2015年1月21日 星期三

Junípero Serra Ferrer1713-84, A Saint to Some, but Not to All




Junípero Serra FerrerO.F.M., (/nɨˈpɛr ˈsɛrə/Spanish: [xuˈnipeɾo ˈsera]) (November 24, 1713 – August 28, 1784) was a Spanish Franciscan friar who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, which at the time were in Alta California in the Province of Las Californias in New Spain. He began in San Diego on July 16, 1769, and established his headquarters near Monterey, California, at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo.[1]
The missions were primarily designed to convert the natives. Other aims were to integrate the neophytes into Spanish society, and to train them to take over ownership and management of the land. As head of the order in California, Serra not only dealt with church officials, but also with Spanish officials in Mexico City and with the local military officers who commanded the nearby presidios (garrisons).
Serra was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 25, 1988 and Pope Francisexpects to canonize him in September 2015 during his first visit to the United States.[2]

Monument of Junípero Serra (withJuaneño Indian boy) on plaza de San Francisco de Asis in Havana

A statue of the Rev. Junipero Serra in a cemetery in San Francisco’s Mission Dolores. CreditJim Wilson/The New York Times

A Saint to Some, but Not to All

The Rev. Junipero Serra, a pious preacher who once walked much of what is now California and whom the pope plans to canonize, is accused by some historians of cultural sabotage.

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