2012年5月16日 星期三

Eisenhower Memorial


「十二位現代總統中有四位脫穎而出,他們沒有惱人的情感擾動問題:艾森豪,福特,老布希和小布希。其他四人的特點是有情感流可未明顯地損害其領導力:小羅斯福,杜魯門,甘迺迪和雷根。剩下四位,詹森,尼克森,卡特,克林頓等都有情感上障礙。堅硬如維蘇威火山石的詹森( LBJ) ,他的情緒起落之大足以必須上醫院找醫生診療。卡特的剛硬對他在白宮的表現是一個重大障礙。衝動控制上有缺陷的克林頓所導至的行動,讓他後來遭到彈劾。」

現在先介紹兩位學者的研究。首先是上文的引文的作者弗雷德‧格林斯坦(Fred I. Greenstein) 。他是美國普林斯頓大學的榮譽教授。他的著作包括 《兒童與政治》Children and Politics (1965), 《個性與政治》Personality and Politics (1969), 《深藏不露宿的總統:艾森豪作為一領導》The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader (1982), 《總統們如何考驗現實》How Presidents Test Reality (1989, with John P. Burke), 《總統的差異特色:從小羅斯福到歐巴桑馬的領導風格》The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama (2009), and 《發明總統職務:從喬治華盛頓到安德魯傑克遜》Inventing the Job of President: Leadership Style from George Washington to Andrew Jackson (2009).等等。

本章將會翻譯《總統的差異特色:從小羅斯福到布希總統的領導風格》摘要 (The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to George W. Bush. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. pp. 217-223.

見仁見智中的總統學作為領導學:以美國研究為主

美國歷任總統那五位最偉大?

摘自鍾漢清著 領導與學習:


1954317日 胡適在台北演講《美國的民主政治》。說他親歷6次美國總統大選 (1912-54 11次大選) …… 6次便是艾森豪的當選。……1952的大選,艾森豪勝利決定後,斯蒂文生Adlai E Stevenson (. 1900-1965)說:「選舉前我們彼此拼命攻擊,選舉決定後,我們彼此真誠合作。」(胡頌平《胡適之先生年譜長編初稿‧第七冊》台北:聯經,1984,頁2399) 案:本章多引過《史蒂文生 演講選》 (Looking outward ) 陳若桓譯,香港:今日世界,1967
美國總統大選多此種君子之爭,如2000年的民主黨總統候選人高 Gore 讓小布希。
到了1960114日,胡適接受中廣公司訪問他的親歷7次美國總統大選。談完之後,王大空問他:「美國歷任總統那五位最偉大?」胡適答:「華盛頓、傑弗遜、林肯、威爾遜、()羅斯福。」(胡頌平《胡適之先生年譜長編初稿‧第九冊》台北:聯經,1984,頁3356)
讀者可以從本章中了解各人對「美國歷任總統那五位最偉大?」的認知,是各有喜好的,而這更反映出個人的知識和經驗背景的差異…..不過,我們尊敬一些專家和胡適之先生等人的看法…….

Architect offers Eisenhower Memorial revisions that stress leadership over youth




Representatives of architect Frank Gehry unveiled changes to the proposed memorial honoring Dwight D. Eisenhower on Tuesday in an effort to quiet months of roiling criticism that the original failed to adequately reflect the scope of the 34th president’s achievements.
The new proposal, unveiled at an Eisenhower Memorial Commission meeting, retains the metal tapestries surrounding an urban park framework, but offers changes to the memorial core that the architect hopes will give greater prominence to Eisenhower’s stature and accomplishments.

Video
Frank Gehry talks about designing the Dwight D. Eisenhower memorial. “I fell in love with the idea of trying to represent him in this unlikely site,” Gehry said about the planned memorial.
Frank Gehry talks about designing the Dwight D. Eisenhower memorial. “I fell in love with the idea of trying to represent him in this unlikely site,” Gehry said about the planned memorial.



Gone are bas-relief sculptures in favor of three-dimensional, heroic-size statues of Eisenhower as president and general, with space for his accomplishments on the stone blocks and quotations on lintels above them. The changes address some of the original design’s focus on Eisenhower’s modesty by putting forth a more muscular representation of his leadership.
In a letter to the commissioners read by Meaghan Lloyd, Gehry’s chief of staff, Gehry indicated that he had considered the feedback and criticism generated by his initial proposal. “I love this type of collaboration,” he wrote. “It is a process that I think is vital to the success of any endeavor and one that was necessary to make sense of sometimes contradictory characterizations of President Eisenhower.” The changes help “tell the story of Eisenhower with more dignity and power,” he said in the letter.

The Eisenhower family criticized the original design as invoking images of Soviet mythmaking and Nazi-era barbarism. The family did not attend the Tuesday meeting but is expected to weigh in on the new design before the commission meets again, possibly within a week. At that meeting, the commission is expected to decide whether to send the plan forward to the National Capital Planning Commission.

Planners hope to break ground on the four-acre memorial this year. Projected to cost an estimated $110 million, the memorial would be bisected by Maryland Avenue SW, just south of the Mall and would be situated in front of the Education Department and across from the National Air and Space Museum — buildings that tie in with Eisenhower’s legacy.
The design features large, see-through metal tapestries bordering three sides of the monument, depicting outdoor scenes from Eisehnower’s boyhood home of Abilene, Kan. The original core featured a young Eisenhower sculpted to look out onto bas-relief forms representing his dual military and presidential careers.

Much of the criticism from the family, conservatives and architectural traditionalists focused on the tapestries and their portrayal of Eisenhower’s humble roots. Critics thought the emphasis on his rural boyhood came at the expense of his later accomplishments as World War II Supreme Allied Commander and, especially, president.

Some attacked Gehry’s designs as too modern and self-aggrandizing. In December, Eisenhower’s grandson, David Eisenhower, resigned from the commission. At a March congressional subcommittee meeting, Eisenhower’s granddaughter, Susan Eisenhower, critically compared Gehry’s design to Communist-era decorations that honored “Marx, Engels and Lenin.” The metal tapestries were likened to fences in Nazi death camps. She called for a total redesign.

Gehry’s supporters, including commission member Sen. Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), countered with a March letter from the Eisenhower Memorial Commission expressing its “unqualified support” for Gehry. The new and possibly final design features portrayals of Eisenhower with soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division before the invasion of Normandy and the 1966 Yousuf Karsh “Elder Statesman” photo of Eisenhower as 9-foot statues. Proposed inscriptions detail his military accomplishments and the “Peace and Prosperity” of his presidency.

After the Tuesday meeting, critics said the new design still did not address key conceptual and aesthetic concerns. Justin Shubow, president of National Civic Art Society, says the memorial “still portrays Eisenhower as an unrecognizable boy or young man, which is at its core.”
Milton Grenfell, vice chairman of the civic art society and a classical architecture advocate, said the new design remained overscale, “with huge iron curtains,” and called the inscribed stones perched atop one another “willful” and “anti-aesthetic,” giving a feeling of “something that’s not going to last.” He said he hoped Congress would have a chance to weigh in.
Commissioner Alfred Geduldig said the group had been working on the memorial for about 12 years “to make sure all bases are covered. We’re at a point, looking at these very impressive models, where we really can feel it.”


Related stories:
Interactive: Experience the Eisenhower Memorial plans
The Eisenhower Memorial design: Gehry’s plan and what went wrong


They met in the offices of Sen. Daniel Inouye, in one of the ornate rooms of the old Capitol that are among the perks of office for the president pro tempore. Members of the Eisenhower Memorial Commission sat around a heavy round table, while their staffers crowded in from the sides. A March fire blazed in the fireplace.
They were looking for a way forward. More than a decade after the commission had been formed to create a memorial to the 34th president of the United States and the man who led Allied troops to victory in Europe in World War II, the Eisenhower Memorial was suddenly in the news, attacked from all sides, including by the grandchildren of the man it was meant to honor.
 




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