2016年1月8日 星期五

Charles Handy 新書:給孫兒一代: ‘The Second Curve’

BBC 很妙,竟然有這種簡易的管理大師介紹,還有英文註解。
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/work/handy/handybiography.shtml
他來過台灣:著作單中可能有4~5本有漢譯。幾本書中都有他生命的故事。太太是攝影師,所以他公開的玉照都經過品管.....

我在1998年的"《轉危為安》 一首值得傳唱的史詩"有這樣一段:
這種整體思辨的思考方式,將成為讀者與作者對話時難以跨越的門檻。譯者有幸與某些戴明博士肯定的「導師」們砌磋,對於作者的「淵博知識體系」 Deming’s Profound Knowledge System,也可譯為「成淵之學」或「深遠知識」)之智慧,稍有認識,所以願藉本文來協助讀者作一次簡單的導遊,希望讀者能入寶山(本書為現代許多新管理學理念的百科全書)而有所得。本書可能成為傳世之作,誠如名管理哲學家韓第(Charles Handy)在其《非理性的時代》(The Age of Unreason)所說的,本書是所有主管都該讀的重要作品。韓第更學戴明式的思考法說:人類在思想上追求「真理」;而組織、企業的「真理」是什麼呢?「品質」是也!


今天讀到戴久永老師的文摘:
Chiuyung Tai· 管理大師韓第(Charles Handy)如是說
韓第:「有些人不知道自己想做什麼,只好在一個組織ㄧ待幾十年。很多組織的員工雖然名義上有工作,做的事情卻很少,對組織沒有多大的貢獻。對他們而言,工作沒什麼趣味,只不過是ㄧ個餬口的工作。我們應該鼓勵這樣的人去思考他們的第二段人生的可能。」
韓第:「如果你要讓你後面的人生過得好,你必須做幾個準備。首先,一定要為這些日子存錢。其次,不要以為你老了就是每天去打高爾夫球,此外無所事事,而是要讓你的心靈和身體都保持活躍。」
韓第:「誠實面對自己,不要裝作ㄧ個不是自己的人。」
韓第:「我們每個人都是葛拉威爾 ( Malcolm Gladwell )在《引爆趨勢》( The Tipping Point )ㄧ書中所謂的專家、連結者和推銷員三者的混合體。」專家:聰明而對觀念感興趣的人連結者:會交際而善於建立關係的人推銷者:說服力強而具有魅力的人韓第:「我的問題不在入錯了行,而是我對當時所做的事情不夠熱情。熱情可以使最不可能的人成為推銷員和連結者,假使你的意願夠強,幾乎任何事你都能做,而且一定做得成。」韓第:「成功的人生並不等於先知道做什麼再行動,而是剛好相反。只有在行動、實驗、質疑與再行動中,才能發現自己是誰,是塊什麼料子。這正是我自己的經驗。」韓第:「ㄧ個人被記住,不是因為他怎麼賺到錢,而是他怎麼花錢。我們的ㄧ生其實是在尋找自己的身分。臨死還不知道自己真正是誰、自己真正的能力,就真的很可憐。」韓第:「艾略特 ( T.S. Eliot )經常被引用的ㄧ段詩句是:『我們ㄧ切的探索將結束於抵達原點,我們將首次認識那個地方。』」向外看的人在做夢;向內看的人可以覺醒。


Learning English
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The Handy Guide to the Gurus of Management
Charles Handy was, for many years, a professor at the London Business School. He is now an independent writer and broadcaster. He describes himself, these days, as a social philosopher.
Charles Handy
Picture courtesy of Elizabeth Handy
Episode 2: Charles Handy - biography
Charles Handy was born in Kildare, Ireland, in 1932 and was educated in England and in the United States. He graduated from Oriel College, Oxford, with first-class honours in 'Greats', a study of classics, history and philosophy.
After college, Handy worked for Shell International in South-East Asia and London and then entered the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Here Handy met Warren Bennis, Chris Argyris, Ed Schein and Mason Haire, and became interested in organizations and how they work.

He returned to England in 1967 to manage the Sloan Programme at Britain's first Graduate Business School in London. In 1972, Handy became a full Professor at the School, specializing in managerial psychology.

From 1977 to 1981, Handy worked at a conference and study centre in Windsor Castle which was concerned with ethics and values in society.

He was chairman of the Royal Society of Arts in London from 1987 to 1989 and holds honorary doctorates from seven British Universities. He is known to many in Britain for his 'Thoughts for Today' on the BBC Radio Today programme.

Handy and his wife Elizabeth, who is also his business partner, have two adult children and share their time between homes in England and Italy.

Bibliography:
'Understanding Organizations', London 1976 Penguin
'The Future of Work', Oxford 1984 Basil Blackwell
'Gods of Management', London 1986 Business Books
'The Making of Managers', London 1988 Longman
'The Age of Unreason', London 1989 Business Books
'The Empty Raincoat', London 1994 Hutchinson
'The Hungry Spirit', London 1997 Hutchinson


Back to Charles Handy
More useful words :
graduated
obtained a degree at a university
first-class honours
the highest grade of a university degree

classics
the languages, literature and history of ancient Greece and Rome

entered
took part in, as a student

ethics and values
moral rules or principles of behaviour

chairmanthe person who is in charge of company directors' meetings

honorary doctorates
the university degree for a doctor, given as an honour, not according to the usual rules

business partner
a person who shares a business activity with someone
Links:
BBC World Business
Business Words in the News
Other gurus
The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites




        Image result for The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society
    The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society
    Book
    4.2/5·Goodreads
    Britain's leading guru looks to the future. Charles Handy is one of the giants of contemporary thought. His books on management – including Understanding Organizations and Gods of Management – have changed the way we view business. ... Google Books
    Originally publishedMarch 12, 2015

    商學院要在走下坡前啟動第二曲線

    精華簡文

    商學院要在走下坡前啟動第二曲線
    圖片來源:GettyImages提供

    商學院要在走下坡前啟動第二曲線

    作者:吳怡靜  天下雜誌589期
    去年的英國大選前夕,《獨立報》找來百位名人撰文,題目是「假如我是首相……」。
    受邀的管理大師韓第(Charles Handy)回答:「假如我當上首相,我的使命將是推動社會的再平衡。當前的社會,金錢、權力和影響力都過度集中在少數人手上。人民應該在攸關自己權益的事情上,擁有更多控制權,如此將帶來一個新的開始,也就是我所說的第二曲線。」
    這位歐洲最富盛名的管理思想家,替自己的新書《第二曲線:社會再造的新思惟》(The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society),做了成功的置入性行銷。
    即將邁向八十四歲的韓第,多年來寫作不輟,十幾本著作,無不針對當代企業組織結構與工作型態,提出發人深省的敏銳觀察。
    第二曲線,其實是他二十年前就提出的觀念,主張無論個人或企業,都應該在第一條曲線尚未走下坡前,為自己開創第二曲線,簡單說,就是鼓吹大膽改變的必要。
    不僅未來社會必須改變,韓第認為,商學院也亟需趕快找出新的曲線,否則五到十年內,必將被淘汰。以下是他二○一五年中,在歐洲管理發展基金會的演講摘要:
    七○年代中期,我還是倫敦商學院的MBA課程主任時,就開始思索企管教育出了什麼問題。
    那時,我們借鏡美國,採用教室教學模式,但我很快就發現了這種模式的限制,而且因為某些原因,我們並未參考其他專業學院的做法──建築、法律、醫學或會計等學院不只做課堂教學,還加入了學徒訓練制。
    我當時覺得,MBA一詞代表的,其實更像是企業分析碩士(Master of Business Analysis)。我們變成在培養顧問,而不是管理者;最優秀的學生一畢業就被顧問公司和投資銀行搶走了。這並不是我們想看到的。
    不只這樣,商學院的老師為了升等,多只注重發表研究而不加強教學能力,學校裡山頭林立,老師上課都在「教研究主題」,而不是「教學生」。他們幾乎都是純粹的學術派,從不曾把理論實際應用到企業或任何組織中。問題是,你光知道What,並不保證就會知道How或者Why。
    我們的商學院雖然做得很成功,卻稱不上有變革能力的教育機構。這是一個失焦的制度,我很擔心,這所商學院教出了一群聰明但缺乏必要能力的畢業生,而全世界迫切需要的,卻是有效的領導人和管理者。
    這都是四十年前的事了。當年,商學院在歐洲還很少見,如今全世界到處都有,總數超過了一萬家,光是印度就有近五千家。MBA成了一種全球性招牌,被很多年輕人視為找到高薪工作的門票。
    我的種種憂慮,大概沒人要理會,因為商學院蓬勃發展,已經成了現代的成功故事。然而,「成功」會讓人對問題故意視而不見,深信未來會繼續像過去一樣美好。
    這種想法對嗎?或者,他們其實已經不自覺地走上了通往大衛酒館的那條路?
    走上通往大衛酒館之路
    「大衛酒館」(Davy's Bar)的故事,發生在多年前。有天,我開車經過都柏林近郊的威克洛山,不小心迷了路。附近正好有人在遛狗,我就停下來問他,這是不是通往艾沃卡鎮的那條路?
    「沒錯,」他說,「很簡單啦,你繼續往前面山上開,兩、三公里後,再往下面走一公里,就會來到溪邊小橋,看到小橋對面的大衛酒館,酒館外觀是紅色的,你絕對不會錯過。清楚嗎?」
    「應該吧。」
    「很好,離酒館還有半公里時,記得轉向右邊的路上山,一直走就會到艾沃卡。」
    開車離去時,我因為沒聽清楚他的最後叮嚀,所以一路開到了酒館,才又繞了一圈去找原來該走的路。
    我一邊開車,一邊思索,現實生活中,我們是無法這樣走的:錯過了路,再掉頭回去找路。
    我看過太多企業,因為錯過了轉向未來的關鍵路口,最後都來到了他們的「大衛酒館」,發現為時已晚,再也無法回頭,只能懷念過去,感嘆錯失了改變的機會。
    這個體悟,讓我在後來發展出「西格瑪曲線」(Sigmoid Curve,又稱橫向S曲線)法則,一個適用於個人、企業、組織和政府的萬物法則。
    所有的事物,都從資源的投入開始,資源也許是金錢、想法或教育。在初始階段,投入(input)會大於產出(output)。接著,這條線開始反轉向上,不斷成長、茁壯,一路到頂,然後開始往下衰落。最後的衰亡是不可避免的,我們只能決定這條曲線要延續多久、現在要站在哪個點。
    但是,還有另一條出路:我們可以創造第二、甚至第三曲線。
    關鍵在於,你必須在第一曲線到頂之前,就開始創造第二曲線,否則不會有足夠的資源或能量,來支應第二曲線所需的初期投資。
    這個辦法聽來容易,做起來卻非常困難,因為它要求你在最成功的階段,在凡事無往不利、大家都想維持現狀的時刻,就開始思考改變,創造新的曲線。
    商學院已走到曲線頂端
    今天的商學院,位在第一曲線的哪個階段?有些人認為,距離巔峰還很遠,但是,加大柏克萊分校哈斯商學院院長里昂斯卻預測,美國的商學院有一半將會在十年之內關門。哈佛教授克里斯汀生也預言,十五年內,將有一半的美國大學宣告破產。而且,念商學院的成本愈來愈高,兩年制課程的平均學費高達十二萬美元,是線上MBA課程的十倍。
    我認為,全世界大部份的商學院都已經走到曲線的頂端,甚至可能過了巔峰。毫無疑問,他們即將面臨各種新線上課程的「破壞式創新」衝擊。
    變動往往趁人不備,悄然來臨,等你發現時,別人已經跑在前面。這些入侵者趕在現任者之前搶得先機,早一步展開了第二曲線。
    弔詭的是,商學院開始要走下坡,但企業卻愈來愈需要商學院。因為企業正變得愈來愈複雜,規模愈來愈大,也愈來愈自私,他們同樣需要找出第二曲線──讓企業定義新的目的、新的架構、新的價值,以及新的領導。
    商學院的機會,就在於如何把他們的第二曲線,與企業需要的第二曲線,巧妙搭配。問題是,他們能不能迎接這個挑戰?
    商學院大概還有五到十年的時間,可以在維持現有課程的同時,設法找出新的曲線──這就是我的簡圖裡(見上圖),兩條曲線開始重疊的地方──這段時間可以讓他們進行試驗。
    轉型為領導力學院和智庫
    所以,對商學院來說,這條第二曲線應該包含哪些要點?我建議,電腦和網路能做的事,就交給它們去做吧,商學院要做的,是它們無法做到的。讓線上課程去教What;學校應該專注於傳授How與Why。
    第一,商學院應該聚焦在管理者培育(manager development),而不是管理教育(management education),這兩者極為不同。管理者培育的重點,是走出大學,走入企業組織。它會需要不一樣的師資,不一樣的教師獎酬制度。或許,未來的商學院應該變成領導力學院。
    第二,未來的新學院,不該只專注於闡述企業實務的研究,應該把自己變成智庫,不斷探索未來──企業的未來、資本主義的未來、組織發展、監管者角色等。
    這些都是艱難的挑戰,需要做出巨大的改變,但如果不做,我擔心商學院將找不回昔日輝煌,被時間給淘汰。
    - See more at: http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?
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    內有精彩訪談:http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/2d431aba-c0c8-11e4-9949-00144feab7de.html#axzz3wdLGEsTY

    Review: ‘The Second Curve’ by Charles Handy

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The Second Curve reads less like the self-indulgent reflections of a comfortably-off octogenarian than the bracing manifesto of a forward-looking radical.
For instance, Handy gently but forcefully airs the following ideas. The “giants of business and finance” should be dismantled into their component parts. Companies should be remade as “citizen organisations”, like universities. Corporate pay should be governed by a set ratio between the highest and lowest paid.
Britain’s adversarial House of Commons — with government and opposition benches facing each other — should be replaced with a horseshoe-shaped chamber.
Handy has long suggested that people should jump to the “second curve” of their careers, however scary the prospect, before the first one turns downward.
He began his own second curve just before his 50th birthday, when he leapt into a role as a freelance management “guru” (a term he claims to dislike even though it adorns his promotional material).
The Second Curve
He has since forecast how business and society will develop, using a series of striking metaphors.
The book, then, is a useful primer of Handy’s ideas for anyone who is unfamiliar with his work. But it is far more than that. Here, Handy extends the second curve idea from individuals to society, capitalism and government, all of which he believes require a rethink before it is too late.
Many of the institutional breakwaters behind which Handy and subsequent generations could shelter — schools and universities, companies, friendships, marriages and pensions — are under threat, he writes. While there will always be organisations of some sort, predicting what they will look like a few years from now is hard. Old authorities have lost their power.
“When there is no one to tell you what to do, the why and how of our lives is more than ever up for grabs,” he writes.
But the book is as much about the opportunities of what Handy calls “the DIY society” as it is about the risks. If people teach themselves the art of “self-responsibility” — how to take care of their own education, health and finances, for instance — they will flourish.

The Second Curve successfully channels the energy and enthusiasm of the younger generation, in whom Handy places great hope. Older readers may react to his ideas in the same way that their ancestors reacted to Victorian mail pioneer Rowland Hill’sproposal for a “penny post”: “The scheme was mocked for its impracticality and Hill for his impertinence for dabbling in matters beyond his concern,” Handy writes.
The difference is that Handy’s prescience over the decades has earned him the right to dabble and, given his record, you would not want to bet against some of his radical ideas coming true.

The writer is the FT’s management editor


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