2015年11月26日 星期四

Yasujiro Ozu小津安二郎 , Setsuko Hara 原 節子 (-2015),《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》

那美麗的時代又離我們而去了...昨晚傳原節子女士因肺炎在9月5日過世,享壽95歲。
小津安二郎 逝世後半個世紀的重新發現|http://www.nippon.com/hk/views/b036/
2013年12月12日是小津安二郎誕辰110週年,也是他逝世50週年。小津對許多世界著名電影人產生過很大的影響,並且在海外獲得了比在日本國內還高的評價。如何才能重新發現一個別具魅力的小津安二郎的世界?讓我們來一探究竟吧!
WWW.NIPPON.COM
原節子在今年9月5日因肺炎過世,享壽95歲,病逝消息到今天才對外公布。
原節子在日本影壇地位崇高,尤其以演出小津安二郎的多部經典著名,她在1963年12月12日小津過世後息影,不再出現在公眾前,隱居於鎌倉市。



各位都知道,今年坎城影展,臺灣侯孝賢導演和日本是枝裕和導演都有出展。事實上,是枝導演也與臺灣非常有緣。畢竟他的父親在戰前是在高雄生活的。同時他們都非常欣賞已故電影巨匠小津安二郎。您說這個週末能不複習小津電影嗎?
追尋小津安二郎的足跡|http://www.nippon.com/hk/views/b03601/
小津安二郎的目光|http://www.nippon.com/hk/views/b03602/
從圖像學解讀小津安二郎|http://www.nippon.com/hk/views/b03604/












Spruced up: Yasujiro Ozu's 1962 film 'An Autumn Afternoon' has been digitally restored to celebrate the 110th anniversary of his birth this year. | SHOCHIKU CO./KYODO

Restored Ozu films to debut for 110th anniversary events

Kyodo






Film studio Shochiku Co. will celebrate the 110th anniversary of the birth of legendary director Yasujiro Ozu this year by making digitally restored versions of four of his color films and staging special events.
The restored “An Autumn Afternoon” will be screened for the first time at the Cannes International Film Festival starting Wednesday, while the refurbished version of “Equinox Flower” will be shown at the Venice Film Festival later this year, the studio said.
A special Ozu series will start June 22 at the Cine Nouveau theater in Osaka, while all of his works will be screened at the Jimbocho Theater in Tokyo starting Nov. 23.
Ozu, who directed “Tokyo Story” and other classics, was born Dec. 12, 1903, and died on his 60th birthday in 1963.
Events are also planned at places where some of his movies were shot, including Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, and Onomichi, Hiroshima Prefecture.



2013.3.27
Yasujirō Ozu YouTube 上可看到外語的東京物語和英文的談默片浮草


The quiet master


Debates over the best film of all time tend to go no further than Hollywood classics such as Citizen Kane. But the influential Halliwell's Film Guide now says the title belongs to Tokyo Story, a little-known Japanese film in which nothing much happens. Peter Bradshaw pays tribute

eter Bradshaw
The Guardian, Friday 10 June 2005


There is a pleasing hare-and-the-tortoise quality to the triumph of Tokyo Story by Yasujiro Ozu in the 1,000 Best Films list brought to us by Halliwell's Film Guide. Can it really be true that this deceptively gentle black and white film from 1953 about the poignancy of growing old is No 1, beating Citizen Kane and his sled? Humphrey and Ingrid by the piano? Scarlett and Rhett in the flames of Atlanta? Or even that Ozu has trounced the far more commercial Japanese film-maker Akiro Kurosawa?

Tokyo Story
Production year: 1953
Countries: Japan, Rest of the world
Cert (UK): U
Runtime: 135 mins
Directors: Yasujiro Ozu
Cast: Chieko Higashiyama, Chishu Ryu, Setsuko Hara, Toru Abu
More on this film

It can. The reputation of Ozu only grows with the years. Every time his movies are shown on television or at film festivals, more people find themselves enraptured by his delicate watercolour emotions, his mastery of simplicity and reticence, in which you glimpse explicit pain and joy. It is perhaps even more remarkable now that, in the west, Japanese culture is fashionable for Manga, for martial arts, for extreme cinema, for the playful pop culture of the novelist Haruki Murakami - anything but the gentle quietism and transcendental simplicity of Yasujiro Ozu (1903-1963), the veteran of silent films who graduated to making classic dramas of Japanese family life.

His status as a real arthouse master continues to mount. In 2000, critic Derek Malcolm named Tokyo Story as the best in his Century of Films, and it continues to hold its own in the Sight and Sound poll of best films, which is voted on by pundits and directors every 10 years. The magazine called it "one of the three greatest films of all time".

It is certainly his masterpiece: tender, profoundly mysterious and desperately sad. But its exquisite melancholy is not derived from something esoteric or exotic, but a very real human anxiety, instantly comprehensible. How do we look after our elderly parents as they confront imminent death? How far can we afford to expose ourselves to their secret pain and fear? And when it is our turn to grow old, can we expect our children to share the burden?

Tomi and Sukichi, played by Ozu regulars Chiyeko Higashiyama and Chishu Ryu, are an elderly couple who make the arduous journey to Tokyo to visit their heartless grown-up children, only to discover that they are just too busy with their professional lives and young families to find any time for them. The only person who does care is their daughter-in-law Toriko, widowed after their son - her husband - was declared missing presumed dead in the second world war. Toriko has work pressures as well, but she repeatedly asks her boss for time away from the office to spend time with this poor old couple who are the last link to her vanished husband. Toriko is played by the incomparable Setsuko Hara, a key Ozu player, whose desperately polite and urgently generous smile suppresses a quiver of heartbreak. Like them, she is lonely and secretly afraid of the future. Her beauty, and sheer decency, continues to inspire a passionately protective emotion in Ozu fans whenever they see this film - or any of the films she made with him.

Tomi takes her tiny grandson for a walk and asks him if he wants to be a doctor when he grows up, like his father. "I wonder if I'll still be here when you are," she adds with a flash of anxiety, shocking us with the revelation that, so far from being a wise grandmother calmly accepting her own mortality, she is as frightened and unprepared as anyone. When mortality does intervene, it is for Toriko to tell us that children gradually drift away from their parents. "Isn't life disappointing?" replies her sister quietly, one of the most devastating lines in cinema. Ozu leaves us with the enigmatic response of Sukichi to his wife's death: no tears, just a presentation of his unvaryingly polite and humble smile to the world. He is utterly alone - but was he utterly alone when his wife was still alive?

Ozu's mannerisms of directing are very eccentric if you are not used to them. He uses low shooting positions, as if the camera itself is bowing, group compositions in profile and restful tableaux of outdoor landscapes (often showing railway lines or stations) or empty interiors to cleanse the viewer's palate between scenes. He does not fade or dissolve between scenes, but crisply cuts. Oddly, his characters will often speak straight into the camera for dialogue exchanges - something that would get today's film-school students hit across the knuckles with a ruler. It is a style so formally distinctive and stylised as virtually to constitute a kabuki-cinema language of Ozu's own invention. Nobody else in Japanese cinema worked like this. But soon one becomes used to it - and then completely hooked.

After Tokyo Story, Ozu made another eight films, all of them superbly accomplished, though arguably not achieving the sublime quality of this movie. Hara was a legend in her home country for never marrying and having children - all but unthinkable in Japanese society - and became known as the "eternal virgin", having effectively devoted herself to the great director. Ten years after the film was made, she sensationally retired from the movies at the height of her fame and now, at 85 years old, holds a Salinger-like fascination for certain sections of the media as she has always refused to be interviewed or photographed. But she should really be as legendary here as Garbo or Ingrid Bergman or Louise Brooks. It would be nice if Tokyo Story's triumph triggered a wave of postcards and posters of the young Setsuko Hara in every student's room.















Setsuko Hara

Actress


Setsuko Hara is a Japanese actress. She is best known for her performance in Yasujirō Ozu's films Late Spring and Tokyo Story. She was born Masae Aida in Yokohama. Wikipedia

Born: June 17, 1920 (age 92), Yokohama

Movies
Tokyo Story

1953



Late Spring


1949



Early Summer


1951

Late Autumn


1960



Meshi


1951


Setsuko Hara - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setsuko_Hara - Cached

Setsuko Hara (原 節子, Hara Setsuko, born 17 June 1920) is a Japanese actress. She is best known for her performance in Yasujirō Ozu's films Late Spring ...

Setsuko Hara - IMDb


www.imdb.com/name/nm0361697/ - Cached

Setsuko Hara, Actress: Tokyo Story. Setsuko Hara became one of Japan's best-loved stars over her 30-year film career. Her signature character type, variations ...

The heart-wrenching performance of Setsuko Hara, Ozu's quiet ...


www.guardian.co.uk › CultureFilmFilm blog - Cached

Jun 16, 2010 – Peter Bradshaw: Hara, who turns 90 tomorrow, enigmatically walked away from films in 1963 – but her subtle power in Tokyo Story remains ...

Setsuko Hara: The diva who left Japan wanting a lot more | Capital ...


www.capitalnewyork.com/.../setsuko-hara-div... - Cached







by Simon Abrams - in 50 Google+ circles - More by Simon Abrams

Apr 1, 2011 – At the height of her stardom, the iconic Japanese film star Setsuko Hara declared that she'd had enough, and disappeared.


Ozu and Setsuko Hara - From the Current - The Criterion Collection


www.criterion.com/current/.../2258-ozu-and-setsuko-h... - Cached

Apr 17, 2011 – The actress Setsuko Hara is now so coupled with her roles in the films of Yasujiro Ozu that she is often seen as the archetypal Ozu female, and ...

Setsuko Hara: Ozu's Muse, Forever Young | Under the Hollywood Sign


underthehollywoodsign.wordpress.com/setsuko-hara-o... - Cached

Setusuko Hara is an actress with no equivalent in western film. For 20 years after WWII, she defined contemporary femininity for Japanese audiences, first ...

No Regrets for Setsuko Hara - YouTube


► 1:17► 1:17


www.youtube.com/watch?v=KI4xy4LZEfs


May 6, 2011 - Uploaded by Leo Wong

Clip of filming of Akira Kurosawa's No Regrets for Our Youth (1946), starring Setsuko Hara. On the film, see: ...

Setsuko Hara Homepage "The World of Setsuko Hara"


www.geocities.jp/harasetukohp/englishindex.htm - Cached

Setsuko Hara is a Japanese actress who used to appear in the films of Akira Kurosawa, Yasujiro Ozu, Mikio Naruse and so on. She is called "Eternal Virgin" in ...

 2013.6.11
 小津安二郎 - 東京の女/Yasujiro Ozu - Woman of Tokyo(1933) 

お茶漬けの味 - The Flavor of Green Tea over Rice


お茶漬けの味 - The Flavor of Green Tea over Rice


この内容が内務省による事前検閲をパスしなかったため、映画化を断念したものだった。この映画の内容の事前検閲はそのころ作られた映画法によるものだが、 戦争に反対するような要素が何もない本作すら、「戦時下の非常事態にブルジョア婦人たちが遊び歩く」ことや「赤飯を食べるべき出征の前晩にお茶漬けなどを 食べる」などの程度の問題でも映画製作が許されない時代になったことで当時の映画人たちに衝撃を与えた事件だった。[2]

Taeko goes on a solo train journey away from Tokyo. Mokichi telegrams her to tell her that his company is sending him to Uruguay on a business trip, and asks her to return. Taeko returns only after Mokichi has flown. Mokichi returns a few hours later since the airplane carrying him has met with technical mishaps and has to head back to Tokyo. The couple make up while preparing ochazuke, rice with green tea. Taeko realizes what her husband has been speaking about earlier on. She promises never to leave without a word again.




書與影

帶一本書去小津住過的房間

小津安二郎的影片《我出生了,但...》中的一幕。
Janus Films
小津安二郎的影片《我出生了,但...》中的一幕。

上次去日本,特地到茅崎館住了一夜。這是位於茅崎市的一家 和式旅館。茅崎在海邊,從東京乘火車一小時抵。我給旅館寫信指名訂「本館中二階ニ番のお部屋」,回信說那是電影導演小津安二郎住過的房間。我的意願正在於 此。我讀過的幾部關於小津的評傳、論著,還有今年5月剛剛出中文版的小津文章和訪談的彙編《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》,都一再提到這個地方,是以頗為 嚮往。
與小津在此合編電影劇本的電影編劇野田高梧曾說:「那家旅 館與其說是旅館,還不如說是寄宿公寓更恰當。我們的房間有八個榻榻米的大小,向東南方的窗口望出去,可見到一個長長的花園,窗口的光線相當好。從花園的花 木含苞吐蕊,到花繁葉茂,到果實累累,我們仍未寫完劇本。我們無論何時出去散步,總會採購一些東西回來。小津習慣買肉做漢堡。我們也常常大喝一輪。」這房 間依舊如他講的那樣,時值6月,窗外也是「花繁葉茂」。旅館的介紹寫道,小津住在這裡,「其間造訪的客人很多,他擅長親自烹飪下酒菜肴招待客人。最頂級的 菜肴是在煮得乾乾的牛肉火鍋里撒上咖喱粉的『咖喱牛肉火鍋』,只有小津導演的親密客人才能享受到此項服務。毫無疑問,田中絹代、池部良、高峰秀子等人都在 此列。那時的痕迹都已化為天花板上的油漬,留存至今。」我躺在榻榻米上,仰望天花板,感想正如小津電影里常有的台詞所說:「是這樣啊。」
  • 檢視大圖 日本電影導演小津安二郎文章訪談集《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》中文版,2013年5月由南海出版社出版。
    日本電影導演小津安二郎文章訪談集《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》中文版,2013年5月由南海出版社出版。
那晚,我倒是記起評論家佐藤忠男所著《小津安二郎的藝術》 中的一句話:「小津是被野田高梧引導到小資產階級保守世界裡去的。」無論我們對小津電影欣賞與否,似乎常常忽略這位絕對不該忽略的野田高梧。二戰後初期小 津拍了《長屋紳士錄》、《風中的母雞》,均被認為是失敗之作。野田高梧說:「說實在的,我不喜歡《風中的母雞》這部作品。表現世態僅僅反映其現象,以及它 的處理方式,我不能抱同感。明確地說,小津君也爽快地承認,於是我們倆躲在茅崎的旅館裡寫了《晚春》。」之後小津一直與野田合作編劇,其中《晚春》、《宗 方姊妹》、《麥秋》、《茶泡飯之味》、《東京物語》和《早春》,都是在茅崎館完成的。 
佐藤忠男還寫道:「小津晚年有幾部這樣的作品:年歲大的評 論家和觀眾,對它們的完善的形式美和保守的道德觀給以好評;但是年輕的評論家和觀眾則說它是不觸動現實社會問題純屬資產階級趣味,較多的是謾罵。」他舉 《秋日和》為例,「這部影片拍於一九六〇年,正值人民群眾為反對日美安全保障條約展開鬥爭的年頭。在社會如此激烈動蕩的年代,炮製製作彷彿從來就沒有這種 鬥爭的影片本身、大肆宣揚天下太平、昇平世界、可慶可賀的影片本身,難道不正是反動嗎?」小津當時與被稱為「日本新浪潮」的後進導演今村昌平、吉田喜重等 也有衝突。對照《秋日和》與大約同時期拍攝的大島渚的《青春殘酷物語》、今村昌平的《豬與軍艦》,彷彿真是背道而馳。
另一方面,如今恐怕還是有不少觀眾——尤其是外國觀眾—— 將小津電影所描繪的視為日本人當年的真實生活。譬如我看德國導演維姆·文德斯(Wilhelm Wenders)的紀錄片《尋找小津》,覺得在對小津的無限景仰里,顯然包含着對於小津電影里的世界不復存在的深切惋惜。可是若依佐藤忠男和「新浪潮」導 演之見,那個世界早就不復存在了,甚至根本沒有存在過。
這樣一來,小津拍的電影就有一個是真是假的問題。而弄明白 了這一點,也就觸及到其要害之處。在《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》一書中,拍完《晚春》之後的小津本人對此已經提前作出回答:「戰後的社會不幹凈,混亂 骯髒,我討厭這些,但這是現實。與此同時,也有謙虛、美麗而潔凈綻放的生命,這也是現實。……但在這個時候謳歌美麗的感情世界,立刻會被視為懷古或是徘徊 不前。這樣單一的眼光是戰後的風俗,但如此是看不出真相的。」這與野田當初批評《風中的母雞》的意思完全一致,也是小津、野田在此後合作中始終堅持的。然 而不能將這簡單地理解為「你拍你的,我拍我的」。
小津還寫道:「面對攝影機時,我想的最根本的東西是通過它 深入思考事物,找回人類本來豐富的愛……在戰後,風俗、心理等那些所謂戰後派或許和以前不同,但在其底層流動着的,說是人性可能過於抽象,算是人的溫暖 吧,我念茲在茲的,就是如何將這這種溫暖完美地表現在畫面上。」這可謂是小津關於他的電影最重要的夫子自道了。不過就像《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》中 其他文字一樣,仍然不是我們所期待的那種「終極論述」,——他人所有關於小津電影的論述,說來也是如此。
《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》對我們觀看小津電影的確頗 有助益,他的種種特色——內容上的,「文法」上的,風格,以及風格背後的電影美學觀念——這裡都一一講到了。但是話說回來,假如一部小津的片子都沒看過, 光讀這本書未必就能輕鬆地理解他的意思。我覺得它有點像禪宗的「公案」。在公案里,有人問「如何是佛祖西來意」,大德回答「庭前柏樹子」;問「什麼是 佛」,則答「乾屎橛」。這其實起的是祛魅的作用:破而不立,杜絕過度詮釋。我想起在日本北鎌倉圓覺寺所見小津墓碑上的那個「無」字。小津曾說到他年輕時讀 維克多·弗里伯格的《電影製作法》,「現在想起來,是把很簡單的道理故意寫得很複雜,就好像說『這個蒟蒻浸過醬油,加了糖,再撒一點辣椒,所以好吃』一 樣。」他自己接受採訪,寫文章,多少有點故意反其道而行之。
同樣,小津講的「人類本來豐富的愛」、「人的溫暖」,也得 結合他的電影,才能明白其所指究竟是什麼。小津在《東京物語》以及此前的《晚春》、《麥秋》,此後的《彼岸花》、《秋日和》、《秋刀魚之味》中,所關心的 都是父母子女之間的關係。我看《東京物語》甚感凄涼,片中那對遠道前往東京看望兒女的老年夫婦,是在做一個註定將會破滅的夢:兒子和女兒已各自成家,但是 他們還以為彼此間的親情仍然存在。待到這個夢終於破滅,母親死了,父親也徹底陷入了孤獨。
在小津晚期的電影中,《東京物語》人物關係最為複雜,也最 為完整。他此前此後的多部電影都是由這裡衍生出來的,所以《東京物語》堪稱他的集大成之作。影片結尾母親去世,只剩下父親,有個小女兒陪在身邊。她將來終 究要出嫁,於是就成了《晚春》、《麥秋》、《彼岸花》、《秋日和》和《秋刀魚之味》的故事。父親與女兒之間,即如《晚春》、《秋刀魚之味》所刻畫的關係。 《東京物語》里母親死後,大女兒說:「這麼說也許不大好,兩位老人要是有一個必須先走,我覺得還是爸爸先走好。照這樣,如果京子出嫁了,剩爸爸一個人就麻 煩了。」如果換作父親死了,母親與女兒之間,就是《秋日和》所刻畫的關係。似乎在小津看來,年老的父親或母親與終將離開自己的女兒之間的關係,最能體現他 講的「人類本來豐富的愛」、「人的溫暖」。
具體說來,這有兩層意思:其一,為血緣關係所維繫的父母子女之間的親情是人世間最寶貴的;其二,這種親情將因下一代人擁有自己新的生活而結束。這是一個自然而然的過程,相關者對此儘管惋惜,卻無法抗拒。
《秋刀魚之味》里那個潦倒的老人和一直留在他身邊沒有嫁人 的同樣潦倒的女兒,可以說是這一系列女兒出嫁故事的反面例子。然而在小津看來,結婚是人生的必由之路,卻未必是幸福之路。愛情在小津的電影里分量一向不 重,他心目中的「本來豐富的愛」和「溫暖」並不體現在這裡。《晚春》、《麥秋》、《彼岸花》、《秋日和》和《秋刀魚之味》都拍到女兒出嫁之時為止。此後她 們將過的無非是《東京物語》里大兒子和大女兒那樣的家庭生活,境況大概介乎《茶泡飯之味》、《早春》的「合」與《宗方姊妹》、《東京暮色》的「分」之間 罷。
「晚期小津」的首尾兩部影片《晚春》和《秋刀魚之味》情節 很接近,都是當鰥夫的父親要女兒結婚的故事。父親皆由笠智眾扮演,角色也差不多;分別由原節子和岩下志麻扮演的女兒卻頗有區別。原節子的角色對父親充滿依 依不捨的柔情,而岩下志麻的角色這份情感則淡了很多,顯得有點「硬」。兩部片子相隔十幾年,如果說《晚春》里兩代人同時珍惜為血緣關係所維繫的親情的話, 那麼在《秋刀魚之味》里這份親情就幾乎只屬於上一代人了。片中父親出席女兒婚禮後來到酒館,老闆娘問:「今天從哪裡回來的呢?葬禮嗎?」他回答:「嗯,也 可以那麼說。」在我看來,小津拍《秋刀魚之味》比拍《晚春》更多了幾分悲哀。
說到這裡,也許可以回答小津電影的真實性問題了。小津講的 「不幹凈,混亂骯髒」與「謙虛、美麗而潔凈綻放的生命」這兩種「現實」並不處於同一層面。他的電影所表現的與其說是不同於「新浪潮」導演所表現的戰後日本 一部分現實之外的另一部分現實,不如說是在他看來整個戰後日本現實中更深入、更內在的那一部分。小津電影揭示了一種具有普遍意義的人生模式或情感模式,它 可以毫無障礙——包括因對佐藤忠男所謂日本「社會如此激烈動蕩的年代」缺乏了解而形成的障礙——地為不同國度、不同時代的觀眾所體會,所認同。這正是小津 電影永恆的魅力之所在。
離開茅崎館時,老闆娘送給我一張她丈夫和小津並肩站在標有「大船攝影所」字樣的麵包車前的合影,以為留念。我想下次再去時回贈一冊《我是開豆腐店的,我只做豆腐》中譯本,與旅館一樓休息室書櫃里那些與小津有關的書擺在一起。
止庵是傳記和隨筆作家,著有《周作人傳》等。

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