ウジェーヌ・エマニュエル・ヴィオレ・ル・デュク（Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc 1814-1879年）は、19世紀フランスの建築家、建築理論家。中世建築の修復、及びゴシック建築の構造合理主義的解釈で知られる。
Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral (c. 1540 – 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain,privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580.
Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico.
His exploits were legendary, making him a hero to the English but a pirate to theSpaniards to whom he was known as El Draque. King Philip II was said to have offered a reward of 20,000 ducats, about £4 million (US$6.5M) by modern standards, for his life.
With the success of the Panama isthmus raid, in 1577 Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake used the Plans that Sir Richard Greynvile had received the Patent for in 1574 from Elizabeth, which was rescinded a year later after protests from Philip of Spain. He set out from Plymouth on 15 November 1577, but bad weather threatened him and his fleet. They were forced to take refuge inFalmouth, Cornwall, from where they returned to Plymouth for repair.