2017年6月22日 星期四

Narendra Modi;Arvind Kejriwal;


When Narendra Modi became prime minister of India in 2014, opinion was divided as to whether he was a Hindu zealot disguised as an economic reformer, or the other way round


But he is more of a nationalist firebrand
ECONOMIST.COM


The next few years will be the most treacherous yet for India.

The East Asian strongman model isn’t suited to a diverse country.
TRIB.AL




Elected politicians usually look no more than five years ahead. But Narendra Modi has never lost an election, and after the landslide victory in May 2014 that propelled him into the top job he made a triumphal speech insisting that “ten years is all that is needed” to modernise India. Mr Modi has grand ambitions for his country, and self-confidence to match. But can he deliver? http://econ.st/1Ltim2X



Modi’s many tasks
YOU WOULDN’T KNOW by looking at scruffy Vadnagar that it has a famous son. Tourists occasionally visit the walled part of the Gujarati town for its ornate wooden...
ECON.ST


"The country has a golden opportunity to transform itself. Narendra Modi risks missing it"

http://econ.st/1FF2Sd6

May 2015

In a break from protocol, Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself was at the airport to receive Mr Obama and he greeted the US president with "a bear hug" as he stepped off Air Force One. http://bbc.in/1zOqdFL

Here’s what Narendra Modi’s fashion says about his politics


By Swati Sharma January 26 at 11:48 AM  







Obama compliments 'fashion icon' Modi in India(1:08)
President Obama quoted a Washington Post story on Indian Prime Minister Modi's sense of style in his remarks during a dinner banquet in India. (WhiteHouse.gov)
During President Obama's visit to India to take part in the country's Republic Day celebrations, Prime Minister Narendra Modi's wardrobe gained a huge amount of attention, and not only because he wore a suit with his name embroidered on it a thousand times.
Throughout the trip, Modi's choice of attire made headlines. When the prime minister went to personally receive the Obamas at the New Delhi airport, he sported his signature vest (called the Modi kurta) and paired it with a paisley shawl. One Wall Street Journal headline said it all: "Narendra Modi Outshines Michelle Obama With Airport Outfit." The president himself quipped about the Indian leader's style, stating: "Tonight, I was thinking about wearing a Modi kurta myself."
Here is an article dissecting Modi's fashion that was posted soon after the prime minister took office.
Move aside, Michelle Obama. The world has a new fashion icon. And no, it's not Vladimir Putin, despite his fitness regimen — it's India's new prime minister, Narendra Modi.
The politician has dominated headlines since his campaign and victory in India's election, and his wardrobe has been no exception. Countless articles have been written about his look, from his vast collection of hats to his iconic long tunic, the #ModiKurta. Yes, it has its own hashtag.
In a story this week, the New York Times fashion blog said that "Mr. Modi stands out. Literally and strategically." Here's a breakdown.

Modi's trademark style

The prime minister's signature look comprises a traditional kurta made of either cotton or silk, usually paired with a vest.

Traditional look

Modi, who is fluent in English, may only speak to foreign leaders in Hindi. This may be a welcome sign to his Hindu-nationalist base, as is his style. The traditional clothing, especially in materials such as silk and cotton, plays into Modi's well-crafted nationalist image.

His tailors tell a story

For years, India's new leader has had his clothes stitched at Jade Blue, a company based in Modi's native state of Gujurat. Although Modi is a big fan of brand names (we'll get to that), his outfits tend to reflect a connection to his roots.

The clothes are always crisp and ironed

This may seem obvious — it's hard to imagine a U.S. politician in a wrinkled suit. But in India, it's pretty common to find politicians in cotton kurtas in an attempt to portray a colloquial look. Modi is very particular about his look and has "shunned the shabby and crumpled kurtas and dhotis/pyjamas — the staple political costume of the traditional Indian politician," according to NDTV. One of his opponents, Mulayam Singh Yadav, made a dig at Modi's fashion and said, “He changes 500 kurtas a day and wears a new kurta to every meeting."

He loves brand names

Although Modi has a carefully cultivated Hindu nationalist image, it doesn't mean he isn't a fan of European designers. His glasses are said to be Bvlgari, and his watch is Movado, two brands at odds with his traditional Indian look but in keeping with his pro-business ideology.

A deliberate color scheme?

The prime minister's color palette has evolved over the years. When he was a chief minister, he would often wear bright colors. Since his campaign for prime minister, he has shifted to sporting light tones and pastels. Orange has been a longtime favorite, as it is one of the main colors of Hinduism. One color has been noticeably absent from his wardrobe. Last year, theBoston Review of books ran an article which highlighted the lack of dark green, a color commonly associated with Islam. The author spoke to Modi's tailor, Bipin Chauhan:
 When asked about Modi’s favorite color, Chauhan says, "Modi actually does not ever wear green" — the color associated with Muslims — and prefers to wear saffron, the orange-yellowish color of the BJP and the Hindutva ideology. But these days, Chauhan says, Modi prefers to wear more muted shades, “silent” variations of saffron.

The hats! Oh, the hats.

Some politicians kiss babies to appeal to voters. Modi wears festive hats.


Swati Sharma is a digital editor for World and National Security and previously worked at the Boston Globe.



 Thatcher wanted a small state. Reagan is held to have said that “the nine most terrifying words in the English language are: ‘I’m from the government and I’m here to help.’” Narendra Modi, by contrast, believes government can be made to work betterhttp://econ.st/1xZ1ECA


BILLBOARD images of Narendra Modi loom over visitors to Ahmedabad, the main city of Gujarat, at almost every turn. The big-brother omnipresence of India’s prime...
ECON.ST



Arvind Kejriwal
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arvind_Kejriwal


柯P必看!》一個印度素人奇蹟當選市長,為什麼卻在49天後下台?
本文作者:印度尤
喜歡以跳躍代替行走的人,走在磁磚路上會踩在框框裡的人,常被說是怪咖而自己也覺得自己滿怪的人,喜歡冒險和異鄉的人,很會寫鏡射字和倒反字的人,住在印度新德里的台灣人,現職中文媒體駐印度特約記者。
克利瓦爾(Arvind Kejriwal),一個在去年崛起,又在今年初瞬間殞落的政治明星,一度被視為是平民崛起,讓印度傳統政黨措手不及的奇蹟,卻立刻成為平民政治泡沫化的最佳註解。
#反貪腐領袖 迅速累積民意
克利瓦爾是印度2010年開始的反貪腐運動領袖之一,這場運動號召了數十萬民眾走上街頭,迫使政府正視反貪腐法,設立公民監督機制,然而由「犯法者」修法,永遠都不會有結果,官官相護的情況下,只會制定出一部無實質作用的法律,讓貪腐者更為猖狂,造就盤根錯節的巨大黑金網絡,因此克利瓦爾和其他反貪腐的社會運動者,決定創立印度「普通人黨」。克利瓦爾認為,貪腐是政治、經濟以及社會問題的一切根源。只有當人民真正進入議會,真正掌握政治權力,才有機會改變體制與系統,讓印度變得更好。
去年,克利瓦爾決定參選新德里行政首長,先前反貪腐運動所累積的人氣使他成為印度的政治新星,無數人放棄工作,成為競選團隊志工,只為追隨他。網路、影音、照片以及各種深入街頭的互動密集進行,游擊戰的打法讓一向透過操弄種族、宗教、階級等議題,鞏固鐵票倉的傳統政黨慌了手腳。
參與政治活動需要金源,這也是過去印度難有素人能擊敗傳統大黨的原因。但克利瓦爾憑藉小額捐款以及海外印度裔的資助,募得兩億盧比(約一億台幣)的基金,並跌破一堆人眼鏡,成功打敗執政新德里15年的國大黨(Indian National Congress)希拉迪克希特(Sheila Dikshit),獲選成為新德里行政首長,以「小蝦米扳倒大鯨魚」的形象,旋風式席捲印度政壇。
#早夭市長 執政49天即下台
但是,為什麼克利瓦爾會從政治生涯的頂峰瞬間殞落呢?
最重要的就是普通人黨沒有獲得絕對多數。一項政策需要其他政黨的支持才能夠推行,但克利瓦爾想推行的公民監督法,把公民監督力量放在政府系統之上,想當然爾不會受到既得利益者的支持。一向水火不容的傳統兩大政黨國大黨和印度人民黨(Bharatiya Janata Party)此時突然團結起來,合力阻撓法案通過,克利瓦爾最後選擇辭職下台,並得到一個AK49(Arvind Kerjiwal:上台只有49天)的稱號。
克利瓦爾說只要是為了反貪腐,要他辭職千百次也願意。但是選民買單嗎?
# 全民希望的種子 何時萌芽?
辭職後,他帶領普通人黨,投入了中央國會選舉的選戰,挑戰現任總理莫迪(Narendra Modi)的選區,想藉由挑戰莫迪,再次證明沒有背景的政治素人,也有實力撼動積習已深的印度政治圈。可惜的是,這一戰他失敗了。辭職對於克利瓦爾來說,是形象的一大挫敗。人民原本相信一個普通人能夠帶來改變,用選票全力支持,就在他們覺得自己獲得勝利之際,克利瓦爾卻因為不能推行法案而輕言放棄,等於是背棄選民的信任。拿不出有力的政績,選民看不到改變的可能性,2014年印度中央國會大選,543個席次中,普通人黨只贏得4席。
# 政治人物 vs. 公民運動
傳統兩大政黨嘲笑克利瓦爾,說他是從公民運動起家,當上了政治人物卻還在玩公民運動,不開心就抗議,不順利就辭職,雖然吐槽意味較濃,但也不無道理,究竟一個沒有政治資源的素人,該如何在進入政治戰場後,解決問題、改變制度、完成選民期望?
勝選難,勝選後更難。普通人黨成立的初衷很簡單,就是反貪腐。這個訴求簡單明瞭,符合大眾期待,但吸引到選票後,如何融入政治生態,實際推動改革,則是不可逃避的課題。
克利瓦爾仍在努力,雖然聲勢不如先前,仍有某種程度的影響力。公民政治參與並非一蹴可幾,特別是讓人民信仰「能夠改變」這件事情,或許未來普通人黨會有更大的機會與作為,但政治素人的崛起與泡沫化,確實只有一步之遙。

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