2016年3月31日 星期四

Harriet Mills (1920-2016) 在中國接受「思想改造」

Harriet Mills, Scholar Held in ‘Brainwashing Prison’ in China, Dies at 95

在中國接受「思想改造」的美國學者逝世

Harriet Mills, a Fulbright scholar from New York who was imprisoned as an American spy in Communist China for more than four years and was widely believed to have been a victim of brainwashing, died on March 5 in Mitchelville, Md. She was 95.
紐約富布賴特(Fulbright)學者哈麗雅特·米爾斯(Harriet Mills)於3月5日在馬里蘭州米特徹維勒去世,享年95歲。米爾斯曾被當作美國間諜在共產主義中國監禁四年多,被廣泛認為是洗腦的受害者。
The cause was complications of dementia, said her sister, Angie, her only immediate survivor.
米爾斯的姐妹安吉(Angie)表示,她因為失智症併發症而去世。安吉是米爾斯唯一在世的家人。
When she was released in 1955, Ms. Mills described herself as an unpaid “espionage agent” for the United States and Britain, called Americans “warmongers” and said she believed that the United States had engaged in germ warfare during the Korean War.
在1955年獲釋時,米爾斯稱自己是美國和英國的無薪「間諜」,稱美國人是「好戰者」,並表示自己相信美國在朝鮮戰爭期間發動了細菌戰。
“The Communists had a perfect right to arrest me,’’ she said. “I confessed from the very day I was arrested.”
「共產黨完全有權逮捕我,」她說。「我從被捕的那天開始懺悔。」
She never publicly recanted, her sister said, but made clear that she been indoctrinated by the Chinese.
安吉表示,她從未公開收回之前的言論,但明確表明自己被中國人洗腦。
“In the conversations I had with her,’’ Angie Mills said, “she said this is something they pressured her to do, something that had been drilled into her, that she was spouting what they said.”
「在我與她的交談中,」安吉·米爾斯說。「她說這是他們強迫她做的,她被灌輸了這些東西,她會喋喋不休地說他們說過的話。」
Ms. Mills later wrote a magazine article saying the Chinese government was engaged in the “greatest campaign in human history to reshape the minds of men.”
米爾斯後來為一本雜誌寫了一篇文章,稱中國政府開展了「人類歷史上最偉大的人類思想重塑運動」。
Writing in The Atlantic Monthly in 1959, she said the “complex interplay of psychological and personal factors gives the technique its special character and power,” and concluded that “to be unprogressive in China is not simply a political verdict; it is social suicide as well.”
1959年,她在《大西洋月刊》(The Atlantic Monthly)撰文稱,「心理及個人因素之間複雜的相互作用,讓這種手段有了特別的個性和力量,」並斷定,「在中國,落後不僅僅是一種政治判決,也是一種社交自殺。」
After leaving China, Ms. Mills spent two years recovering from tuberculosis and rarely discussed her captivity.
離開中國後,米爾斯花了兩年時間才治好結核病,她很少談起被囚禁的事情。
She later taught at Columbia, Cornell and the University of Michigan, specializing in Chinese language and modern literature, before her retirement in 1990. She returned to China for academic conferences in 1976, 1989 and 1999.
她後來到哥倫比亞大學、康奈爾大學和密歇根大學教書,專門教授中文和現代文學,於1990年退休。她在1976年、1989年和1999年回到中國參加學術會議。
Harriet Cornelia Mills was born in Tokyo on April 2, 1920, to Presbyterian missionaries, Wilson Mills and the former Cornelia Seyle.
長老會傳教士米爾斯(Wilson Mills)和科妮莉亞·賽勒(Cornelia Seyle)於1920年4月2日在東京生下了哈麗雅特·科妮莉亞·米爾斯。
She attended American schools in Nanjing and Shanghai, graduated from Wellesley College in 1941 with a degree in English literature, and earned a master’s and doctorate from Columbia University in Chinese. She was a Fulbright scholar and studied at what was then called Peking College of Chinese Studies and Peking University.
她在南京和上海的時候就讀於美國學校,於1941年從威爾斯利學院(Wellesley College)畢業,獲得英語文學學位,並在哥倫比亞大學拿到了中文碩士及博士學位。她是一名富布賴特學者,曾在當時名為燕京華文學校和燕京大學的學校學習。
When the Korean War erupted in 1950, she and two other Fulbright scholars applied for exit visas, but were rejected.
1950年朝鮮戰爭爆發時,她和其他兩名富布賴特學者申請離境簽證,但遭到拒絕。
In July 1951, they were arrested as counter-revolutionaries, in part because they were being paid by the United States government as Fulbright scholars and possessed a shortwave radio.
他們在1951年7月1日被逮捕,被當做反革命分子,部分是因為他們作為富布賴特學者獲得了美國政府的資助,而且有一台短波收音機。
According to her sister, Ms. Mills was periodically restrained in handcuffs or ankle chains after repudiating one of her confessions, was denied contact with her family until the fourth year of imprisonment and was subject to “thought reform.”
據她的姐妹透露,有時在否認一項供狀後,米爾斯會被戴上手銬和腳鏈,並不允許她與家人聯繫,直到被監禁的第四年,並接受了「思想改造」。
But when she reached Hong Kong on Oct. 31, 1955, she said that she had been treated “with the utmost consideration and courtesy” and that the Chinese government had “a genuine desire for peace.”
但當她在1955年10月31日到達香港後,稱自己受到「極大關心和禮貌對待」,中國政府「對和平的嚮往是真誠的」。
Her release followed intense lobbying by her parents, the American Red Cross and the State Department. The two other Fulbright scholars arrested with her had been released in October 1954 and September 1955.
在米爾斯的父母、美國紅十字會(American Red Cross)和國務院(State Department)的大力遊說下,米爾斯獲釋。其他兩名同時被捕的富布賴特學者分別在1954年10月和1955年9月獲釋。
Her recollections about being interrogated were said to have been delivered to Dr. Harold Wolff, a Cornell neuropsychiatrist, who studied Chinese and Soviet indoctrination techniques for the Central Intelligence Agency.
米爾斯有關受審經歷的回憶錄據稱交給了康奈爾大學神經精神病學家哈羅德·沃爾夫(Harold Wolff),他曾為中央情報局(Central Intelligence Agency)研究中國和蘇聯的洗腦手段。
In his 1956 book, “Brainwashing: The Story of the Men Who Defied It,” Edward Hunter, a propaganda specialist for the Office of Strategic Services during World War II, wrote that Ms. Mills’s prison “mind reform” had continued for more than two years, making her “one of the longest occupants of the brainwashing prison.”
在二戰戰略情報局宣傳專家愛德華·洪德(Edward Hunter)1956年出版的《抗拒洗腦者的故事》(Brainwashing: The Story of the Men Who Defied It)一書中寫道,米爾斯在監獄的「思想改造」持續了兩年多,她因此成為「在洗腦監獄關押時間最長的人之一」。
By cooperating, Mr. Hunter said, she was given more responsibility and, after a visit by British Labour Party leaders changed nothing, she became more resigned to her fate, assumed a new sense of belonging and began singing Communist songs.
洪德說她在願意合作後獲得了更多信任,但在英國工黨領袖的訪問沒有帶來改變之後,她變得更加聽從命運,有了一種新的歸屬感,開始唱共產主義歌曲。
翻譯:紐約時報中文網
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