entwistle will have to cope with a BBC funding model that may have to change. As Britons receive more BBC content through computers, tablets and mobile phones—rather than TV sets—charging a yearly fee for each set increasingly looks outmoded.
The appointment comes in the midst of restructuring at the BBC. The network last fall announced it would cut 2,000 jobs to reduce expenses by 16% over the next five years. The corporation said it would also slash its website budget 25% and its budget for sports rights 15%. BBC also said it would reduce the proportion of its senior managers to 1% of total staff from 3%.
Mr. Entwistle won the job over other contenders including Caroline Thomson, BBC's chief operating officer, who would have been the broadcaster's first female director.
"Of course, I am very disappointed," Ms. Thomson said in a written statement. "But if it couldn't have been me, then George is absolutely the right choice."
A version of this article appeared July 5, 2012, on page B6 in the U.S. edition of The Wall Street Journal, with the headline: BBC Pulls From Ranks for Director-General.


英BBC新会長にエントウィッスル氏

 英国の公共放送BBCは4日、9月に退任するマーク・トンプソン会長の後任に、同放送の主要な番組制作を担う「BBCビジョン」責任者のジョージ・エントウィッスル氏が就任すると発表した。同放送の経営監督機関BBCトラストが選出した。
 エントウィッスル氏は、雑誌記者をへてBBCに入り、ドキュメンタリー番組のプロデューサーなどを務めた。2004年春から会長を務めるトンプソン氏は、8月下旬に始まるロンドン・パラリンピックの閉幕後に退任する見通し。(ロンドン)


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