cardinal：樞機；樞機主教；紅衣主教；教廷大臣：樞機本意為樞紐、關鍵、重要之意。樞機主教是教宗之下，教會最高的聖職幕僚，俗稱教會親王。這些 才德兼備的教會菁英，是由教宗親自甄選，協助教宗管理普世教會的事務。教宗出缺時，按法律只有他們才有權選舉教宗。因戴紅帽、穿紅衣之故，又稱紅衣主教。 共分三級：主教級、司鐸級、執事級（法典 349-350）。古時曾有俗人擔任樞機者，後來 1917年公佈的教會法典規定須是神父，實際上現在都由主教擔任。中國歷任的樞機依次為北平總教區田耕莘（1945）、南京總教區于斌（1969）、香港 教區胡振中（1988）、上海教區龔品梅（1991）、高雄教區單國璽（1998）。
Pontifical Relief Organization：宗座福利組織：成立於1953年，為宗座委員會之一。
Alfonso López Trujillo
May 1st 2008
From The Economist print edition
From The Economist print edition
Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo, Vatican enforcer, died on April 19th, aged 72
AFPIN 1995, as head of the Pontifical Council for the Family, Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo published a “Lexicon of Ambiguous and Debatable Terms”. They included “safe sex” (no such thing, unless confined to the nuptial bed); “gender” (a construct of strident feminists) and “family planning” (code for abortion). He could also throw back a few phrases of his own: “contraceptive colonialism”, “pan-sexualism”, “new paganism” and, with a special lowering of those beetling black brows, “the culture of death”.
People sometimes forgot, when they met the cardinal, that he had studied Marxism as well as theology at the Angelicum in Rome. He could neatly trade jargon for jargon in the propaganda wars. Or he could write books entitled “Liberation and Revolution” to undercut, from the right, the theologians and priests in his native Latin America who thought they had a monopoly on those words. His red cardinal's skullcap was as much a battle statement as the beret of Che Guevara. “Prepare your bombers”, he wrote to a colleague just before the opening of the Latin American Bishops' Conference in 1979. “Get into training like a boxer going into a world fight.” Every day, on every front, this was López Trujillo contra mundum.
contra mundum. 'against the world'; in defiance of all accepted belief.
The enemy was all around him. Legislators and governments across the first world who passed laws to ease divorce or ensure “gay rights” (though of course, to quote Aquinas, lex injusta non obligat). Fervently Catholic countries, like the Philippines, which adopted two-child policies to curb their surging populations. Scientists in white coats who committed murder in test tubes in the name of medical research. And round the fringes members of Act-Up, dressed as giant condoms, who leapt up and blasphemed him whenever he spoke.
“非正义的法律不是法律”(Lex injusta non est lex)
Condoms were the first enemy. In their sly, shiny packets, they invaded the poor world as insidiously as the disease they were meant to prevent. To the cardinal, there was nothing safe about them. They merely encouraged promiscuity. To hope to stop AIDS by wearing one was like “playing Russian roulette”. They were as full of tiny holes as a sieve, through which the HIV virus, “roughly 450 times smaller than the spermatozoon”, as he told the BBC, would slither with no difficulty. The World Health Organisation might claim condoms were 90% effective; he had read it in the Guardian; but “they are wrong about that”. And he was right.
He was always right, staunchly on the side of order, stability, hierarchy and God's law. The track of his life had been determined, from priest to bishop to archbishop to cardinal at 48, in one astonishing trajectory; and the direction of his ministry had been fixed on the day when, as a young priest in Colombia, he had been vouchsafed the “grace” of kissing the hands of Paul VI in the Bogotá nunciature. From that moment he took on the task of defending the “procreative mission”: the beautiful, profound, but profoundly impracticable teaching of Paul VI's Humanae Vitae, that every human sexual act must be open to the transmission of life. Against the intrinsic disorder of the human libido he proposed to reinforce, like a fortress, the institutions of family and marriage and the virtues of fidelity and chastity. On his visits to Rome he so pleaded for a family policy, browbeating the future Pope John Paul II even as they waited in the rain for a car, that John Paul in 1990 asked him to run that pontifical office for him, not knowing it would soon become a war room.
Redefining liberationIt was not the only one. Disorder had a way of impinging on his life. From 1979 to 1991, as archbishop of Medellín, he had care of souls in what was becoming the world's most violent city, a sprawl of hillside shantytowns patrolled by young assassins on motorbikes and ruled by ruthless drug lords. One, Pablo Escobar, became an ally for a time, bringing order to the cinderblock slums just as another ally, Eduardo Frei, promised to clamp down on Marxist elements in Chile and beyond. Latin America's crop of military dictators received no condemnation at the archbishop's hands. Where there was chaos, he reminded his bishops, people needed firm government.
They needed it, too, when liberation theology seeped into the region in the 1960s, bringing Jesus as a revolutionary, Christianity as an “option for the poor” and mass as a loaf of bread broken at home, without the need for priests. Dollops of Marxism, class warfare and land reform were freely added to the brew. As general-secretary and then president of the Latin American Bishops' Conference, Archbishop López Trujillo banged home the counter-idea that genuine Christian liberation meant simply energy and compassion with no change in the social order. Error was rectified as required, and the Vatican took his side.
In recent years his influence had faded. The cardinals' conclave of 2005 produced little sense that he was papabile. He was tireless, but had perhaps made too much noise. He hoped that Benedict XVI would appoint him to his own former office, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, where he could define not just the terms of sex but the rules of belief itself. But the old rottweiler, by comparison as gentle as a spaniel, looked elsewhere.
rottweiler(rŏt-) n. - 洛特維勒牧犬
- Any of several breeds of small-sized to medium-sized dogs, usually having drooping ears, short legs, and a wavy, silky coat.
- A docile or servile person.
[Middle English spainol, from Old French espaignol, Spaniard, Spanish dog, from Vulgar Latin *Hispāniōlus, Spanish, from Hispānia, Spain.]