|1. TIME Person of the Year: Pope Francis|
|The first non-European pope in 1,200 years is poised to transform a place that measures change by the century|
liberation ogian為羅馬天主教會的大人物、布宜諾斯艾利斯的大主教﹐樞機主教豪爾赫•馬里奧•伯格里奧(Jorge Mario Bergoglio)通常被尊稱為“殿下”﹐但他總對人們說﹐他更喜歡別人簡單地稱他為豪爾赫神父。
Fashion and the Power of the Pulpit
By SUZY MENKES July 31, 2013
SUZY MENKES 2013年07月31日
ROME — A clerical collar fits neatly at the neckline, a top is plain and long-sleeved, a skirt falls chastely over the knees and shoes are flat, black and mannish — even if a spark of jewelry at the toes is a reminder that this is a fashion show, not a priestly parade of habits.
The AltaRoma season, which took place here last week, had classic couture clothes for the rich and conventional. But there were also displays of new talent. And most young designers at “Who Is on Next?” seemed to reflect a change in attitude. The aesthetic was as far as could be imagined from the sex-pot, breast-heaving, leg-exposing outfits of the bunga bunga world of Silvio Berlusconi, the politician and media tycoon who has served three times as prime minister.
AltaRoma的時裝季上周在這裡舉 行，展示為比較傳統的富人設計的經典定製服裝。同時也展示了新的設計。「誰是下一站潮人」展覽的大多數年輕設計師似乎體現了這種態度上的轉變。如今的審美 已經與西爾維奧·貝盧斯科尼(Silvia Berlusconi)性派對里那些胸部隆起、暴露腿部的性感套裝相去甚遠。這位政治家和媒體大亨曾三次當選 首相。
Such a switch in Italian fashion suggests more than a mere government upheaval. Looking at the discreet, sober, even chaste outfits put forward by the new designers, you have to ask this question: Has the humility and abstention demonstrated by Francis since he became pope in March influenced the fashion message coming out of Italy?
Ariel La Rosa/AltaRoma
Silvia Venturini Fendi, co-designer with Karl Lagerfeld at the Roman luxury leather-goods company and president of the Italian fashion organization AltaRomAltaModa, says a societal shift is expressing itself in clothing.
西爾維亞·文圖裡尼·芬迪(Silvia Venturini Fendi)是卡爾·拉格菲爾德(Karl Lagerfeld)在羅馬奢侈皮製品公司的聯合設計師，也是意大利時裝組織AltaRomAltaModa的主席。她說社會轉變正在服裝方面體現出來。
“It’s a whole new spirit in Rome,” she said, “and this is evident when we have a new pope going back to real Christianity, which lately was far from the church.”
“People are looking for meaning,” she continued, “and the real meaning of fashion is as a tool to express yourself. Sometimes fashion hides your language but we look for meaning in materials and fabrics to allow true personality to come out.”
Ms. Fendi also sees this as a reaction to wasteful mass-market fast fashion, a subject dear to the heart of her sister Ilaria Venturini Fendi, who has dedicated herself to upscale recycling. Her Carmina Campus range of bags is made from castoffs like old military blankets, garbage bags and bottle tops. Other purses are made by women’s collectives in Africa.
芬迪女士還把這看做是對十分浪費的大眾市 場快速時尚的反應，這個主題對她的姊妹伊拉里亞·文圖裡尼·芬迪(Ilaria Venturini Fendi)來說十分重要，後者致力於生產高檔次的循環利用產品。她的Carmina Campus系列皮包是用舊軍毯、垃圾袋和瓶蓋等廢棄物做成的。其他手包是由非洲的女子集體企業製作的。
A show by four designers — from Ghana, Switzerland and Rome’s own Stella Jean — displayed inventive textiles and traditional wax printing brought up date as stylish international clothing.
Simone Cipriani, head of the ethical fashion initiative at the International Trade Center (an arm of the World Trade Organization and the United Nations) said he believed that Pope Francis has already made an impact.
‘’This Francesco is spreading the right message, also for us who work in this business, to take on responsibility,” said Mr. Cipriani, who said that “responsible” fashion, as in products made to ethical standards by craft workers, is increasingly in demand in a world of cheap fashion produced by the poor.
How much is this wishful thinking by people committed to good works, and how much a real change?
Francis appears on the cover of last week’s Italian Vanity Fair, which has named him its “Man of the Year.” He is lauded inside for his courage and applauded by people like Elton John, who told the magazine: “Francis is a miracle of humility in an era of vanity.”
方濟各上周登上了《名利場》(Vanity Fair)意大利版的封面，該雜誌將他評為「年度人物」。教會內部的人讚美他的勇氣。像艾爾頓·約翰(Elton John)這樣的人也讚美他，艾爾頓對該雜誌說：「在這個虛榮的年代，方濟各是個奇蹟般的謙遜之人。」
The previous pontiff, Benedict, was often described as the pope in the Prada shoes, though his entourage denied he wore them. He certainly had a passion for historic and religious robes, capes and headwear. A satirical YouTube video called “Vanità in Vaticano, the Pope in Fashion,” shows Benedict wearing 48 different gowns, hats, capes and chasubles.
人們經常把前任教皇本篤十六世描述為穿普 拉達鞋子的教皇，雖然他的隨從否認他曾穿過普拉達的鞋子。他無疑特別喜愛具有歷史和宗教意義的長袍、斗篷和頭飾。YouTube上有一段諷刺性的視頻，名 叫「梵蒂岡的化妝台，時尚的教皇」，該視頻展示了本篤十六世穿過的48套不同的長袍、帽子、斗篷和無袖長袍。
Rome’s ecclesiastical shops, like Gamarelli (the pope’s official tailor) on Via Santa Chiara and DeRitis on Via de Cestari are stocked with cardinal-red and papal-purple bales of fabric waiting to be made up. There are still batches of decorative and gilded ribbons, even if the glitter is no longer actual gold thread.
羅馬的教會服裝店裡儲備了一捆捆猩紅色和 教皇專用的紫色面料備用，比如Via Santa Chiara街上的加馬雷利店鋪（Gamarelli，教皇的官方裁縫店）和Via de Cestari街上的DeRitis店鋪。還有很多捆裝飾用的鍍金絲帶，儘管閃光的不再是真正的金線。
The ultimate satire on religious fanciness is the famous fashion show in Federico Fellini’s movie “Roma” (1972). From the roller-skating duo in scarlet satin habits, to applauding nuns, country priests in bicycling attire, pastors in girly white frills and on to the glory and grandeur of papal costume, the clip sums up what the director saw as liturgical excess.
對於宗教中的浮華，最極端的諷刺是費德里 科·費里尼(Federico Fellini)的電影《羅馬》(Roma,1972)中的那場著名的時裝秀。裡面有穿着猩紅緞子服的溜冰二人組、喝彩的修女、穿着騎行服的鄉村教士、衣 服上裝飾有女孩子氣白色褶皺的牧師以及莊嚴榮耀的教皇服裝。這個片段集中體現了導演對過分注重儀式的譏諷。
But has the new pope, who dresses in the plainest of white robes, really influenced Italian fashion, and could his arrival alter people’s attitude toward luxury goods? He discouraged priests last week from driving “fancy” rather than “humble” cars. The Vatican says that Francis himself, lodged far from the Vatican’s palatial papal rooms, is driven in a modest compact car.
On the Via dei Condotti, the restrained fashions in the windows of luxury stores contrast with the sun tops and beach shorts of visiting tourists.
在Via dei Condotti大街，奢侈品商店櫥窗里的保守服裝與遊客們的弔帶背心和沙灘短褲形成了鮮明的對比。
Dolce & Gabbana, whose new collection was openly religious, featuring images of southern Italian churches, had in its window a white lace dress that could have served for a first communion. Valentino, whose design duo has drawn on religious iconography and has shown covered-up clothes, had a cardinal-red dress, plain, ankle length and with long sleeves.
杜嘉班納(Dolce & Gabbana)的新系列明顯具有宗教色彩，以意大利南部教堂的圖案為特色。櫥窗里的一件白色蕾絲連衣裙十分莊重，穿着它參加首次聖餐毫無問題。華倫天奴 (Valentino)的設計二人組從宗教圖騰中尋找靈感，設計出了完全覆蓋身體的衣服，其中一件猩紅色長袖連衣裙款式簡單，長及腳踝。
Even Céline, a French brand, had a focus on sobriety, with black shirt, skirt and brogues in its window.
But the new store on Via Borgognona opened by the hot talent Fausto Puglisi showed a more flashy style with bold punk plaids. His “sober” dresses, presented like religious robes on the runway, yet split down one side, have been worn on stage by the singer Beyoncé.
但是熱門天才法奧斯托·普吉立斯 (Fausto Puglisi)在Via Borgognona大街上開的新店展示了更花哨的風格，衣服上有大膽的朋克風格的彩色格子。他的那些比較「樸素」的連衣裙，在秀台上展示時看起來像教士 袍，但是一側開出了狹長的口子。歌手碧昂斯(Beyoncé)已經在舞台上穿過這件連衣裙了。
Marigay McKee, chief merchandising officer at Harrods in London, was in town to view new collections and judge the AltaModa’s young designers.
She sees a turnaround in Italian style, with customers moving away from the ritzy Roberta Cavalli and Versace toward more sporty or “moderate” brands like Brunello Cucinelli, Zegna and Loro Piana, the fabric company that was just purchased by LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton.
她注意到意大利風格的轉變，顧客們從奢華 的羅伯特·卡沃利(Roberta Cavalli)和范思哲(Versace)轉向更有運動感的或者更「溫和」的品牌，比如布魯奈羅·庫奇內利(Brunello Cucinelli)、 傑尼亞(Zegna)和Loro Piana，最後這家面料公司剛被路威酩軒(LVMH)集團收購。
“Some of the overstated bling has become a bit irrelevant, and Italy is beginning to understand how the world is working,” Ms. McKee said of the progress of a brand like Bottega Veneta, with its more “intellectual” appeal. She also said that Asian customers at Harrods judge quality by studying the inside, not just the look, of luxury garments.
The idea of simplicity in materials and an emphasis on craft were the focus of the work of students at the Accademia di Costume e di Moda here.
服裝設計學院(Accademia di Costume e di Moda)的學生們的作品注重用料的簡單和對工藝的強調。
Their end-of-term work included kimonos, fashioned not out of sumptuous patterned silks, but out of the raw cotton fabric known as ghinea, which was then dyed and decorated.
Other student projects that focused on simplicity were re-creations by third-year students of classic Neapolitan Christmas nativity scenes and by different versions of the classic shirt, which followed the various inspirations of designers like Martin Margiela and Vivienne Westwood. At another event, underscoring AltaRoma’s focus on craft, Ms. Fendi invited a new breed of artisan/artists working outside the fashion system to display various offbeat objects in the historic Biblioteca Angelica.
其他關注簡單的學生作品是大三學生們對經 典那不勒斯耶穌誕生的再現，以及對經典襯衫的不同演繹，後者的靈感來自於馬丁·馬吉拉(Martin Margiela)和薇薇安·韋斯特伍德 (Vivienne Westwood)這樣的設計師。在另一場活動中，芬迪女士為了強調AltaRoma對工藝的注重，邀請服裝業之外的新一代技師/藝術家在著名的安傑麗卡 圖書館(Biblioteca Angelica)展示各種新穎的物品。
Against the backdrop of thousands of ancient library books on shelves up to the vaulted ceiling, the work of 18 people was grouped under the heading of “Artisanal Intelligence,” an exploration of ways to develop craft within the decorative arts. Their work included film, fine art, craft and sartorial inventions such as one-of-a-kind hats.
Two of papal robes, made in the same Neapolitan workshop since 1829, were on display, alongside a video from Silvia Morini, who wanted to film the beauty of liturgical costume. Another dreamy video called “Celestial” was produced for Ludovica Amati, who showed clothes among other objects that focused on art rather than fashion.
本次展覽展示了兩件教皇長袍，是在那不勒 斯一個1829年便已創立的工作室里製作出來的。同時還展示了西爾維亞·莫里尼(Silvia Morini)的視頻，她想拍攝出宗教禮儀服裝的美感。另 一個叫《天堂》(Celestial)的夢幻般的視頻是為Ludovica Amati這個品牌製作的，該視頻除了展示服裝，還展示了其他一些更富於藝術性而非時尚性的物品。
If Rome was not built in a day, it is unlikely that any abrupt change in style is going to take effect immediately. But fashion always holds up a mirror to society and its time.
“Maybe there is a moment when we want to focus on other things in life and give fashion a different meaning to clothing,” Ms. Venturini Fendi said. “Women are thinking and dressing more ethically. This pope is what we all needed.”
Copyright © 2013 The New York Times Company. All rights reserved.
The pope on gays
Style matters Jul 30th 2013, 9:28 by B.C.
ON THE lips of a more worldly sort of cleric, the pope's comparatively generous comments (by recent Vatican standards, at least) about homosexuals might have been taken as a calculated move. "If a person is gay and seeks God and has good will, who am I to judge him?" That was the disarming rhetorical question which Pope Francis put to journalists accompanying him back from Brazil; it prompted reports of a major shift in the church's attitude to same-sex relations. While carefully citing the church's catechism, he also said gays should be "integrated" into society rather than marginalised.
The church does not, of course, make major doctrinal refinements in off-the-cuff remarks to the press. Other procedures exist for that. And the reason the question even arose has to do with some very awkward news reports over the past month. One of Italy's best-known church-watchers has asserted that Pope Francis was trapped, in effect, by the gay lobby into naming a prelate with a very murky personal life to a job that would supposedly involve cleaning up the troubled Vatican bank. Pressed about this matter, the pontiff said he hadn't come across any specifically "gay lobby" although there were plenty of other lobbies of "greedy people" in sight. A "quick investigation" had found the allegations about the newly appointed cleric to be unfounded, he insisted.
To a cynical mind, the pope's headline-catching refusal to judge gay people might sound like an artful way of neutralising the most embarrassing saga that has come to light during his young papacy. But Pope Francis has drawn a generally positive response from the secular world, even though he made it clear that the church still considered homosexuality a sin.
(He has also struck a conservative note on the issue of women priests, saying the church had spoken and said no; but he said the role of women must not be confined to that of "altar girls" or the leadership of charities. Actually, even reaffirming women's ability to head major charities would be a step forward; under the previous pope, a British woman, Lesley-Ann Knight, lost her position as head of Caritas, a huge Catholic charity, after Vatican infighting.)
So far people have generally taken at face value the image of Francis as a "barefoot pope" who is personally modest, feels compassion for the disadvantaged and is endowed with a basic human warmth that his predecessor seemed at times to lack. He is simply likeable, and that ensures that he commands some respectful attention (even from those who disagree with him) when he seems to be speaking from the heart.
In the leader of a religious organisation whose core beliefs are not open to negotiations, style matters a lot. People can sense hypocrisy and pomposity, and they can also sense the opposite.
"If someone is gay, who searches for the Lord and has goodwill, who am I to judge?” (Pope Frances)
Pope Francis will change the Catholic Church, says liberation theologian Leonardo Boff. DW spoke with him about mass demonstrations in Brazil and his expectations for the new pope.
DW: Why does Christianity need a pope in the 21st century?
Leonardo Boff: Basically we shouldn't need a pope. The church could build a network of religious communities which communicate with each other as it had when it was founded. But during the period of the Roman Empire, Christianity turned into an institution with political duties, so that it became a center of power. It is very characteristic for this pope that he refused to cover his head with the golden miter after his election. He said: “Carnival is over, I don't want this.”
mitre ：禮帽；主教帽；牧冠；法冠；制帽：教會高級聖職人士行聖儀時所戴用的禮冠。拉丁文稱作 mitra 。
Pope Francis' popularity stems from his openness to the people
Will this pope turn the Vatican upside down?
Pope Francis is a pope of change. This is new. His predecessors John Paul II and Benedict XVI wanted the church to maintain its continuity. Francis has now started to reform the papacy.
I think this pope will create a dynasty of popes from the Third World. Only 24 percent of the world's Christians live in Europe while 62 percent live in Latin America and the rest in Asia and Africa. Today, Christianity is a religion of the Third World which originated in the first world. It has its own sources and traditions, heroes, martyrs, prophets and personalities like the Bishop of Recife, Dom Helder Camara, or the people's saint Oscar Romero. These churches bring new life into Christianity.
Where does your optimism come from? The problems are still the same: divorced people who get re-married are excluded from the Eucharist, homosexuals suffer discrimination and women are not allowed to become priests or deacons.
The pope gave a clear example. When he heard that a priest in Rome would not baptize an illegitimate child he said, "There are no illegitimate daughters or sons - there are only children. The mother has the right to have her child baptized. The church must open its doors to everyone." Until now it's been forbidden to talk about sexual morality, celibacy and homosexuality. Theologians and priests who did not conform were censored. Nowadays these topics are open for discussion.
In recent weeks hundreds of thousands of Brazilians have been demonstrating against corrupt politicians and expensive football stadiums. What was their goal?
They are simply unhappy with their country because of its extreme social injustice. Forty-three percent of the country's income is controlled by 5,000 Brazilian families. Even the Workers Party PT has reached its limits. It has the option of changing and renewing its relationship to the social movements, or of turning into a party like any other which is only after power and allows itself to become corrupt.
The Brazilian middle class do not seem enthusiastic about the social programs of the government. Do they feel neglected?
During Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva's presidency the rich became richer but the poor were also taken out of poverty. It was a win-win situation. The Workers Party PT has been redistributing the wealth. Redistribution means taking from the well-off and supporting the poorer classes of the population with the proceeds. But in this case, this principle was not applied to those with the largest wealth: the government has taken the money from the middle-class who have lost income thereby.
Will the Brazilian politicians listen to the pope's words politely at World Youth Day and then forget them?
This pope's style is very important for Latin America. He puts poor people and social justice first. This will strengthen the new democracies which were created from the resistance to military dictatorship and have adopted successful social policies. The pope has an important political role. He can move masses. There is not one politician - not even Obama - who can bring more than a million people together.
But the Catholic Church has lost much influence, even in Latin America…
The Catholic Church in Brazil is going through a crisis as an institution. Measured by the number of Catholics, Brazil should have 100,000 priests, but there are only 17,000. The Evangelicals and the Pentecostalists have taken over the institutional vacuum left by the Catholic Church. The people are religious: they follow anyone who talks about God. After all there are many paths leading to God. Basically, the Catholic Church is in charge of baptism, weddings, and funerals; the life beyond the grave is looked after by Spiritualism; and people go to the Afro-Brazilian Macumba cults when it comes to matters of love and luck. Brazil is a huge religious supermarket where every one chooses his own product.
Leonardo Boff (74) is a Brazilian liberation theologian, author and campaigner for the rights of the poor and disadvantaged. The Vatican banned him from teaching in 1992 after he criticized the leadership of the Catholic Church. He's now a professor of theology, ethics and philosophy at universities all over the world.
新教宗聖號方濟 暗示親貧改革 /Francis of Assisi, St （他是真正實行基督教教...
Pier Paolo Cito/Associated Press
當他1998年晉升為家鄉的大主教時﹐他放棄了前任大主教使用的宮殿式住所﹐而是選擇了五月廣場(Plaza de Mayo)上的大教堂隔壁的一個小公寓﹐並且在那裡自己做飯吃。
這位新教皇用意大利語發表了就任後的首次講話﹐他穿著白色的拖地長袍出現在聖彼得大教堂(St. Peter's Basilica)的陽台上﹐他的第一句話是﹐兄弟姐妹們﹐晚上好。
Sergio Rubin/Associated Press
伯 格里奧在擔任樞機主教時﹐每天早上四點半起床並即興佈道。他生於布宜諾斯艾利斯的意大利移民家庭。伯格里奧曾在德國學習神學﹐1969年被任命為耶穌會牧 師。1992年﹐他被任命為主教﹐六年後被任命為布宜諾斯艾利斯大主教。2001年他被約翰•保羅二世(John Paul II)任命為樞機主教。
伯 格里奧樞機喜愛阿根廷的民族音樂探戈﹐也是布宜諾斯艾利斯聖洛倫索競技俱樂部(Club Atletico San Lorenzo de Almagro)的球迷（該俱樂部由洛倫索神父創立）﹐作為牧師﹐他幫助問題孩子走上正途。該俱樂部的官方網站上有一張伯格里奧拿著一件球衣的照片。
當 地的牧師斯卡富羅(Pino Scafuro)說﹐伯格里奧在擔任布宜諾斯艾利斯大主教時參加過當地一個靈恩派的彌撒（靈恩派信奉一種以聖靈為中心的信仰﹐與福音會教徒有一些相似的活 動﹐比如在禮拜的時候歡快地唱歌）。在彌撒過後﹐他被信眾們簇擁﹐於是斯卡富羅給他拿了一把踮腳凳﹐他可以站在上面﹐這樣更容易看清大家﹐更方便向大家致意。斯卡富羅說﹐伯格里奧樞機拒絕了他的好意﹐他說﹐他想要與大家站在同樣的高度上。
美國得克薩斯大學奧斯汀分校(University of Texas at Austin)的歷史和宗教研究教授加勒德-伯奈特(Virginia Garrard-Burnett)說﹐伯格里奧有著很強的社會正義立場﹐教會中更為進步的勢力會欣賞這一點﹔不過伯格里奧肯定不是自由派。
Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images
在 一個鮮明地分為極左翼和極右翼的國家﹐伯格里奧在政治上一直謹慎行事。儘管他常常批評拉美巨大的貧富差距﹐但他在上世紀60年代和70年代卻從未效仿其他 很多耶穌會士的做法追隨“解放神學”。當時的運動意在提高該地區窮人的生活水平。這一運動與在各地掀起武裝反抗活動的馬克思主義攪在一起﹐有些情況下﹐反 對的是右翼獨裁統治。
據 美聯社(Associated Press)報道﹐伯格里奧對他阿根廷籍傳記作者說﹐他常常藏匿逃亡者﹐幫助他們躲避阿根廷政府的追捕。當兩位耶穌會神父遭綁架時﹐他說﹐他說服了一位軍 政府領導人的神父謊稱生病打電話請假﹐讓他可以代替這位神父在該領導人的家裡做彌撒﹐請他發發慈悲。兩位耶穌會神父最後獲釋。
伯格里奧與 阿根廷左翼總統克里斯蒂娜•基什內爾(Cristina Kirchner)及其已故的丈夫、前任總統內斯托爾•基什內爾(Nestor Kirchner)關係可以說冷至冰點。2003年﹐在內斯托爾•基什內爾就任總統一年後的一次講道中﹐伯格里奧抨擊了他認為阿根廷公共生活中屢見不鮮的 風頭主義和咄咄逼人的表態。外界認為這是在毫不掩飾地批評內斯托爾•基什內爾。
JOHN LYONS / KEN PARKS / MATTHEW COWLEY
As a prince of the Roman Catholic Church and the archbishop of Buenos Aires, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was often addressed as 'Your Eminence,' but he told those he met he preferred to simply be 'Father Jorge.'
The bespectacled 76-year-old, who was elevated Wednesday by his church to be its supreme pontiff, is widely described as a man of simplicity. He takes the subway dressed in the black garb of a priest rather than flashy red vestments of a cardinal.
When he was promoted to archbishop of his hometown in 1998, he eschewed the palatial residence used by his predecessors and opted instead for a small apartment next door to the cathedral on the Plaza de Mayo, where he cooked his own meals.
That modesty was reflected in his choice of papal name: Francis, after the Italian friar born into wealth in 12th-century Assisi, but who chose to live a life of poverty and who is also venerated for his love of animals.
The new leader's first words in Italian, as he emerged on the balcony of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome wearing the white flowing robes of the papacy on Wednesday, were: 'Brothers and sisters, good evening.'
That elicited raucous cheers from the mostly Italian crowd below, many of whom considered the new pope a close second to getting another Italian pope after 35 years since the last one.
'I would like to ask you: Pray for me,' the new pontiff said. It was the understated beginning of a papacy that church observers might expect from his Jesuit order, which is known for promoting education and working closely with the poor.
The former Cardinal Bergoglio, who awakens at 4:30 a.m. and improvises his sermons, was born in Buenos Aires to Italian immigrants. Pope Francis studied theology in Germany and was ordained as a Jesuit priest in 1969. He was appointed as bishop in 1992 and six years later was named archbishop of Buenos Aires. He was named a cardinal by Pope John Paul II in 2001.
A lover of tango, Argentina's national music, Cardinal Bergoglio is a fan of the San Lorenzo soccer club in Buenos Aires, which was founded by Father Lorenzo, a priest who helped get at-risk kids off the street. The club has a picture on its website of the cardinal holding one of its jerseys.
The new pope is also regarded as a bridge builder who may bring an image of humility to a church beset by scandal. People who know him say he has long visited working-class slums, true to his Jesuit origins.
When he was archbishop of Buenos Aires, he attended a Mass for a local charismatic organization─a movement which practices a holy spirit-centered faith that shares some practices with evangelicals, including lively singing at services─according to Pino Scafuro, a local priest. After the Mass, he was swarmed by the faithful, so Father Pino offered the church leader a stool to stand on so he could see and greet everyone more easily. Cardinal Bergoglio declined the offer, saying he wanted to be 'on the same level as the people,' according to Father Pino.
'He's got a very strong social-justice position that will be much appreciated by the more progressive forces in the church,' said Virginia Garrard-Burnett, professor of history and religious studies at the University of Texas at Austin. Although he's certainly not a liberal.'
The new pontiff has walked a fine line politically in a country that has often been sharply divided between hard left and hard right. While he has frequently criticized the large gap between rich and poor in Latin America, he never followed many of his fellow Jesuits in pursuing Liberation Theology in the 1960s and 1970s, a movement that sought to lift the living standards for the region's poor. The movement became entwined with Marxist ideologies that were inspiring armed rebellion across the region, in several cases against right-wing dictatorships.
'He didn't want to politicize the company of Christ,' his spokesman, Guillermo Marco, told Argentina's Clarin daily.
Pope Francis was the head of the Argentine Jesuits during the country's brutal 1976-1983 military dictatorship, during which tens of thousands of suspected subversives were killed, including several Jesuits. In the aftermath of the so called 'dirty war' the Jesuit leader was accused of failing to forcefully confront the regime and tacitly condoning it by overlooking evidence of abuses.
In public speeches, Pope Francis has denied condoning the illegal activities. His supporters maintained that directly confronting the regime risked his death.
Pope Francis told his Argentine biographer that he regularly hid fugitives from the Argentine government, reported the Associated Press. And when two Jesuit priests were kidnapped, he said he convinced a Junta leader's priest to call in sick so he might celebrate Mass at the general's home and plead for mercy. The men were released.
The new pontiff has had a frosty relationship with Argentina's leftist President Cristina Kirchner and her late husband and predecessor, Néstor. In a homily a year after Mr. Kirchner assumed office in 2003, the new pope assailed 'exhibitionism and strident announcements' that he said characterized Argentine public life, in what was perceived as a thinly veiled critique of Mr. Kirchner.
Mr. Kirchner's followers suggested that at the time, the then-archbishop was a reactionary and the late president later shot back in what was seen as a swipe at the Argentine cleric. 'Our God belongs to all, but watch out the devil also reaches everyone, those of us that wear pants and those that wear cassocks,' Mr. Kirchner said.
In Argentina, the new pope is seen as conservative on social issues and has come out strongly against abortion and gay marriage. During a debate over a bill to legalize gay marriage that was eventually approved by Argentina's Congress in 2010, then-Cardinal Bergoglio strongly condemned the proposal in a public letter.
He wrote: 'Let's not be naive: this isn't just a simple political fight, it is the destructive pretension against the plan of God.'
JOHN LYONS / KEN PARKS / MATTHEW COWLEY