2014年6月23日 星期一

Cedric Price,1934-2003 建築/理論名家, Stephanie Kwolek杜邦防彈纖維之母

杜邦防彈纖維之母過世 享年90歲

傅莞淇 2014年06月23日 17:40
杜邦防彈纖維之母過世 享年90歲
科學家克沃勒克與含有她發明的「克維拉」纖維手套(美聯社)
在超級纖維「克維拉」(Kevlar)誕生將屆滿50周年前,美國杜邦(DuPont)化工公司科學家克沃勒克(Stephanie Kwolek)於18日因驟疾逝世,享年90歲。她發明的克維拉是防彈裝備的重要成分,已拯救全世界數千人的性命。在世時,克沃勒克時常對此感到驕傲,並曾表示,「很少人能在職業生涯中,擁有創造造福全人類之物的機會。」

超級纖維「克維拉」

1965年,克沃勒克任職於杜邦位於威明頓外的實驗站,正在研發可以增加輻射層輪胎(radial tyre)強度的超強纖維。她發明出一種剛性鍊聚合物,比絕大多數的聚合物更薄,且如水一般滑順;但在機器內纏捲起來後,可以變得非常強韌,強度達鋼鐵的5倍。

這種超級液晶纖維重量輕,且十分耐用。於2007年接受當地的《新聞日報》(The News Journal)訪談時,克沃勒克表示,「(杜邦)立刻派了一整個團隊,從各個層面研究它......這真的非常令人興奮。」

隨著時間發展,克維拉的應用日廣。由於它可以大幅減輕衝撞力,又可以承受扭曲而不破裂,包括運動裝備、太空載具、飛機、消防裝備、海事繩索、靴子與手套等多種用品中,都可以見到克維拉的身影。

克沃勒克與一捲克維拉纖維(美聯社)

防彈背心的關鍵材料

但是,克維拉最出名、也許也是最重要的發展,是它對防彈衣的貢獻。世界上絕大多數的警察,都配有含有克維拉的防彈背心。克維拉存活者俱樂部(Kevlar Survivors Club)前主任麥克布萊德(Ron McBride)表示,許多人的性命因克沃勒克而得以存續。該組織隸屬杜邦與國際警長協會(IACP)合作關係,已經紀錄下3200條因克維拉防彈背心得以倖存的寶貴生命。

自己也曾是警長的麥克布萊德表示,防彈背心曾在伊拉克戰爭中救了他兒子一命。他說,「她可以回顧自己的一生,然後說『是的,我做出了一些改變。』」

嬌小的科學先驅者

身高僅150公分的克沃勒克自1946年加入杜邦,直到1986年退休,共為科學貢獻40載。身為一名女性科學家,她的機會主要來自當時許多男人都還在軍中。據克沃勒克所言,即使她的工作表現與男性相當,但她等了15年才獲得第一次晉升。


終生未婚的她擁有許多朋友,也喜歡戶外運動。據曾與她共事的友人瓦斯塔(Rita Vasta)表示,「作為一名化學家,當你全心投入研究時,是沒有多少時間約會的。」瓦斯塔也描述克沃勒克是一名回到實驗室,就會「百分之百專注其中」的人。生涯晚期,克沃勒克也致力於帶領其他女性投入科學領域中。瓦斯塔便認為她是自己的良師益友。

克沃勒克在實驗室中(美聯社)

由於克維拉這項了不起的發明,克沃勒克在杜邦獲得了一間很不錯的實驗室,但她一直認為自己只是公司眾多優秀科學家的其中之一。據瓦斯塔表示,克沃勒克也一直滿足於杜邦就此發明給予她的獎勵。在2007年接受訪談時,克沃勒克強調這個發明僅有最初階段可歸功於自己,後續發展的成功有賴於整個團隊的努力。

1995年,克沃勒克被選入美國國家發明家名人堂(NIHF)。1996年,她因克維拉獲得美國國家科技創新獎章(NMTI),成為杜邦第3位獲此殊榮的科學家。

每當親身得到防彈衣保護的人,告知克沃勒克,她助力的產品拯救了自己的性命,她總是感到非常驕傲。在家中,克沃勒克收藏著一小匙的克維拉纖維,她曾表示自己「從未想過這小小的液體結晶會發展出這樣的結果。」

杜邦執行長古曼(Ellen Kullman)19日在聲明中,表達對這位「真正的女性科學先驅者」逝世的憂傷,並特別讚許她發明克維拉,與合成第一個液晶聚合物(LCP)的生涯成就。克沃勒克身後沒有其他家人。

Hao-Hsiu Chiu 新增了 2 張相片。
夜讀Cedric Price,這位幾乎無實際作品,卻在70年代以Fun Palace、Thinkbelt等紙上建築提案對於「日常」(ordinary)的關注,影響了Archigram、Rogers、Foster甚至後起的Koolhaas。本屆威尼斯雙年展瑞士館策展人Hans Ulrich Obrist再次審視Price的空間社會學立論,希望「明日學院」的各個參與團隊,回應這個西方開始偏離現代主義思維的Fundamental,對於東海建築這個東方團隊,可真是個挑戰。


----簡介 英文

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPjlH0DEsXE




Cedric Price

Hugely creative architect ahead of his time in promoting themes of lifelong learning and brownfield regeneration
  • The Guardian
One of architecture's apparent paradoxes is that some of its most influential thinkers build very few buildings. Cedric Price, who has died aged 68, completed relatively little and never ran a large office, but his influence - through drawings, proposals, teaching and conversation - remains enormous.
It can be traced in the work of Richard Rogers and Norman Foster, Archigram (the winners of the 2002 Royal Institute of British Architects' gold medal) and even in the eastward expansion of London in the Thames Gateway. His interests anticipated the now fashionable themes of lifelong learning and brownfield regeneration.
From his 1960s designs for such structures as Joan Littlewood's Fun Palace, the Potteries Thinkbelt and Nonplan, up to and beyond Magnet in 1997, Price explored architecture's potential to nurture change, intellectual growth and social development rather than to offer a definitive aesthetic statement.
As someone particularly interested in lightweight structures and the idea that buildings should have a fixed, often short, life, it was inevitable that he would build little during a period when buildings have increasingly been seen as solid, long lasting investments. By its very nature, his work was elusive, enticing and open-ended.
Price was born in Stone, Staffordshire, the son of the architect AJ Price, who worked on some of the great cinemas of that decade. Though he died in 1953, before his son went up to St John's College, Cambridge, to read architecture, Cedric was proud of his achievements, and delighted in referring to his technical manuals, latterly at least, as much for their value as social documents as for the quality of their advice.
In 1959, while completing his studies at the Architectural Association in London, he encountered the brilliant urban theorist Arthur Korn, an Austrian émigré whose work showed how Price's interests in indeterminacy, and suspicion of formality and convention, might contribute to remaking the built environment and the social relationships it embodied.
The following year, Price established Cedric Price Architects, and soon began producing a series of unrealised projects that catapulted him to international fame. In the Fun Palace (1961) and Potteries Thinkbelt (1964), both designed to offer innovative learning and leisure opportunities, he used architecture as the catalyst to redefine the standard relationships between people and institutions. Both were essentially short-term, fixed-life structures and enclosures giving opportunities for education, delight and fulfilment in deprived areas of east London and the pottery towns.
The architecture was indeterminate, flexible and driven by what technology then existed - and some that Price anticipated - for exchanging ideas and goods, and the movement of people from place to place. Their aesthetic of frames and gantries derived from familiar industrial architecture, rather than from the forbidding monuments of public architecture. Above all, Price and Littlewood offered a focus to the optimism of the time, when it seemed possible to remake society around the potential for delight and opportunity.
While the Interaction Centre, built in London's Kentish Town in 1971, put some of these ideas into practice on a reduced scale, Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers's Pompidou Centre would have been inconceivable without the Fun Palace.
Delight was extremely important to Price, and it gave a twist to his socialist views. Anyone prepared to treat the achievement of delight seriously was a potential friend, whether it was the flamboyant Labour MP Tom Driberg, the former Tory party treasurer Alastair MacAlpine, Princess Margaret and Lord Snowdon, with whom Price and the engineer Frank Newby designed the aviary at London Zoo, or the architect David Allford, whose most famous building was Gatwick airport.
But there was always a political element to Price's work. As he wrote of the Potteries Thinkbelt: "Education, if it is to be a continuous human service run by the community must be provided with the same lack of peculiarity as the supply of drinking water or free teeth." Architecture might help to achieve that aim by uncovering and connecting latent desires.
Nonplan, produced in 1969 with the planner Sir Peter Hall and Paul Barker, of New Society magazine, challenged the established orthodoxy of planning around established uses of land. Consistent with his belief in Pop-up Parliament, a project of 1965, Price argued that unnecessary legislation was a break on social development; planning, he believed, should switch from being "curative to preventative", setting limits rather than being didactic. It lies behind much of Hall's thinking in his contribution to the Thames Gateway.
More recent projects brought these themes to specific urban contexts. A proposal for a large site on Manhattan's west side suggested making a "lung" for the city, weaving between buildings and infrastructure. "Ducklands" looked at ways of turning redundant docks in Hamburg into bird sanctuaries, and Magnet, shown at the Architecture Foundation, proposed a series of 10 reusable structures, offering "safety, access, information, view and sanctuary" in London locations chosen for their typical urban condition of major roads, railway cuttings, parks and shopping streets.
A combination of iconoclasm and mental fecundity kept Price at the forefront of architectural debate, enthusing new generations of students and architects as he had once impressed his elders at the Cambridge Society of Arts. His ways of thinking about issues we have not yet satisfactorily resolved still resonate.
He is survived by his partner, the actor Eleanor Bron.
· Cedric John Price, architect, born September 11 1934; died August 10 2003

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  1. Cedric Price
    Architect
  2. Cedric Price FRIBA was an English architect and influential teacher and writer on architecture. The son of an architect, Price was born in Stone, Staffordshire and studied architecture at Cambridge ... Wikipedia


CEDRIC PRICE & THE FUN PALACE

’Now! Now!’ cried the Queen. ‘Faster! Faster!’ … Alice looked round her in great surprise. ‘Why, I do believe we’ve been under this tree the whole time! Everything’s just as it was!’
‘Of course it is’, said the Queen. “What would you have it?’
‘Well, in our country,’ said Alice, still panting a little, ‘you’d generally get to somewhere else – if you ran very fast for a long time, as we’ve been doing.’
‘A slow sort of country!’ said the Queen. ‘Now, HERE, you see, it takes all the running YOU can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!’
Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass
The notion of an architecture of movement has always remained problematic given the immobility of typical built environments. And yet, Cedric Price, a British architect, not only theorized that movement was integral to architecture but he reflected this in his architectural practice. From the 1960s and into the early 1970s, his visionary thinking contributed to the development of new philosophies about architecture, time, and space and within the city. It was also during this period that many younger architects saw the need for a radicalization of architecture.  They began to envision a built form that was no longer merely static, but instead comprised of spaces in time that both informed and were informed by the complex social, economic and cultural changes of dynamic societies. This view also contributed to a shift in the thinking of the ‘city’ as well.  It was no longer conceived as a cohesive structure but instead as an unstable series of systems, in continual transformation, constantly reorganizing and rearranging itself through processes of both expansion and retraction.
Price espoused that time was a critical yet forgotten component of architecture. Reference to movement by necessity is a reference to time. These concepts inform each other and receive expression in discussion of speed. For a building to be in constant motion it would be difficult to locate and define (on paper), because its position would be changing at the moment of its (false) definition. Price believed that this motion could be defined because we already have a ‘questionable’ language for describing speed and movement in general terms. Cedric Price in clarifying these concepts stated in an interview with Hans  Ulrich Obrist that “movement implies a measurable interval, always in time and frequently in distance… mobility describes the capacity for movement.”
According to Price, time played two important roles in architecture, the potential needs of the built form must be recognised, but since an architect cannot accurately predict the uses and changes over time, the architect must “acknowledge the impossibility of totalised planning, and build in a degree of indeterminacy to allow for uncertainties in program, obsolescence and complete changes of use throughout the life of the building.” However, Price also recognised that if a building has outlive its usefulness, regardless of how well it anticipated the uncertainties, at that point it should be dismantled not retrofitted.
The Fun Palace was conceived by Cedric Price and Theater Director Joan Littlewood as a laboratory of fun and a university of the streets that was not driven by an economic agenda. It was to be located in the Lea Valley in London’s city core. The initial source of inspiration was to re-invent the 18th century Vauxhall Gardens under an all-weather roof. The attraction to the Vauxhall Garden was it encompassing of different social classes, where patrons enjoyed music, lights, fireworks, walking, and the gardens in an open-air atmosphere. They saw this project as an attempt to deviate from the accepted notion of a conformed environment because the individual was in control of their own “self-participation” in creating their own “physical environment.”[1] Price acknowledged that while the activities offered by Fun Palace were already available to the public, it was the ‘inter-accessibility’ of the activities and their juxtaposition to each other that would allow for the creation of new activities and experiences.
The configuration of Fun Palace was similar to a basilica with a central nave and two aisles, replacing the transept “was a moving gantry crane spanning over a system of 5 rows by 15 steel columns … The central nave [would] host the mass activities (movies, theatre and rallies) while the side aisles [would] hold “the human servicing activities” such as restaurants, bars, children areas and workshops … The adjustable sky blinds protect the palace-goers from the rain while vapor and warm air barriers eliminate the need of external walls. The resulting space modifies its shape through temporary and variable barriers: fiber panels, optical barriers, pressed aluminum curtains, audio-phonic curtains and curtains made of quilted lead foil.”[2]Also included in the plans was a high-level suspension grid, that would be the only fixed component of the structure, everything else was capable of movement. Decks and elevators would provide pedestrian movement throughout the complex. The plans deliberately did not include an entranceway which allowed individuals to walk freely without the interference of a prescribed pathway.

[1] Price, Cedric, “The Fun Palace” Cedric Price, Architectural Association works 2, Architectural Association, London, 1984. pg. 60.[2] Mongelli, Nicola, “The Fun Palace, A Curtain That Never Rose”,http://www.mongelli2000.com/nicola/xresearch.html, 2000
Cedric Price, Fun Palace. Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture.
Cedric Price, Fun Palace. Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture.
Cedric Price, Fun Palace. Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture.
Cedric Price, Fun Palace. Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture.
Cedric Price, Fun Palace. Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Archicture.
Cedric Price, Fun Palace. Courtesy of Canadian Centre of Architecture.
Cedric Price, Fun Palace. Courtesy of Canadian Centre for Architecture.
I thought I would highlight this apartment in Hong Kong, designed by Gary Chang an architect, which transforms into 24 different designs all by sliding panels and wall a process that Price envisioned for Fun Palace.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HV_5wwqyJiw

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