2015年7月13日 星期一

Carl Linnaeus卡爾·馮·林奈, Buckminster Fuller

  1. Buckminster Fuller - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckminster_Fuller
    Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (/ˈfʊlər/; July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor.

Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion Deployment Unit, 1941. See more photos: http://ti.me/1NTVnP3
(John Phillips—Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images)







A portrait medallion of Carl Linnaeus, by Josiah Wedgwood I and Thomas Bentley. Etruria Factory, Staffordshire, England, 1777http://ow.ly/PrCcl


卡爾·馮·林奈瑞典語Carl von Linné,1707年5月23日-1778年1月10日),過去曾譯成林内,受封貴族前名為卡爾·林奈烏斯Carl Linnaeus),由於瑞典學者階層的姓常拉丁化,又作卡羅盧斯·林奈烏斯拉丁語Carolus Linnaeus),瑞典植物學家、動物學家和醫生瑞典科學院創始人之一併擔任第一任主席[2]。他奠定了現代生物學命名法二名法的基礎,是現代生物分類學之父,也被認為是現代生態學之父之一。他的很多著作是用拉丁文寫得,他的名字在拉丁語中是Carolus Linnæus(在1761年之後為Carolus a Linné)。
1707年,林奈出生於瑞典南部斯莫蘭的一個小鄉村裡。林奈在烏普薩拉大學接受了大部分的高等教育,並在1730年開始教授植物學。1735年至1738年之間,他居住在國外和做研究。他在荷蘭出版了第一版的《自然系統》(Systema Naturae)。之後,他回到瑞典的烏普薩拉,擔任了醫學和植物學教授。在1740年代,他旅行遍及瑞典各地,搜集和分類各種植物和動物。在1750年代和1760年代,他繼續搜集和分類各種動植物,並將成果出版了好幾卷。當他逝世的時候,他已經是歐洲最受讚譽的科學家之一。
瑞士哲學家盧梭在給林奈的信中寫到「告訴他我知道地球上沒有人比他更偉大」。[3]德國學者歌德寫過:「除了莎士比亞斯賓諾莎,再沒有其他的先人對我的影響比林奈更強。」[3]瑞典作家斯特林堡說過:「林奈實際上是個詩人,只不過碰巧成為了一個博物學家。」[4] 除了這些讚譽,林奈還被稱為「植物學王子」,「北方的博物志」,以及「第二個亞當」。[5]
在植物學中,用L.來作為表明林奈的作者權的作者名縮寫[6]在一些較老得出版物中,有時林奈的作者名縮寫為「Linn.」。


Carl Linnaeus (/lɪˈnəs/;[1] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after hisennoblement as Carl von Linné[2] (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈkɑːɭ ˈfɔnː lɪˈneː]), was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern biological naming scheme of binomial nomenclature. He is known as the father of moderntaxonomy, and is also considered one of the fathers of modern ecology. Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761Carolus a Linné).
Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University, and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and '60s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe.
The Swiss philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."[3] The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly."[3] Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist".[4] Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum (Prince of Botanists), "ThePliny of the North," and "The Second Adam".[5] American news agency Time named Linnaeus the 31st most influential person in human history and the 5th most influential scientist.[6]
In botany, the author abbreviation used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for species' names is L.[7] In older publications, sometimes the abbreviation "Linn." is found (for instance in: Cheeseman, T.F. (1906) – Manual of the New Zealand Flora). Linnaeus' remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens, following theInternational Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen he is known to have examined when writing the species description was himself.[note 2]
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