2015年12月2日 星期三

Saint John of the Cross1542-91, Carmen Laforet 1921-2004

Saint John of the CrossO.C.D. (SpanishSan Juan de la Cruz; 1542[1] – 14 December 1591), was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, a Roman Catholic saint, a Carmelite friar and a priest who was born at FontiverosOld Castile.
John of the Cross was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered, along with Saint Teresa of Ávila, as a founder of the Discalced Carmelites. He is also known for his writings. Both his poetry and his studies on the growth of the soul are considered the summit of mystical Spanish literature and one of the peaks of all Spanish literature. He was canonized as a saint in 1726 by Pope Benedict XIII. He is one of the thirty-six Doctors of the Church.

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聖十字若望西班牙語San Juan de la Cruz,本名Juan de Yepes Alvarez[3],1542年6月24日-1591年12月14日[1])是公教改革的主要人物,西班牙神秘學家加爾默羅會修士神父,出生在馬德里北部阿維拉(Ávila)附近的小鎮豐蒂韋羅斯(Fontiveros)[4],一個改宗基督教的猶太人的家庭之中。[5][6]
聖十字若望是加爾默羅會的改革者,被認為與聖女大德蘭一同創立了赤足加爾默羅會。十字若望以寫作著稱,他的詩歌及其對靈魂成長的研究,被認為是西班牙神秘文學的巔峰,是西班牙文學的高峰之一. 1726年,本篤十三世封他為聖人。他被列為天主教眾位教會聖師之一。

目錄

著作[編輯]

十字若望寫了一些詩詞和靈修作品,被西班牙文學界認為是很偉大的著作。他的神學論著也被教會稱為偉大的著作。他的主要著作包括《心靈的黑夜》、《加爾默羅山的上昇》、《神修之歌》,以及《愛的活火》等[27]。他在《心靈的黑夜》一書中,以四點討論與天主結合之道:(1) 靜默的祈禱;(2) 與主同行;(3) 神魂超拔;(4) 分享天主的生活,表達他的神秘神學。十字若望在他的著作《加爾默羅山的上昇》中指出,與天主神秘結合的神魂超拔,是在痛苦中被導引而出的。

思想[編輯]

「空無的理論」(doctrine of the void) 是十字若望的靈修與神秘思想之核心。在天主教會史上,十字若望是屬於特利騰(Trent) 大公會議後期時代的靈修人物,他所流露的是具有西班牙神秘特性的靈修[28]。但在十字若望之前,依納爵‧羅耀拉與阿維拉的聖德蘭(大德蘭) 都已經開啟了靈修的風範,大概在1567年,大德蘭更與十字若望成為忘年之交,往後兩人同心策畫改革修道院的靈修,1572~77年間是十字若望靈修成長最快的階段,這時的十字若望能進入神化結合的神秘境地。
若要對於十字若望的靈修有更深刻的了解,就要認識他的作品。「神婚」(spiritual marriage) 或者「結合」(union)是十字若望與大德蘭靈修的主題,神婚是指靈魂在上主之內全然的變形(total transformation),而在如此的變形中,相愛的情人不會喪失人格特徵,靈魂與上主在愛中結合為一體,靈魂活出了上主榮耀的形象和位格,不過創造者與被造物的區別仍然存在。人有內外感官,靈魂有感情與精神的能力(理智、意志、記憶),對於人的這些官能,是要空虛它們,好成為上主之德所運行的場所,如此就是為它們找到應有的地位。對於十字若望的靈修基本觀念,歐邁安(Aumann)神父指出:「聖若望的基本神學是:天主是一切,而受造物是虛無。因此,為了達到聖化,達到與天主完全共融的境界,人必須對身體及靈魂所有的力量和官能,進行深入而劇烈的淨化。」[29] 而他的四本著作,所關心的基本上就是這主題。
靈修學歷史上,《心靈的黑夜》與《攀登加默山》兩書多被視為一組,又把《愛情的烈焰》、《心靈之歌》看成另一組;也有人主張《心靈的黑夜》是接續《攀登加默山》的含意,再加以融合的作品。而在傳統的神學上所謂上主的「超越」與「內在」之奧秘,在十字若望的靈修神學中,形成一種「黑暗」與「光明」的模式;聖師所要表達的是,靈修生活的目標是一種愛的結合,基督徒透過信、望、愛,靈魂得以與神相似或說是與神相等,是一種相似或相等的結合。
靜觀的三個階段是十字若望的靈修著作中一個很重要的主題。靜觀是天主對於靈魂的語言,是純粹精神對純粹精神的對話,是一切低於精神的感官所無法知覺的,對感官來說便是屬於秘密的。靜觀是屬於上主的,具有秘密的屬性且超過人自然的能力,是導引靈魂至與上主完美結合的途徑,這一路途並非人所能了解,只能為那不可知、「上智的無知」所帶領。
空無(Nada)是十字若望靈修的基本特徵;空無到一切只為耶穌基督。這種空無的理論所講的也是一種死亡,一種生自我們內心的死亡,一種有生命動力的工作 — 死亡。對十字若望而言,「空無」與「黑暗」常常是通用的,在《攀登加默山》裡,他認為剝削自己的興趣,就像生活在黑暗與空無,而這種剝削對於靈魂來說是一種黑夜。在十字若望的著作中,「空無」、「無」、「黑暗」三個名詞交替使用。空無是一種靈修方法,從天主而來的能力;若從基督信仰的立場,基本上認為「空無」、「無」並非只是修煉而來的工夫,空無既是靜觀的境界,也是靜觀的方法;靜觀的被動與無區分特性,更襯托出空無的能力來自上主。[30]



National Gallery of Art 新增了 2 張新相片



Take a careful look at this life-size sculpture of “Saint John of the Cross.” Saint John of the Cross was one of the great Spanish mystics of the 16th-century. Together with Saint Teresa of Avila, he founded the Carmelite order. What about Saint John tells you that he was an austere and spiritual man?


The carved “Saint John” holds a book in his left hand crowned by a small mountain, references to his spiritual writings. His intensely expressive face and dramatic pose, complemented by the rich decoration of his Carmelite habit, are qualities associated with the artist, a young Sevillian sculptor, Francisco Antonio Gijón. Gijón was only 21 years old when he was awarded the commission for “Saint John of the Cross,” but he was already a well-known and highly paid sculptor. The sculptor often began with preparatory drawings, a skill he learned through his studies. Three-dimensional models in malleable materials like wax or clay were also frequently employed. Once the sculptural form was established, the sculptor proceeded with carving the wood.


What do you notice in the ‪#‎XRay‬ of this sculpture? Comparison of the surface of the work of art, wood samples, and corresponding x-radiographs confirm that most of the figure was carved from a single thick column of cypress wood. The artist hollowed this column at the back, from mid-chest down to the base, to reduce the sculpture’s weight and minimize cracking along the grain. The head was made separately from the body, and the neck carved with an extension shaped to fit into a hollow in the top of the trunk. Extra sections of wood were attached to the main column to accommodate the figure’s expansive stance and three-dimensionality. The right foot is wholly separate from the body as are both the hands. ‪#‎ArtAtoZ‬


X-radiograph of “Saint John of the Cross,” Francisco Antonio Gijón, 1675, polychromed and gilded wood with sgraffitto decoration (estofado), National Gallery of Art, Washington, Patrons’ Permanent Fund, 2003.124.1



















Carmen Laforet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carmen_Laforet

Carmen Laforet (Barcelona 6 September 1921 – Madrid, 28 February 2004) was a Spanish author who wrote in the period after the Spanish Civil War.
Biography - ‎Legacy - ‎See also - ‎References

Nada (novel) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nada_(novel)

Nada, which means “nothing” in Spanish, is the award-winning first novel of Spanish author Carmen Laforet, published in 1945.


Obituary: Carmen Laforet | World news | The Guardian

www.theguardian.com › World › Spain
Mar 5, 2004 - The Spanish writer Carmen Laforet, who has died aged 82, after suffering from Alzheimer's disease for more than a decade, will be ...

Review: Nada, by Carmen Laforet | Books | The Guardian

www.theguardian.com › Arts › Books › Fiction
Review by The Guardian
Jun 23, 2007 - Alberto Manguel hails the first appearance in English of the modern Spanish classic Nada, by Carmen Laforet.

    Carmen Laforet
    Author
    Carmen Laforet was a Spanish author who wrote in the period after the Spanish Civil War. An important European writer, her works contributed to the school of Existentialist Literature and her first ... Wikipedia
    BornSeptember 6, 1921, Barcelona, Spain
    DiedFebruary 28, 2004, Madrid, Spain
    Quotes

    That profound night freedom was agreeable and exciting.
    It was the first time I traveled alone, but I was not scared.
    When I left, I had learnt nothing. I took nothing with me. At least, that's what I thought then.


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