2014年2月23日 星期日

Robert H.Van Gulik 高羅佩

作者简介

高罗佩,荷兰职业外交官,通晓15种语言,主要任职于远东各国。他曾评价自己一身三任:外交官是他的职业,汉学是他的终身事业,写小说是他的业余爱好。作 为一个西方人,高罗佩对中国古代琴棋书画十分痴迷。他20岁开始练习中国书法,且终生不辍;他研究中国古琴,师从古琴大师叶诗梦,并与于右任、冯玉祥等组 织天风琴社;他能写中国旧体诗词,与郭沫若、徐悲鸿等大师都有唱和;齐白石、沈尹默等人的画上也有他的上款。

《大唐狄公案》的插图均为他自己所画。 1943年,高罗佩任荷兰驻重庆使馆一秘,与同在使馆工作的中国洋务大臣张之洞之外孙女水世芳结为伉丽。

他一生研究当学著作颇丰,学琴,著有《中国琴道》,考证中国文献中的猿,亲自饲养猿,著有《长臂猿考》,出版《书画鉴赏汇编》,教西方人辨识中国文物;编《东皋禅师集刊》,翻译陆时化的《书画说铃》。

他一生研究的另一重要领域是中国古代性文化,写下《秘戏图考》、《中国古代房内考》。而大型推理探案小说集《大唐狄公案》则是一部在东西方读者中影响最大的书。






大唐狄公案(套装上、下卷)(全译注释本) 作者:(荷兰)(Robert H.Van Gulik)高罗佩 译者:陈来元 胡明 等

全书以中国唐代宰相狄仁杰为主人公,描述狄公在州、县及京都为官断案,与民除害的传奇经历。全书故事纷纭,案情凶险,情节扣人心弦,谜底逼人追索。
作者笔下的狄公迥异于中国传统公案小说“青天大老爷”,他有独到的办案风格:重效率而轻缛节,讲操守而又善变通,重调查推理,而不主观妄断。狄仁杰断案如神,被西方读者称为古代中国的福尔摩斯。
R.H. van Gulik and the Qin 1 Van Gulik in Chongqing ca.1945.
From Janwillem van de Wetering,
Robert van Gulik, His Life, His Work; New York, Soho, 1987.

In 1941 Dutch diplomat Robert Hans van Gulik (1910 - 1967) published Lore of the Chinese Lute, still (via the revised edition of 1969) the primary published English language source for guqin history and ideology. Here are two discussions of his qin play and his studies with Ye Shimeng.2
  1. From a book by fellow diplomat Chen Zhimai.3 Music has always been a favourite pastime of the Chinese scholar-official. During his first sojourn in Japan (1935-42), Dr. van Gulik became interested in the guqin, a zither-type stringed instrument dating back to remote antiquity. He dug deep into the literature on the subject and learned to play it under the instruction of a Chinese teacher.4 His first serious book, The Lore of the Chinese Lute, was published by Sophia University in Tokyo in 1940. When I first knew him, he was already a master of the instrument. It was his habit to carry the guqin, a rather clumsy thing, to various social functions in Chungking, and when the dinner was over, to play a few tunes for his friends' entertainment.5 I well recall one occasion, a hot summer evening, when we all attended a dinner party in a house perched precariously on the bank of the Chialing, a tributary of the Yangtse. After we all had had our share, of food and drinks, Dr. van Gulik started to play an ancient tune which, according to the Chinese, "simulated the music of water flowing gently down the slopes of high mountains". It was a romantic occasion, romantic in the traditional Chinese sense, which Dr. van Gulik deeply loved, and which we all thoroughly enjoyed. For how could we help being enthralled by this young man from Europe, whose physical features were anything but Chinese, playing for us this tune which had remained in the Chinese mind for two thousand years. In subsequent years Dr. van Gulik gave many guqin concerts to overflowing audiences in wartime Chungking to raise money for charities. They were his contributions to China's war effort. His music therefore became an aspect of his diplomacy.6
  2. From Robert Van Gulik and the Guqin Scores of the Sinological Institute, Leiden,
    by Dai Xiaolian (translated and adapted by Jonathan P. J. Stock), pp.31-2.7 From 1935 onwards, when van Gulik was posted to Japan, he frequently visited China to carry out study and research. He became a pupil of the famous guqin master Ye Shimeng, a member of the Fujian Minnan school of performance. Ye's teacher was Sun Jinzhai (dates not known [style name of Sun Bao]) and Sun's (teacher was) Zhu Fengjie (d. 1964; see Yuguzhai Qinpu). Van Gulik thus inherited a performance style of extensive tradition. Ye had a high standard of performance and was deeply respected by Van Gulik. (Ye) produced the Shimeng Zhai (Qinpu), a score of nineteen guqin pieces, teaching van Gulik Meihua Sannong first and later a total of ten pieces. Van Gulik was extremely upset when Ye died, dedicating The Lore of the Chinese Lute to his memory three years later (van Gulik, 1940). Van Gulik also carefully worked on a painting in traditional Chinese style entitled Master Ye Playing the Qin, the four edges of which bear the inscriptions of other qin players.8
    Van Gulik's widow, Shui Shifang, said that the short time van Gulik spent living in China was the happiest period of his life. His transfer to the Dutch Embassy (1943), then located at the temporary capital Chongqing, enabled him to meet many well known qin players and aficionados, including Zha Fuxi, Xu Yuanbai and Wang Mengshu. Van Gulik joined and helped organise the Chongqing Tianfeng Qin Society, which met frequently for performance and discussion. The Dutch Embassy provided the Society with a meeting place, and van Gulik was able to collect a large number of guqin scores. These scores and treatises include hand-copied manuscripts and volumes and traditional block-printed and thread-bound books. Van Gulik purchased some of these items, copied others by hand himself and was given several by qin-playing associates.

Footnotes (Shorthand references are explained on a separate page)
1 This page only concerns van Gulik (Chinese name 高羅佩 Gao Luopei) and the qin. However, he was a scholar of great breadth. As a writer he gained his greatest popularity as author of the Judge Dee mysteries, which I often recommend to friends as a good introduction to early Chinese culture. The Judge Dee website of Marco Huysmans has much information on this, as well as a Scientific Bibliography of Dr. Robert Hans van Gulik
Here is a selected bibliography of Van Gulik's writings:
  1. Gulik, R.H. van, The Lore of the Chinese Lute. Tokyo and Rutland, Tuttle, 1969 (2nd ed.)
    An essential resource; this edition out of print but reissued in 2008 by Orchid Books (Hong Kong).
  2. Gulik, R.H. van, Hsi K'ang and his Poetical Essay on the Lute. Tokyo and Rutland, Tuttle, 1969. Out of print.
  3. Janwillem van de Wetering, Robert Van Gulik, His Life, His Work; NY, Soho Press, 1998 (originally D. McMillan Publications, 1987). Out of print.
  4. The Robert Hans van Gulik Issue, Orientations (Hong Kong), November 1981. Includes a bibliography and James Watt's The Qin and the Chinese Literati.
  5. 陳之邁﹕荷蘭高羅佩。 文史新刊之 5 ;台灣﹕傳記文學社, 1969. Chen Chih-Mai, Helan Gao Luopei (Van Gulik of Holland), 1969. An appreciation of Van Gulik by a fellow diplomat. Includes bibliography and comments on VG's qin playing (see above). This book is available in some university libraries in the U.S.
    (
    Return)
荷蘭高佩羅在古代中國雅文化方面的藏書與論著 李美燕等 中國文哲研究通訊 2008/9 , pp. 143-69
2 Ye Shimeng 葉詩夢 (1863-1937)


An online biography of Ye Shimeng says this was the 潛號 name taken in retirement by 葉鶴伏 Ye Hefu, who originally had the name 佛尼音布 Foniyinbu, and was a nephew of the empress dowager. It says Ye's father served as an official in 粵 Yue (Guangdong/Guangxi), at which time Ye Shimeng began studying with players who had inherited the tradition of the Yuguzhai Qinpu. Later in Beijing he studied Wuzhizhai Qinpu melodies from 孫晉齋 Sun Jinzhai (孫寶 Sun Bao: see 1875), melodies of the 蜀 Sichuan school from 李湘石 Li Xiangshi, and more. One of his students was 汪孟舒 Wang Mengshu. Zha Fuxi's Guide includes brief comments and a table of contents for Ye's qin handbook Shimeng Zhai (Qinpu) (1914). His students also apparently also included 管平湖 Guan Pinghu. However, I could not find mention of Ye in the Jin Yu Qin Kan materials.
Dai Xiaolian's article also says Ye studied qin from Sun Jinzhai, who in turn studied from Zhu Fengjie. However, an article on the website of Julian Joseph says one of Ye's teachers was (also?) Sun's student Zhang Ruishan (see Shiyixianguan Qinpu). Zhang Ruishan had a shop in Liulichang (in Beijing).
Zha Fuxi also wrote an article (p.142) discussing some of these people. (Return)

3 Chen, op. cit. (see previous footnote), pp.31-2. "Lute" and "Chinese lute" have been changed here to "guqin". The essay was presented to the Asiatic Society of Japan, 24 September 1968. (Return)
4 Since Van Gulik's first qin teacher was 葉詩夢 Ye Shimeng (1863 - 1937; see footnote above), the qin studies must have commenced during one of VG's numerous trips from Japan to China. VG dedicates Lore to Ye as his "first teacher" of the qin, suggesting he later had other teachers.
As for his having also studied qin in Japan, a biography of Van Gulik in Dutch by Carl Barkman says the following (p. 64; thanks for this to Marco Huysmans, who has a Judge Dee website).


The qin having started to fascinate him, (when back in Japan) he bought a tuning whistle in a music shop, had a special qin table made, practiced on his beautiful antique qin, and now also in Tokyo took lessons from a Chinese qin master. I have not yet found the name of the qin master resident in Japan, nor mention of other teachers in China after Ye Shimeng died. (Return)
5 The Chinese essay, p.12, adds that in Chongqing VG organized a 天風琴社 Heavenly Air Qin Society. On p.50 its says that when he was in Hong Kong in early 1967 he took part in two qin gatherings where he saw such qin friends as 徐文鏡 Xu Wenjing and 饒宗頤 Rao Zongyi. (Return)
6 The essay goes on to discuss VG's research into 蔣興疇 Jiang Xingchou (1639-1695), better known as the Buddhist monk 心越 Shin-etsu. Shin-etsu went to Japan as a missionary in 1677 and taught guqin to many students. (Return)
7 A footnote states, "The information contained in this section is derived from (the Chen Zhimai book) and an interview with van Gulik's widow, Shui Shufang, held on August 1st, 1991." The whole article was originally published as Helan cunjiande guqinpu yu Gao Luopei in Yinyue Yishu, the Journal of the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, no.2, 1992, pp.67-71. (Return)
8 The painting is in the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde (State Museum of Ethnology) in Leiden. Marco Huysmans, who has a Judge Dee website, informs me that "this beautiful picture of the scroll comes from the Catalog of Christie's Amsterdam for the auction of the Van Gulik collection in 1983 (page 14; item 49). The description says, 'Note by Van Gulik: "The picture was drawn by me, except for the face, which was copied by an expert from the photograph attached to the obituary notice"'. It was sold for 5,130 Dutch Guilders (about 2,500 USD)."
It is interesting to compare Van Gulik's drawing with Illustration 3 found on p.5 of his Lore of the Chinese Lute.
Ye Shimeng
by R. H. Van Gulik
Illustration from
Qin Xue Rumen
(Return)

高佩罗

高罗佩是荷兰职业外交官,通晓15种语言,曾派驻泗水、巴达维亚、东京、重庆、华盛顿、新德里、贝鲁特、大马士革、吉隆坡等地,从秘书、参事、公使到大使,仕途一帆风顺。但大放异彩的却是其业余汉学家生涯并以此流芳后世。
  高罗佩读了法国作家凡尔纳(JulesVerne)的小说《迷人的中国之旅》后,对中国文化着 迷,开始穿中国服、睡硬床、要做中国人。1943年高罗佩任荷兰驻重庆使馆一秘,娶了系出名门的中国夫人水世芳,她父亲水钧韶曾任驻圣彼得堡使节及天津市 长,外祖父张之洞是洋务名臣。高罗佩与沈尹默、齐白石等名流交往,对中国文化的迷恋达到狂热。品茶、弈棋、抚琴、吟诗、作画、练字、治印、写小说……俨然 一位名士。他效法古人,名高罗佩,另有笑忘、芝台等雅号。无论住在哪个国家,高罗佩的中式书斋格局不变,环壁皆书,书桌上摆着文房四宝,还有一张紫檀嵌花 卧榻,号称“图书满架,落叶满床”。他随兴之所至,为书斋取名集义斋、尊明阁、犹存斋等。
  高罗佩对中国古乐颇有造诣,早年亲炙于古琴大师叶诗梦。在重庆时与于右任、冯玉祥等人缔结“天风琴社”,切磋琴艺。高罗佩撰有《琴道》一书,旁征博引,将古琴乐谱、各种琴学著述,以及文学美术中涉及古琴的资料精心译成英文,并加注释,1940年以英文书名“The
  Lore of the Chinese Lute:An Essay in Ch’in Ideology”出版。

  高罗佩是一位东方文物收藏家和鉴赏家。诸如古琴、书画、瓷器、画谱、琴谱、佛像等都是他收藏的 对象;北平琉璃厂、东京神田区、伦敦旧书店,都是他流连忘返之处。据长公子威廉回忆:曾为买一座观音像,全家啃了几个月硬面包。高罗佩对收藏古物有自己的 主张,他不买稀世之珍,偏爱残缺古物。他说:一张油漆剥落的古琴,仍可奏出高山流水之曲;名瓷之碎片,也不失为粉定龙泉。他对书画进行鉴赏和研究,积十几 年苦功编成《书画鉴赏汇编》,全书近600页,插图160幅,书末附有42种中、日纸张样品,1958年以英文书名“Chinese Pictorial Art as Viewed by the Connoisseur”出版。

  高罗佩著作等身,流传最广的是他别出心裁的中国古代侦探小说。他对清人公案小说《武则天四大奇 案》中主人公狄仁杰屡破奇案大为折服,认为虽无指纹、摄影等现代技术手段,其访案之细、破案之神,以及对犯罪心理之分析和推理之缜密,不亚于英国柯南道尔 著名的侦探小说《福尔摩斯探案》。高罗佩看到西方侦探小说风行,许多人甚至认为除英美德法之外全无这类著作。为了不让中国历代公案小说家“含冤于九泉之下 ”,(高罗佩自序中语)慨然命笔,从事《武则天四大奇案》英译,出版后深受读者喜爱。他意犹未尽,以狄仁杰为主人公用英文撰写《钟楼谋杀案》、《迷宫谋杀 案》等中国侦探小说,并用单线白描法自绘插图。出了20多卷《狄公案》系列,被译成十几种文字,有的还拍成电影。更奇的是,他以“欲知后事如何,且看下回 分解”章回小说体裁将之译回中文出版,并称应以此为标准本。高罗佩对唐代律法制度颇有研究,《狄公案》系列中的许多情节均有所据,这与当代某些“戏说”作 者之信口开河大不相同。一位汉学家竟以中国古代侦探小说传世,表现出高罗佩遗世独立之风格。

  二次世界大战后,高罗佩再度出使日本。为出《迷宫谋杀案》日文版,出版商坚持要以裸女为封面, 而高罗佩只肯用中国古代版画,双方僵持不下。他致函古董商,询问有无此类图画。没想到京都古董店愿意出让明代五彩套色木刻二十四幅《花营锦阵》,乃万历年 间刊行的“秘戏图册”。高罗佩本来就对中国版画有研究,如今又无意间见到刻工颇为精细的秘戏图册,引起了他对中国传统社会两性生活的兴趣。开始收集汉初至 明末的有关古籍,特别是道家的房中术和历代描写男女关系的诗歌小说,从民间得到不少佚书和手抄本。高罗佩认为:“此类图书今希若星凤,窃不可听其埋没。” 经校勘整理,编成《秘戏图考》,线装三巨册合为一函,锦面牙签、古色古香,1951年在东京出版。此书问世后,引起不少汉学家的注意,书信往还,资料越积 越多。

1961年,他以英文写了一部大书“Sexual Life in Ancient China”,中文名为《中国古代房内考》,在荷兰出版。高罗佩研究中国古代性学的动机在《秘 戏图考》序中有所说明:“十八十九世纪访华西人考察风俗。书籍既不易入手。询人又讳莫如深。遂以为中国房内必淫污不堪不可告人。妄说误解因之而生。甚至今 世西人所传中国房室奇习。大抵荒唐无稽。书籍杂志所载。茶余饭后所谭。此类污辱中华文明之例已不胜枚举。一则徒事匿藏。一则肆口诬蔑。果谁之罪欤。”(注 意其古法断句)可见他为中华文明辩诬之苦心。高罗佩穷十数年研究性学之结论是:中国古代两性生活自然而正常,虽有房中术的出现,但正因为中国人两千年来不 断致力研究两性均衡,所以始终维持了强烈的生命力,使中国民族能持续而更新。


  高罗佩还在家中养长臂猿,并详作生态记录,写成《长臂猿考》一书,书后附有猿啼唱片。即使是专 业动物学家,在家中豢养动物作生态记录者能有几人?可见高罗佩做研究之认真。1967年此书付梓时,高罗佩从三度出使之东京回国度假,罹患癌症,在海牙逝 世,得年57岁。临终前仍练字不辍,在病榻上完成《长臂猿考》的最后一校。

  高罗佩藏书及遗稿珍藏于荷兰莱顿汉学院图书馆,长公子威廉专攻东亚艺术,克绍箕裘,任莱顿人类学博物馆馆长。

  有人认为:现代学科分类日益精细,“隔行如隔山”,像达·芬奇那样跨越多种学科博大精深之通才,文艺复兴以降已属罕见,现代学者更不可求。证诸高罗佩,此论不确。其实“诸魔皆心魔”,行业之间并无大山阻隔。


  按照传统观点,高罗佩的汉学属于“另类”。他不满足于在经典古文中寻章摘句,而是接触社会,在民俗中发掘中华文化,收集资料,进行研究,介绍给全世界。他既述且作,将中华文明与西方思想相结合,写出不少传世之作。所谓“另类”实为汉学之扩展。

  夫人水世芳谈到高罗佩时说:“他不是外国人!从我们认识到他临终,他没有一天断过练字。他最爱 吃四川菜,他实在是个中国人。”对这位“中国人”高罗佩,我感到既骄傲又惭愧。骄傲的是:中华文明博大精深,使他心悦诚服终身浸淫其中;惭愧的是:我身为 中国人,在研究中国文化、宣扬中华文明方面,做得远不如他。

  高罗佩热爱中华,却不忘自己的祖国,他有落款曰:“荷兰国笑忘高罗佩识于芝台之中和琴室”。性情中人若此,冠以传奇,谁曰不宜?
 *****
上周,江燦騰老師等又談起Robert H.Van Gulik 高羅佩, 我認為該為以前寫的東西更新一下:

這篇是2009年所集的。遺缺不少,譬如說,他談悉曇:中日的梵文研究簡史
 Siddham: An Essay on the History of Sanskrit Studies in China and Japan (1956)
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_van_Gulik


*****
 Robert H.Van Gulik 高羅佩 比Kenneth Clark早許多年,談藝術品中的動物畫像。 他還專注在一種猿在中、日繪畫中的演變:
"Gibbons at play", painting by the Xuande Emperor (1427)

Van Gulik was quite interested in Chinese painting. For example, in his book The Gibbon in China (1967), he devotes quite a few pages to the gibbon-themed paintings in China in Japan, from the Northern Song Dynasty on. Analyzing the portrayal of these apes throughout history, he notes how the realism of the pictures deteriorated as the gibbon population in most of China was extirpated. As an art critic, he greatly admired the portrayal of the apes by such renowned painters as Yi Yuanji and Muqi Fachang. Commenting on one of Ming Emperor Xuande's works, "Gibbons at Play", van Gulik says that while it is "not a great work of art", it is "ably executed". The lifelike images of the apes make one surmise that the emperor painted from the live models that could have been kept in the palace gardens.[4][5]
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