2015年7月30日 星期四

APJ Abdul Kalam 1931-2015





A. P. J. Abdul Kalam





Kalam at the International Book Fair, Trivandrum, 2014






阿卜杜爾·卡拉姆(英語:Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam Maraikkayar,印地語:अवुल पकिर जैनुलाअबदीन अब्दुल कलाम,泰米爾語:அவுல் பகிர் ஜைனுலாப்தீன் அப்துல் கலாம்,1931年10月15日-2015年7月27日),被譽為印度「飛彈之父」[2][3],第11任印度總統
生平[編輯]


1931年10月15日生於印度南方的泰米爾納德邦的特努什戈迪,是伊斯蘭教徒,父親是村務委員會的領導,未受過太好的教育。


卡拉姆小時候曾在一個印度聖城賣報紙[4][5][6][7]。1958年取得馬德拉斯理工學院航太工程碩士學位。畢業後加入印度國防研究與發展研究組織,1963年,開始在印度空間研究組織從事航天技術研究工作,在卡拉姆的努力下,導彈研製成了印度國防科技領域最大的亮點。大地、烈火、三叉戟等一系列導彈的點火升空,為他贏得了印度「導彈之父」的美名。


1982年,擔任印度國防研究和發展組織(DRDO)的負責人。因為在印度國防科研領域的突出貢獻,1997年印度政府將印度最高文職獎「印度獎」頒發給這位被人稱為「導彈之父」的老人。他是惟一獲得該獎的科學家。


卡拉姆是一位傳奇人物,是一位執著於事業的人,但也有很多凡人的一面。他平日生活儉樸,衣著隨意,一頭銀色的卷髮在印度可算是風格鮮明。


卡拉姆還是個素食者,而且滴酒不沾。據卡拉姆自己說,最初素食是因為當時拮據的生活狀態,到後來經濟寬裕了,但素食的習慣卻保留下來。除了淵博的知識,所有接觸過卡拉姆的人還被他的直爽和平易近人所折服。不僅如此,他還是出色的管理者,「印度太空研究組織」的成功就是最好的證明。


2002年7月,當選印度總統。卡拉姆在印度人民院獲得當時執政的印度人民黨和在野的印度國大黨的一致支持。他的同事們說,如果他能成為印度的下一任總統,他一定會更努力地將自己的夢想變為現實。卡拉姆現在正致力於一個名叫「印度千年任務2020」的計劃,其目標是將印度帶入發達國家的行列[8]



“He raised aspirations by catalyzing a demonstration effect. By showing that it was possible to think big and look far, he did what the best leaders always do: recalibrate what people think is possible."
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, India’s former president, passed away on July 27. He...
KNOWLEDGE.WHARTON.UPENN.EDU


Former Indian President APJ Abdul Kalam died Monday at the age of 83. We spoke to him in 2008 during the Wharton India Economic Forum about his career as a scientist, his vision for India’s future and the most important traits for leaders.

Former President APJ Abdul Kalam: 'A Leader Should Know How to Manage Failure' - Knowledge@Wharton
KNOWLEDGE.WHARTON.UPENN.EDU



Wikpedia
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen "A. P. J." Abdul Kalam (i/ˈæbdʊl kəˈlɑːm/; 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. A career scientist turned reluctant politician, Kalam was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space program and military missile development efforts.[2] He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology.[3] He also played a pivotal organizational, technical and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.[4]


Kalam was elected President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the opposition Indian National Congress. After serving a term of five years, he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.









Contents

[hide]
1 Early life and education
2 Career as a scientist
3 Presidency
4 Post-presidency
5 Death
6 Writings
7 Awards and honours
8 Books and documentaries
9 See also
10 References
11 External links
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